click links in text for more info


A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, postcard or the like indicating the date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. Modern postmarks are applied with the cancellation or killer that marks the postage stamp as having been used, the two terms are used interchangeably, if incorrectly. Postmarks may be applied by hand or by machines, using methods such as rollers or inkjets, while digital postmarks are a recent innovation; the local post Hawai'i Post had parts of which were hand-painted. At Hideaway Island, the Underwater Post Office has an embossed postmark; the first postmark was introduced by English Postmaster General Henry Bishop in 1661 and showed only the day and month of mailing in order to prevent the delay of the mail by carriers. In England during the latter part of the 17th century several postmarks were devised for use with the London Penny Post, a postal system that delivered mailed items within the city of London; the postmarks bore the initial of the particular post office or handling house it was sent from along with a separate time stamp.

Postage was prepaid and the postmark was applied to the mailed item by means of an inked hand-stamp. Some historians consider these postmarks to be the world's first postage'stamps'. In the 19th century and early 1900s it was common for letters to receive multiple postmarks indicating the time and location of each post office delivering or transporting the letter, this is still true, though to a lesser extent. While every contemporary postmark includes a location as well as a date, in 2004 New Zealand Post announced plans to eliminate the location on their postmarks and include only the date. In Great Britain the first postmark employed for the cancellation of the new adhesive postage stamps was the Maltese Cross, so named because of its shape and appearance; this was used in conjunction with a date stamp, applied to the rear of the letter, which denoted the date of posting. Different types of postmarks include railway post offices and maritime postmarks. Postmarks on naval vessels during sensitive operations in wartime are sometimes "clean", showing less information than to prevent route of travel or other details from falling into enemy hands.

Similar to this is the "censored postmark," overprinted with a black obliteration of the time and place of mailing for similar reasons. The Pony Express used a variety of different postmarks on the mail it carried across the Western United States. There are only 250 known examples of surviving Pony Express mail/postmarks in various collections today bearing one of more than a dozen different types of postmarks. Hawai'i post once had a surfboard mail postmark, for covers. A colour postmark is on the United States Postal Service-issued collectible envelope commemorating the 2004 inauguration of George W. Bush. While postmarks are applied universally by or under the authority of the official postal department, service, or authority in the United States it is possible to receive "a permit to apply your own postmark", called a Mailer's Postmark Permit, under certain conditions specified by the private express statutes in the United States, a carried letter may be cancelled with a private postmark.

Unofficial entities that issue artistamps may use postmark-like markings as well. Marcophily is the study of postmarks and there are many published work on postmarks covering the topic from before 1900, such as the fancy cancels, until the present day; these include the so-called fancy cancels of United States to modern machine postmarks. Fewer postmarks are used now than with the advent of meter labels, some types of computer vended postage, computerized postage that people can print from their own PCs; these indicia are not always postmarked by the Post Office but if put into the mailstream than the date listed on them, they are postmarked about 50% of the time. Because of this, it is a bad idea to use the date on your postage as a postmark. An official example relating a numismatic item to postmarks occurred on April 13, 1976 when the U. S. issued a new two-dollar bill. People could buy the bills at face value, add a first class stamp, have the combination postmarked to show they were the first day of issue.

Large numbers of these were produced and they remain common. When the first universal postal system was started in the United Kingdom with its Penny Black, the postmark used red ink for contrast; this was not successful, the stamp was changed to non-black colours so that the postmark could use black ink. The majority of postmarks today are in black, with red following, though sometimes they are in other colours; this is true in the case of pictorial postmarks if the colour in question has some connection to the commemoration. In 2004 the United States Postal Service announced plans to introduce first day digital colour postmarks to be used to cancel some first day covers for commemorative stamps in 2005 and this practice has continued into 2006 and was ongoing as of 2015. Singapore Post offers a "postmark advertising" service which speaking, applies to the "killer" rather than the postmark. Hungarian

