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Potamon fluviatile

Potamon fluviatile is a freshwater crab found in or near wooded streams and lakes in Southern Europe. It is an omnivore with broad ecological tolerances, adults reach 50 mm in size during their 10–12 year lifespan, they inhabit burrows and are aggressive outcompeting native crayfish. P. fluviatile has been harvested for food since classical antiquity, is now threatened by overexploitation. Many of the island populations are vulnerable, the Maltese subspecies has become a conservation icon. A population in Rome may have been brought there before the founding of the Roman Empire. Adult Potamon fluviatile may reach a carapace length of 50 millimetres, with females being smaller than males; as with other crabs, the body is square, with the reduced abdomen tucked beneath the thorax. The thorax bears five pairs of legs, the first of, armed with large claws; the life span of P. fluviatile is 10–12 years. Moulting does not occur in winter. Mating lasts between 30 min and 21 hours, with spawning taking place in August.

Females carry the eggs on their pleopods until they hatch directly into juvenile crabs, having passed through the larval stages inside the egg. Potamon fluviatile is edible, as indicated by its alternative specific epithet edulis, was known to the ancient Greeks. More the species was depicted on the 5¢ coin in the last series of Maltese coins before the introduction of the Euro there in 2007. Potamon fluviatile has a generalist diet, feeding on vegetable debris, scraping algae from surfaces, or preying on frogs and various invertebrates, such as insect larvae, snails or worms. No predator seems to specialise on P. fluviatile, but a number of animals take it opportunistically, including rats, weasels, birds of prey and jays. The most significant predator may be mankind, with individual prospectors able to catch 3,000 to 10,000 in one season. Adults occupy burrows; the entrances to the burrows may be more than 5 m from the stream's edge and are always above water level. The burrows may be more than 80 cm long, serve to protect the crabs from extreme cold.

Potamon fluviatile is an aggressive species attacking with the larger right claw, since 90% of individuals are right-handed. In the Tosco-Emilian Apennines, P. fluviatile is only found south of the watershed, in contrast with the crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes, which occurs on both sides on the mountains. Although their ranges overlap, the two species do not inhabit the same water courses because the crab outcompetes the crayfish, therefore forced to live in less favourable locations where the crab cannot survive. Non-indigenous crayfish may pose a greater threat to P. fluviatile than native crayfish, although the greatest threats remain pollution and the draining of wetlands. The natural range of Potamon fluviatile is fragmented, covers parts of many countries with a Mediterranean coastline, it is found in mainland Italy and on the Balkan Peninsula from Dalmatia to the Axios River in Greece. It is found on a number of islands, including Sicily and Gozo, the Ionian Islands, Aegean Islands and Andros in the Cyclades.

Although the species as a whole is widespread, it is declining in numbers, these insular populations are vulnerable. Potamon fluviatile is distributed in much of mainland Italy in the provinces of Trento, Veneto, Tuscany, Lazio, Campania and Calabria, as well as on the island of Sicily. Although it used to be found as far north as Lake Garda, P. fluviatile no longer occurs north of the River Po. In 1997 a population of P. fluviatile was discovered under the ruins of Trajan's Forum in the heart of Rome, living in canals built by the Etruscans which connect to the Cloaca Maxima. Based on a genetic analysis, which demonstrated that these crabs were similar to those in Greece, researchers believe that they had been brought by the Greeks before the founding of the city, some 3000 years ago; the crabs' unusual size, up to 12 cm, longevity are interpreted as evidence of a long-established population, by analogy with island gigantism. On the island of Malta, Potamon fluviatile is rare and restricted to a few locations in the west of the island.

On Gozo, there is a single population. In the Balkan Peninsula, Potamon fluviatile is known to occur in Croatia, North Macedonia and Greece. There are four species of Potamon in the Balkans, P. fluviatile is replaced by Potamon ibericum in northeastern Greece. In mainland Greece, P. fluviatile is found in the drainages of the Axios, Thyamis and Arachthos, Pineiós, Piros-Tethreas and Evrotas rivers. In the Ionian Islands, P. fluviatile is known to occur at only one site on Corfu, as well as on Kefalonia and Zakynthos. In the Aegean Islands, it is found on Skiathos and Skopelos, on Euboea and Skyros, at a single site on Andros in the Cyclades. Potamon fluviatile is at the western distributional limit of the genus Potamon. Other species in the genus occur through Eastern Europe and the Middle East, across Central Asia as far east as northwestern India; the populations of P. fluviatile on the Peloponnese and Zakynthos may represent a separate, cryptic species, the population from the Peloponnese was described in 2010 as P. pelops.

