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Postcodes in Australia

Postcodes are used in Australia to more efficiently sort and route mail within the Australian postal system. Postcodes in Australia are placed at the end of the Australian address. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department and are now managed by Australia Post, are published in booklets available from post offices or online from the Australia Post website. Australian envelopes and postcards have four square boxes printed in orange at the bottom right for the postcode; these are used. Postcodes were introduced in Australia in 1967 by the Postmaster-General's Department to replace earlier postal sorting systems, such as Melbourne's letter and number codes and a similar system used in rural and regional New South Wales; the introduction of the postcodes coincided with the introduction of a large-scale mechanical mail sorting system in Australia, starting with the Sydney GPO. By 1968, 75% of mail was using postcodes, in the same year post office preferred-size envelopes were introduced, which came to be referred to as “standard envelopes”.

Postcode squares were introduced in June 1990 to enable Australia Post to use optical character recognition software in its mail sorting machines to automatically and more sort mail by postcodes. Australian postcodes consist of four digits, are written after the name of the city, suburb, or town, the state or territory: Mr John Smith 100 Citizen Road BLACKTOWN NSW 2148When writing an address by hand, a row of four boxes is pre-printed on the lower right hand corner of an envelope, the postcode may be written in the boxes. If addressing a letter from outside Australia, the postcode is recorded before'Australia'. Australian postcodes are sorting information, they are linked with one area. Due to post code rationalisation, they can be quite complex in country areas; the south-western Victoria 3221 postcode of the Geelong Mail Centre includes twenty places around Geelong with few people. This means that mail for these places is not sorted until it gets to Geelong; some postcodes cover large populations, while other postcodes have much smaller populations in urban areas.

Australian postcodes range from 0200 for the Australian National University to 9944 for Cannonvale, Queensland. Some towns and suburbs have two postcodes — one for street deliveries and another for post office boxes. For example, a street address in the Sydney suburb of Parramatta would be written like this: Mr John Smith 99 George Street PARRAMATTA NSW 2150But mail sent to a PO Box in Parramatta would be addressed: Mr John Smith PO Box 99 PARRAMATTA NSW 2124Many large businesses, government departments and other institutions receiving high volumes of mail had their own postcode as a Large Volume Receiver, e.g. the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital has the postcode 4029, the Australian National University had the postcode 0200. More postcode ranges were made available for LVRs in the 1990s. Australia Post has been progressively discontinuing the LVR programme since 2006; the first one or two numbers show the state or territory that the postcode belongs to Sometimes near the state and territory borders, Australia Post finds it easier to send mail through a nearby post office, across the border: Some of the postcodes above may cover two or more states.

For example, postcode 2620 covers both a locality in NSW as well as a locality in the ACT, postcode 0872 covers a number of localities across WA, SA, NT and QLD. Three locations straddle the NSW-Queensland border. Jervis Bay Territory, once an exclave of the ACT but now a separate territory, is geographically located on the coast of NSW, it is just south of the towns of Huskisson, with which it shares a postcode. Mail to the Jervis Bay Territory is still addressed to the ACT; the numbers used to show the state on each radio callsign in Australia are the same number as the first number for postcodes in that state, e.g. 2xx in New South Wales, 3xx in Victoria, etc. Radio callsigns pre-date postcodes in Australia by more than forty years. Australia's external territories are included in Australia Post's postcode system. While these territories do not belong to any state, they are addressed as such for mail sorting: Three scientific bases in Antarctica operated by the Australian National Antarctic Research Expeditions share a postcode with the isolated sub-Antarctic island of Macquarie Island: Each state's capital city ends with three zeroes, while territorial capital cities end with two zeroes.

Capital city postcodes were the lowest postcodes in their state or territory range, before new ranges for LVRs and PO Boxes were made available. The last number can be changed from "0" to "1" to get the postcode for General Post Office boxes in any capital city: While the first number of a postcode shows the state or territory, the second number shows a region within the state. However, postcodes with the same second number are not always next to each other; as an example, postcodes in the range 2200–2299 are split between the southern suburbs of Sydney and the Central Coast and Lake Macquarie regions of New South Wales. Postcodes with a second number of "0" or "1" are always located within the metropolitan ar

Oscar Arredondo

Oscar Paulino Arredondo de la Mata was a Cuban paleontologist. He described a number of birds and mammals of the Quaternary Period from fossils obtained from Cuban caves, he has been called the "father of Cuban vertebrate paleontology". Oscar Arredondo was born in Havana in the Quarter of the Pillar, he lived in that area until 1955. Born in a family of ordinary means with six other siblings, he studied at the local public school, he took an interest in natural history early in life and learnt about animals on his own. In 1936 he sang with tango music groups for various radio stations and was an actor in the local theatre. In 1942 he worked at a local hair salon apart from selling fruits and as being a representative for theater workers, he continued his personal studies and sketched various local birds. In 1945 he took an interest in exploring caves and began to explore fossils found in the caves of Cuba. In order to join the expeditions of the Speleological Society of Cuba, he began to work as a postman, a job he held for the 36 years before retiring in 1984.