Stephen Groff

Stephen P Groff is an economist and Governor of the National Development Fund of Saudi Arabia. Groff was appointed as Governor of the National Development Fund in February, 2019, he is responsible for establishing this new government entity that aims to raise the level of performance of sectoral funds and development banks in Saudi Arabia. He was ranking vice-president of the Asian Development Bank in Manila, Philippines. At ADB he was responsible for operations in East Asia, Southeast Asia, the Pacific, amounting to over $6 billion in new lending every year and a portfolio of $35 billion. Groff was raised in Warren and graduated from Harwood Union High School He is a 1986 graduate of Yale University, attended the Kennedy School at Harvard University, receiving a two-year Master in Public Administration in 1996, he received the Pearson–FT Non-Executive Director SRF BTEC Level 7 diploma in 2015 and is a PhD candidate in the Faculty of Social Sciences, Graduate School of Environmental Management at Erasmus University in the Netherlands.

In February, 2019, Groff became Governor of the National Development Fund. NDF was established to enhance economic diversification as well as to promote sustainable development financing in Saudi Arabia. NDF oversees different Saudi development funds and banks, supervises their performance and efficiency, ensures that each entity contributes to Saudi Vision 2030. Groff was appointed as vice president of the Asian Development Bank in September 2011, he served as Deputy Director for Development Cooperation at the Paris-based Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and as Deputy Vice-President for Operations at the Washington-based Millennium Challenge Corporation. He has worked for the U. S. Agency for International Development, the U. S. Refugee Program and as a U. S. Peace Corps volunteer. Groff serves on a number of advisory boards, including the Millennium Challenge Corporation, World Learning, Bretton Woods Committee, Marine Stewardship Council, Institute for Sustainable Communities and the Global Footprint Network.

Groff writes on a variety of climate change and development-related issues, including Project Syndicate, The Wall Street Journal, The Guardian and The Huffington Post. In 2018, Groff was identified by Richtopia as one of the top 100 leaders from multilateral organizations. Groff is married. Sophia, his eldest daughter attends Franklin & Marshall College and is a regular member of the institutions "Dean's List." His family has lived in Vermont for generations and their roots there can be traced back to the 18th century. His Great-grandfather was the photographer Edmund Homer Royce of St. Albans, his 3rd Great-grandfather was Vermont Congressman and Chief Justice Homer Elihu Royce and his 4th Great-uncle was Vermont Governor and Chief Justice Stephen Royce. His 5th Great-grandfather was Major Steven Royce, a delegate to the convention that signed the 1774 Dorset Accords which led to an independent Vermont Republic and future statehood. Groff is a triathlete. China’s City Clusters: Pioneering Future Mega-Urban Governance.

American Affairs - May 21, 2019. To Resist the Robots, Invest in People. Project Syndicate - January 2, 2018. A buffer against protectionism. Boao Review - April 3, 2017. Climate Change Challenges for Vermont. VT Digger - March 19, 2017. An Infrastructure Crisis? Huffington Post - March 3, 2017; the Next Migrant Wave. Project Syndicate - December 29, 2016. How Will ASEAN Members Cope with Their Climate Change Challenge? Knowledge Wharton - March 10, 2016. Putting out Indonesia’s Fires. Project Syndicate - December 4, 2015. Overcoming Southeast Asia’s Barriers to Trade; the Wall Street Journal - June 30, 2015. Shifting the Gear toward Green Growth. People's Daily - October 17, 2014. Asean's Infrastructure Crisis; the Wall Street Journal - July 28, 2014. This Time We Must All Be Filipino; the Philippine Daily Inquirer - November 30, 2013. Why investing in Myanmar matters; the Hill - October 8, 2012. Will this be the'Asian century'? The Guardian - April 18, 2012; the Peace Corps: Is Fifty Years Enough? The Huffington Post - August 28, 2011.