P. Fluviatile was divided into three subspecies: P. f. algeriense, P. f. berghetripsorum and P. f. F

St Michael's College, Tenbury

King's College Saint Michaels is an independent international boarding school located in Tenbury Wells Worcestershire, England. The school specialises in teaching non English language students. St Michael's is located in the same buildings as the former College of St. Michael and All Angels, a boys school founded by Frederick Ouseley in 1856 to provide a model for the performance of Anglican church music. Choral services were performed daily in term time; the college possessed a library. Financial difficulties forced its closure in 1985; the school was founded in reaction to the decline of Anglican church music in the Victorian period. Ouseley sited it in a remote location; until its closure the school sang 150 settings of evensong. In the school chapel the choir is separated from the chancel by an ornate gilded screen topped by candles; the choir is backed by a'Father' Willis organ, painted with a representation of St Michael defeating the dragon. After closure the school buildings were used as the set for the 1986 Halloween television movie, The Worst Witch based on the fantasy novel by Jill Murphy starring Fairuza Balk and Tim Curry.

Recordings of the choir are listed in the British Library Sound Archive and are available on CD in back catalogue editions. A recording of the final Evensong sung at the school in 1985 is found on the Archive of Recorded Church Music siteThe school chapel is now the parish church for the surrounding village of St Michaels, created to support the creation of the choir school in the mid-19th century; the chapel has a full Henry Willis & Sons organ, installed into the new church created to support the new St Michaels College in the mid-19th century. Poet Laureate Sir John Betjeman spoke of the college, referring to: "……..the unique atmosphere of St. Michael’s College, Tenbury. I shall never forget my first impression of the place. There was the climb up from the little market town of Tenbury whence some of the lay clerks make their twice daily journey to Mattins and Evensong to lend men’s voices to the boys’ choir, there before me stretched an enormous common. In the far corner, in a land of blossoming orchards and backed by the blue distance of Clee Hill, rose a chapel as large as Lancing.

Attached to it were Warden’s house, school buildings and dining hall, all in a style of the fourteenth century, re-interpreted in local materials for the nineteenth century by architect, Henry Woodyer. After Evensong, where the music was equal to that of the best cathedral choirs, a walk round the buildings in the quiet of a Worcestershire evening, I visited the large dormitory, which runs the whole length of a building parallel with the chapel. Here Christopher Hassall read his poem to the boys and held them spellbound as the stars shone through the narrow Gothic windows in the gabled roof…………" The crest on the school tie was a red broadsword on a blue background symbolising St Michael's defeat of the dragon by its colour and the two kinks in the sword. Supported by friends of Ouseley, the library contained such important articles as the original score of Purcell's Dido and Aeneas and Handel's own conducting score from the Dublin premiere of Messiah, it was therefore a site of pilgrimage for musical scholars, including Benjamin Britten After the school's closure the library was transferred to the Bodleian Library.

The St Michael's College Society, an active Old Boys and Girls society, from the original Frederick Ouseley foundation, which in 2006 celebrated its centenary, holds a reunion meeting each year. Membership is open to all those with a connection to the 1856-1985 College days Notable alumni include: George Robertson Sinclair, organist at Truro and Hereford cathedral, friend of Edward Elgar. Today, now known as King’s Saint Michael’s College, the institution is an international boarding school, current with students from 37 different countries as of 2019; the school specialises in providing education to international students by providing an intensive English language course for all students alongside the traditional curriculum of GCSEs and A Levels. The school runs a University Foundation Course which has links to various universities across the country. During the months of July and August, Saint Michael's runs an English language summer school for students from all over the world. King's St Michael's College official website


The Hochwildstelle or Hohe Wildstelle is a mountain, 2,747 m, the second highest peak in the Schladming Tauern as well as the highest mountain on Styrian territory in Austria. Its summit is near the tripoint of the three municipalities of Aich, Michaelerberg-Pruggern and Schladming; the step-like summit block with its mighty rock faces dominates the edge of the mountain range along the Enns Valley, before the range climbs higher still to the summit of the Hochgolling on the main chain of the Alps. The knife-edged south arête drops away south of the summit cross, down to the col of Wildlochscharte and climbs again to the summit of the Himmelreich, before dropping into the valley and the Preintaler Hut from the peak of Schneiders; the ridgeline, sharp for a crystalline mountain range runs north to south. The region is well watered. In the vicinity of the high massif there are several mountain lakes and two large waterfalls. Two waymarked routes run up the Hochwildstelle: From the col of Neualmscharte via the Kleine Wildstelle and the northwest arête taking 1 hour, UIAA grade I.