Arredondo's work on paleontology was on the birds and mammals of the Quaternary, he described a Cuban condor, an eagle, several owls, including the giant Ornimegalonyx and a Teratorn. He wrote both scientific and popular science articles. Several species were named after him including Pulsatrix arredondoi Brodkorb, Capromys arroundondoi Varona, Cerion arroundondoi Jaime and Solenodon arredondoi Morgan & Ottenwalder. Ornimegalonyx

A Little Less Conversation

"A Little Less Conversation" is a 1968 song recorded by Elvis Presley written by Mac Davis and Billy Strange and published by Gladys Music, Inc. performed in the 1968 film Live a Little, Love a Little. The song became a minor hit in the United States when released as a single with "Almost in Love" as the A-side. A 2002 remix by Junkie XL of a re-recording of the song by Presley became a worldwide hit, topping the singles charts in nine countries and was awarded certifications in ten countries by 2003; the song has been covered by several artists. "A Little Less Conversation" was first recorded on 7 March 1968 at Western Recorders in Hollywood and released on a single backed by "Almost in Love", another song from the movie. The song was not released on an LP until November 1970, when it was included on the RCA Camden budget label LP Almost in Love. There are several different takes; the single version used take 16, used for the soundtrack of the film. The version released on the Almost In Love album is take 10, 1 second longer in duration.

The musicians on the 7 March recording session included drums. The vocalists on the 7 March recording session and alternate version were BJ Baker, Sally Stevens, Bob Tebo, John Bahler. Many think that The Blossoms sang background vocals on this song but, listed on the liner notes by mistake. There was one session, it was thought Presley re-recorded the song in June 1968 for the soundtrack of his 1968 comeback special, with the intent of performing it during the program. It was decided not to use this recording, the song was dropped from the planned special; the newer version transposed the key of A major recording of three months earlier into E major and featured a vocal and heavy reverb with backup vocals from The Blossoms. In the mid-1990s, Joseph A. Tunzi sold this recording to Bertelsmann Music Group and it was included on the 1998 release Memories: The'68 Comeback Special. Tunzi had been the first to document this recording in his 1996 book Elvis Sessions II: The Recorded Music of Elvis Aron Presley 1953-1977.

But since the tapes from the original session were rediscovered it is now known to be take 2, recorded on march 7th, 1968. Following the song's use in the 2001 film Ocean's Eleven, "A Little Less Conversation" was remixed by Dutch musician Tom Holkenborg, better known as Junkie XL; the electronic remix featured Elvis with a lower voice, added emphasis to the 1968 guitars, a funk drum beat. Holkenborg is the first artist outside the Presley organization to receive authorization from the Elvis Presley estate to remix an Elvis Presley song; the electronic version of the song became a number-one hit in the UK in 2002. The song became a top 10 hit in upwards of 17 other countries, reaching number-one in 13 of them. In 2002, the TV special version of "A Little Less Conversation" remixed by Junkie XL was used for Nike's 2002 FIFA World Cup advertising campaign, titled "Secret Tournament". A single, credited to "Elvis vs. JXL", was issued and went on to become a number-one hit in over 20 countries. At about the same time, a compilation of Presley's US and UK number-one chart hits, titled ELV1S: 30 No. 1 Hits, was being prepared for release.

At the last minute, "A Little Less Conversation" was added as the album's 31st track just before its release in October 2002. The full 6:09 version was edited and extended to 6:22, this version was featured on the US version of Junkie XL's 2004 album Radio JXL: A Broadcast from the Computer Hell Cabin. In the United States, the song peaked at number 50 on the Billboard Hot 100, it spent four consecutive weeks at number-one on the UK Singles Chart. The song was re-released as a single in the United Kingdom in 2005, reached No. 3. An uptempo Eurodance remix was recorded by CJ Crew, appearing on the 2002 dance compilation Dancemania Speed 10. There are three exclusive releases in Spanish, the film Live a Little, Love a Little and two mixes played by Marco T. a Colombian rockabilly musician. In addition, Dolph Lundgren performed this song at Melodifestivalen 2010. In Glee, Will Schuester sings a combination of a English version of the song; the song is covered by Trisha Paytas on her Fat Chicks EP.

Presley's original "A Little Less Conversation" has been used in several political campaigns as a message of more accomplishment and less talk. The first time the song was used in political campaign was in 2003 by former Vermont Governor Howard Dean. In 2004, Democratic presidential nominee Senator John Kerry used the song during his campaign. George W. Bush used the song as the anthem of his reelection campaign in 2004; the Remix by JXL was used in a scene in the 2004 American computer-animated comedy film Shark Tale, produced by DreamWorks Animation, as well as 2010's Megamind. Furthermore, in 2008 in Colorado Springs, Sarah Palin and John McCain emerged while "A Little Less Conversation" was playing in the background. In 2003, the song was played in the Everybody Loves Raymond episode titled "Robert's Wedding" as newlyweds Robert and Amy Barone danced their first dance following their long-awai