Fund the fight against global poverty. The Christian Science Monitor - October 3, 2008

Michael Cutter

Michael Cutter is a fictional character on the long-running NBC series Law & Order and its spinoff Law & Order: Special Victims Unit played by Linus Roache. The character debuted in the eighteenth season premiere of Law & Order, broadcast on January 2, 2008, remained until its series finale "Rubber Room" on May 24, 2010; the character returned to television in the thirteenth season premiere of Special Victims Unit, broadcast on September 21, 2011. He has appeared in sixty-three episodes of L&O and four episodes of SVU. Within the continuity of Law & Order, Cutter is an Executive Assistant District Attorney, following the appointment of his predecessor Jack McCoy to the New York County District Attorney seat vacated by Arthur Branch, he works with Connie Rubirosa, the Assistant District Attorney who had aided McCoy. Because of this, he has discussed McCoy with her—usually with complaints—in an attempt to understand his new boss; as evidenced by his first appearance, he is familiar with former District Attorney Arthur Branch, having been in Branch's office on at least one occasion.

In the episode "Executioner", he reveals. In the L&O episode "By Perjury", he is murdered in the bathroom of the courthouse before being saved at the last moment by detectives Cyrus Lupo and Kevin Bernard. In the episode "Innocence", Cutter's former Hudson University law professor raises an issue regarding Cutter's qualification to practice law. Although he did the required undergraduate work, a few college credits were not recorded into his academic record; as a result of the missing credits, Cutter never received an undergraduate degree, a Bachelor of Arts. Despite the lack of an undergraduate degree, he graduated from law school, he made the same misrepresentation when he applied for a position with the Manhattan District Attorney's Office. At the end of the episode, he receives a letter of reprimand from the Bar Overseers which states that the flaw in his academic background does not prejudice his past convictions; the letter is published in the Law Journal the next day, he is able to retain his law license.

In 2011, the character was introduced into the continuity of Order: Special Victims Unit. In the show's universe, Cutter is promoted at the District Attorney's office to Bureau Chief ADA, where he oversees the assistant district attorneys assigned to the Special Victims Unit, most notably longtime Special Victims ADA's Alexandra Cabot and Casey Novak, he is introduced as SVU's Bureau Chief in the episode "Scorched Earth", where an Italian diplomat is accused of raping a hotel maid. He works with Cabot to prosecute the case; when he tells her that they are dropping the charges, she protests his decision, saying "All I heard was how Mike Cutter was a crusader for justice." The case goes to trial. In the episode "True Believers", Cutter takes the lead on a case when Cabot is unavailable where a college music student is raped at gunpoint by a drug dealer. Powerful defense attorney Bayard Ellis uses issues of race in his defense and Cutter fails to get a guilty verdict on the case. Cutter's stronghanded tactics do not sit well with the SVU detectives Detective Nick Amaro, who has to be calmed by Sergeant John Munch when Cutter asks him a question about the legality of their arrest.

Cutter is last seen in the episode "Father's Shadow", in which he prosecutes a reality show producer for raping an aspiring actress. Roache describes his character. "He cares about justice... but he sometimes takes these leaps out-of-the-box and is kind of non-linear."Like his predecessor, Jack McCoy, Cutter is dogged in his pursuit of justice, to the point that he is willing to bend or break rules to secure a conviction. In L&O's "Darkness", detectives Cyrus Lupo and Ed Green find the hideout of a kidnapping victim after Fontana threatens to kill him; when the presiding judge is approached for a search warrant, he refuses to execute the warrant without further evidence such as computerized police records which, because the city is experiencing a power blackout, are inaccessible. Gambling that he could be able to justify the actions Cutter tells the detectives to enter the premises anyway. In L&O's "Quit Claim", he nearly suborns perjury. In L&O's "Tango", he realizes one of the jurors is attracted to Connie Rubirosa.

He makes no mention of this to her, encourages her to cross-examine witnesses in his stead. When she learns the truth, she feels Cutter "pimped out to the jury". Regardless, subsequent episodes have portrayed a friendly working relationship. In L&O's "Brilliant Disguise", Cutter talks about his actions while cross-examining the defendant in an attempt to elicit incriminating testimony, but claimed that he'd ordered her to instead of tricked her, much to her displeasure. By the end of the episode, he apologizes to her, she accepts his apology. Cutter has been known to manipulate potential witnesses to get them to testify. Near the end of "Darkness", Cutter uses a man's daughter to make him testify. In another episode, he convinces a young girl that her relative may face serious charges unless she talks, he once intimidated a defendant in L&O's "Bogeyman".