The Neualmscharte may be reached from either the Hans Wödl Hut or the Preintaler Hut on marked footpaths in about 2 – 3 hours. From the col of Wildlochscharte via the south arête in 1 hour, UIAA grade I; the Wildlochscharte may be reached on signed paths in 2 hours from the Preintaler Hut or the Breitlahn Hut. Peter Holl: Alpenvereinsführer Niedere Tauern, Bergverlag Rudolf Rother, 7th revised edition, Munich, 2005, ISBN 3-7633-1267-6. Media related to Hochwildstelle at Wikimedia Commons


Martese is a "frazione" in the commune of Rocca Santa Maria in the Province of Teramo, Italy. The village sits at an elevation of 3,270 ft above sea level; the distance by car to Rocca Santa Maria is less than one mile. The infrequently used road between these two towns is rather primitive, it can be found just off the provincial highway that leads from Teramo to Ceppo via Rocca Santa Maria and Bosco Martese. The old town center is composed of a small cluster of houses; as was the custom of the day a small church sits off to itself. Martese can be found at the top of a promontory overlooking the high Tordino Valle and lies in the heart of the Abruzzo territory known as Monti della Laga within the Italian Gran Sasso e Monti della Laga National Park. From the town center one can see the two mountain chains. In the waning days of feudalism, the Bishopric of Teramo came to have a great many land holdings in the area which were collectively known as the State of Bisegno; these church holdings were divided into thirteen communes, each of which at the time referred to as a Università.

One of these was Rocca Santa Maria. The Rocca Santa Maria commune was composed of 16 small villages: Canili. In 1804 Martese had 62 inhabitants. In 1813 the village part of the feudal holding of Rocca Santa Maria, remained under the jurisdiction of Rocca Santa Maria when it became a commune in the Province of Teramo. By 1841 the population of Martese had fallen to 55. Today the village awaits revitalization. Martese today is one of three villages chosen by the Province of Teramo as sites for future touristic development; as part of this large-scale project, data related to the architectural and touristic aspects of more than 50 nearby villages and locals were systematically gathered and painstakingly analyzed before deciding upon the exact locations to be developed. These three villages were chosen for their authenticity, representativeness, overall potential with regard to the criteria, established by the provincial authorities. Luigi Ercole, Dizionario topografico alfabetico della provincia di Teramo, Berardo Carlucci e Compagni, Teramo, 1804, p. 109.

Stephen M. Truitt

Stephen M. Truitt is an American lawyer in Washington DC, retired from the Pepper Hamilton law firm. Although retired from Pepper Hamilton, Truitt continues to practice general civil litigation as a solo. In addition, along with former Pepper colleague Charles Carpenter, he has volunteered to serve pro bono to help Guantanamo captives, represents two men held there: Hani Saleh Rashid Abdullah and Maher El Falesteny. Former client Rami Bin Said Al Taibi was transferred to Saudi Arabia in 2007. On behalf of Hani Abdullah and Truitt sought a report concerning possible destruction of evidence by DOD and the CIA, notwithstanding a court order not to destroy evidence. Truitt is a plaintiff in Wilner v. NSA. Truitt and Carpenter represented the Native Forest Council in its challenge of the Northwest Forest Plan for protection of the northern spotted owl. Truitt represented a number of companies that had claims against Iran arising from the Iranian Revolution before the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal, was the first to address the full tribunal in the Forum Clause cases.

He represented a class of Tribunal claimants whose claims were espoused by the United States and settled. He represented the National Iranian Oil Company in an action against Ashland Oil, Inc. for $283,000,000.00 in oil shipments not paid for by Ashland This case was settled in 1989 just prior to trial set in MIssissippi with Ashland paying NIOC $325,000,000.00 in settlement of NIOC's claims and Ashland's counterclaims. Truitt represented the Aleut Community of St. Paul Island in a suit against the United States filed in 1954 and litigated in the late 1960s and 1970s; the claims arose under the Indian Claims Commission Act. The resulting award is the only one made under clause 2 of that act permitting recoveries for breach of the government's duty to "deal and honorably with the tribe according to rules not known at law or equity." The award was for a government imposed serfdom on the Tribe from 1876 to 1946. He is the grandson of former Vice President Alben Barkley, who shared the ticket with President Harry S. Truman in 1948, coined the term' Veep' for Barkley at age 10

Shunt (theatre company)

Shunt is a London-based performance collective, founded in 1998. Most of the co-founders of Shunt met at Central School of Speech and Drama in London on the Advanced Theatre Practice MA in 1997/1998, which specialises in collaborative practice. In summer 1998 Shunt's final term show'Twist' was taken to Hill Street Theatre for the Edinburgh Festival under the company name Stephanie's Fridge; the members of the company at that time were David Rosenberg, Lizzie Clachan, Louise Mari, Mischa Twitchin, Gisele Edwards, Su Jin Lee, Catherine Bowman Shaw, Kirsty Yuill, Hannah Ringham, Serena Bobowski, Gemma Brockis and Heather Uprichard. Shunt's work is centered on immersive, site-specific performance in a grand scale, has been supported by Britain's Royal National Theatre, NESTA and Arts Council England, it has been the subject of much academic discussion over the last decade. Shunt has been awarded the Peter Brook Empty Space Award, in 2003 and 2005, the Time Out Live Award in 2003, the Total Theatre Award in 2000 as part of the London International Mime Festival, many critics' awards in the United Kingdom.