Frank Funaro

Frank Funaro is an American drummer who has played with Del Lords, The Brandos, Camper Van Beethoven, Joey Ramone, The Dictators, Nils Lofgren & Dion DiMucci. Funaro collaborated with Joey Ramone on his first solo record Don't Worry About Me on four tracks. In 1994, Funaro accompanied former Del Lords member Scott Kempner and legendary vocalist Dion DiMucci to form the Little Kings. Funaro joined the lineup of his current band, Cracker, in 1998. Funaro replaced prior touring drummer Johnny Hott after the release of Cracker's album The Golden Age in 1996

Co-operative College

Co-operative College is a British educational charity dedicated to the promotion of co-operative values and principles within co-operatives and society. The Co-operative College was established in 1919 by the Co-operative Union with ten overseas students based on the second floor of Holyoake House, in 1943 the College became a charitable trust. In 1945, Holyoake House was damaged by a blitz, the Co-operative College was forced to relocate to Stanford Hall, where it spent fifty years. Along the years that the College spent in Stanford, it ran residential courses in social/economic subjects for adult learners and a wide range of retail and management courses for co-operative employees. In 1946, Dr Robert L. Marshall, OBE, MA, became the Principal and Chief Executive Officer and built up the reputation of the College as a national and international institution; the College has since returned to its original home at Holyoake House, Simon Parkinson is Chief Executive and Principal. Researching co-operatives Co-operative Learning and Development Co-operatives Globally - International work Co-operative Heritage Schools and Young People The Research team works with a growing number of partners from the co-operative movement and the higher education sector carrying out research into the historical and contemporary role of co-operation.

The Co-operative College is working hard to disseminate research that makes society aware of the impact of the co-operative movement. The Co-operative College works with all the major co-operative societies in the U. K. and delivers programmes of training and education around the world, to help individuals and groups achieve the level of skill and understanding required to translate ideals into effective practice. The College learning team ensures that all the members, directors and employees have training programmes designed to meet their needs, always with the Co-operative Values and Principles at the heart of all training; the Co-operative College works in nearly 20 countries in the Asia/Pacific region. The College’s international work is supporting co-operatives in the common global endeavor to end poverty and create a fairer world for all; some of its partners overseas are: Co-operative Colleges in Africa. The International Labour Organisation; the United Nations agency responsible for co-operatives.

The International Co-operative Alliance. The coordinating body of the co-operative movement. Individual co-operatives, its international work includes: teaching methods in Africa. Managing the long term reconstruction of the damage provoked by the massive earth quake Helping South African families reduce funeral costs; the Heritage team at the College is responsible for ensuring that all artifacts and documentation in relation with the co-operative movement are collected and made accessible for lifelong learning and research. People interested in knowing about the extraordinary history and development of the worldwide co-operative movement, its heritage and contemporary relevance can approach it through the Rochdale Pioneers Museum and the National Co-operative Archive; the College, following the steps of Robert Owen, considers education as an underpinning element, is involved in projects that reach school and young people in different fields. In partnership with the Co-operative Group, the College is developing a network of schools specialised in Business and Enterprise.

In the U. K. the College is developing new models to run schools as co-operatives. Besides this, the Co-operative College has its “Young Co-operative” programme, which any school can become involved with; this programme encourages pupils to create their own co-operative business. Co-operative studies Official website Charity Commission. Co-operative College, registered charity no. 1060008

Comparison of rugby league and rugby union

The team sports rugby league and rugby union have shared origins and thus many similarities. Following the 1895 split in rugby football, rugby league and rugby union differed in administration only. Soon, the rules of rugby league were modified, resulting in two distinctly different forms of rugby. After 100 years, in 1995 rugby union joined rugby league and most other forms of football as an professional sport; the inherent similarities between rugby league and rugby union have at times led to the possibility of a merger of the two variants and experimental hybrid games have been played that use a mix of the two sports' rules. Rugby union was referred to as rugby football. During the early development of rugby football different schools used different rules, on many occasions agreeing upon them shortly before commencement of the game. In 1871, English clubs met to form the Rugby Football Union. Rugby football spread to Australia and New Zealand, with games being played in the early-to-mid-nineteenth century.

In 1892, charges of professionalism were laid against Yorkshire clubs after they compensated players for missing work. A proposal to pay players up to six shillings when they missed work because of match commitments was voted down by the RFU. On 27 August 1895, prominent Lancashire clubs declared that they would support their Yorkshire colleagues in their proposal to form a professional organization and the Northern Rugby Football Union called the Northern Union, was formed; the rugby union authorities issued sanctions against clubs and officials involved in the offshoot group, including amateurs who played with or against Northern Union sides. After the schism the separate codes were named "rugby union" for the RFU code and "rugby league" for the NU code. In 1906, All Black George William Smith joined with Albert Henry Baskerville to form a team of professional rugby players. George Smith cabled a friend in Sydney and three professional matches were arranged between a New South Wales rugby team before continuing onto the UK.

This game was played under the rugby union laws and it was not until the team, nicknamed the All Golds, arrived in Leeds that they learnt the new Northern Union laws. Meanwhile, in Sydney a meeting was organised to look at forming a professional rugby competition in Australia; the meeting resolved that a "New South Wales Rugby Football League" should be formed, to play the Northern Union rules. The first season of the NSWRFL competition was played in 1908, has continued to be played every year since. During rugby league's 1921–22 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain, the Northern Rugby Football Union tried to arrange a match in Paris, but opposition from the Rugby Football Union-aligned French Rugby Federation made it impossible. In France rugby league split from rugby union in the 1930s. In 1948 the French instigated the formation of the International Rugby League Board as the world governing body for rugby league. France, New Zealand and Australia were the founding countries; the International Rugby Football Board had formed prior to the schism in 1886 and remained the international governing body for rugby union, although it only consisted of England, Wales and Scotland.

Australia, New Zealand and South Africa joined the IRFB in 1948, France in 1978 and Argentina, Canada and Japan in 1991. On 26 August 1995 the IRFB, now known as the International Rugby Board, declared rugby union an "open" game and thus removed all restrictions on payments or benefits to those connected with the game. According to The New York Times at the time, "Thirteen-man rugby league has shown itself to be a faster, more open game of better athletes than the other code. Rugby union is trying to negotiate its own escape from amateurism, with some officials admitting that the game is too slow, the laws too convoluted to attract a larger TV following". Although both rugby codes are forms of football, in many places, it could cause confusion as "football" is understood to mean association football, gridiron football, Gaelic football or Australian rules football depending on the country. In much of the rugby union-playing world, the sport of rugby league is infrequently played and rugby union is known as "rugby".

In the United Kingdom, rugby union or rugby league fans refer to their sport as "football" as in most cases this would refer to association football. Across the United Kingdom, rugby union is referred to as'rugby' but in the North of England, the word'rugby' could refer to either sport, but means "rugby league"; the nickname "rugger", which developed in England's elite schools always refers to rugby union. In Australia and New Zealand, rugby league is known as "league" or "football" with the latter term confusing as Australian rules football and association football could be called football. Rugby union is simply referred to as "rugby" without the ambiguity that this term carries in the UK. In France, rugby union is called rugby à quinze or "rugby" whilst rugby league is known as rugby à treize or jeu à treize. Since the 1895 schism, changes have taken place to the laws of both rugby union and rugby league football so that now they are distinct sports; the laws of rugby league football have been changed with the aim of creating a faster, more spectator-friendly sport.

Player numbers were reduced to thirteen a side, creating more space for attacking play, rucks and mauls were replaced with a play-the-ball restart. Changes to the laws of rugby union have be