"On October 12th 1972 a Fairchild F-227, chartered by an amateur rugby team, left Uruguay for Santiago in Chile. It never arrived...." On their return from Edinburgh Shunt procured the railway arch 12A Gales Gardens in Bethnal Green and the group reformed. Those who remained in the collective paid the rent between them; the group was now David Rosenberg, Lizzie Clachan, Mischa Twitchin, Louise Mari, Hannah Ringham, Gemma Brockis, Heather Uprichard, Serena Bobowski and they were joined by Andrew Rutland. They began work on their first show The Ballad of Bobby Francois, loosely based on the book Alive: The Story of the Andes Survivors by Piers Paul Reid; the show opened in their space in Bethnal Green in the East End in London in May and October 1999. During this time Laura left Layla Rosa joined the performance collective; the cast was joined by the performer Amber Rose Sealey.'The Ballad of Bobby Francois' was taken to the Pleasance Dome as part of the Edinburgh Festival in August 2000, where it won a Herald Angel and a Total Theatre Award.

The show was revived at The Drome under London Bridge Station in January 2001 as part of the London International Mime Festival. In autumn 1998 Shunt started bi-monthly cabarets at the Bethnal Green Railway Arch 12A on Sunday nights, where the members of the collective would show ideas for company or personal work in front of a live audience, limited to 8 minutes; the Shunt cabarets ran from December 1998 to August 2003 providing a platform for new and emerging artists as well as providing Shunt members with the opportunity to try out new ideas and form collaborations from outside the company. With an emphasis on the experimental, the cabarets were multidisciplinary fusing theatre, sound, visual art, video and any other number of strange hybrids; the event was always free.'Lawn tennis and dirty tricks in a derelict loft by the Thames: Shunt looks back to Tennis' golden summer when McEnroe beat Borg in 1982' In 2000 Shunt made The Tennis Show at The Museum Of at the Bargehouse on the South Bank in London.

The collective were joined by performers Ryo Yoshida, Nigel Barrett, Simon Kane, Tom Lyall and Amber Rose Sealey. In 2001 the company devised and performed Sightings for Croydon Clocktower, where the company imagined the library and surrounding buildings were filling with water, they were joined by aerialist Gisele Edwards. Shunt's next show Dance Bear Dance was "based on the gunpowder plot and other less successful acts of terrorism" and was performed at Arch 12a in Bethnal Green between May 2002 and August 2003. In 2003 Shunt moved into the cavernous vaults under London Bridge Station, they devised and performed their show Tropicana from Sept 2004 to July 2005, joined by Silvia Mercuriali, Melanie Wilson, Nigel Barrett, Paul Mari, Helena Hunter and Simon Kane. In 2005 this was followed by the show Amato Saltone in which the company were joined by Ryo Yoshida, Nigel Barrett, Geneva Foster Gluck, Simon Kane, Tom Lyall, Jason Barnet and Rebecca Kilgariff. Amato Saltone was inspired by the work of Cornell Woolrich, the father of film noir, for over 35 years, fed the pulp magazines with countless stories of steamy mystery fiction.

Films made of his work include Truffaut's The Bride Wore Black. The Shunt Lounge was a project by Shunt from September 2006 to July 2010, it was a night-time art space and club in a labyrinth of railway arches under London Bridge station in London. For the price of entry the public could enjoy for free a huge diversity of experimental performance, music, talks, installation, plays, interventions, which changed every week; the Shunt Lounge was open from Wednesdays to Sundays every week. It was technically supported by George Tomlinson; the weekly curation was shared by the company, supported by the musician Nahum. The Shunt Lounge was designed as a break that would give the company a time to catch their breath but not give them a hiatus. "Attendees enter through a service door near the London Bridge Station and go through a series of tunnels and corridors that have pieces of past sets and dressings. In the corridor there can be found films and art that differ from week to week; the crowd has the freedom to explore anywhere in the tunnels and end up at a bar, where there is music, time to socialize.

Twitchin says, “It’s not advertised, there are no reviews, you pay to come into the space… and y