Potassium carbonate is the inorganic compound with the formula K2CO3. It is a white salt, soluble in water, it is deliquescent appearing as a damp or wet solid. Potassium carbonate is used in the production of soap and glass. Potassium carbonate is the primary component of potash and the more refined pearl ash or salts of tartar. Pearl ash was created by baking potash in a kiln to remove impurities; the fine, white powder remaining was the pearl ash. The first patent issued by the US Patent Office was awarded to Samuel Hopkins in 1790 for an improved method of making potash and pearl ash. In late 18th century North America, before the development of baking powder, pearl ash was used as a leavening agent for quick breads. Potassium carbonate is prepared commercially by the reaction potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide: 2 KOH + CO2 → K2CO3 + H2OFrom the solution crystallizes the sesquihydrate K2CO3·3⁄2H2O. Heating this solid above 200 °C gives the anhydrous salt. Alternative method, potassium chloride is treated with carbon dioxide in the presence of an organic amine to give potassium bicarbonate, calcined: 2 KHCO3 → K2CO3 + H2O + CO2 for soap and china production as a mild drying agent where other drying agents, such as calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate, may be incompatible.
It is not suitable for acidic compounds, but can be useful for drying an organic phase if one has a small amount of acidic impurity. It may be used to dry some ketones and amines prior to distillation. In cuisine, where it has many traditional uses, it is an ingredient in the production of grass jelly, a food consumed in Chinese and Southeast Asian cuisines, as well as Chinese hand-pulled noodles, moon cake. It is used to tenderize tripe. German gingerbread recipes use potassium carbonate as a baking agent, although in combination with hartshorn, it is however important that the right quantities are used to prevent harm, cooks should not use it without guidance. In the alkalization of cocoa powder to produce Dutch process chocolate by balancing the pH of natural cocoa beans; the process of adding potassium carbonate to cocoa powder is called "Dutching", as the process was first developed in 1828 by Coenrad Johannes van Houten, a Dutchman. as a buffering agent in the production of mead or wine.
In antique documents, it is reported to have been used to soften hard water. As a fire suppressant in extinguishing deep-fat fryers and various other B class-related fires. In condensed aerosol fire suppression, although as the byproduct of potassium nitrate; as an ingredient in welding fluxes, in the flux coating on arc-welding rods. as an animal feed ingredient to satisfy the potassium requirements of farmed animals such as broiler breeders. as an acidity regulator in Swedish snus A Dictionary of Science, Oxford University Press, New York, 2004 Yu. Platonov, Andrew. "Solubility of Potassium Carbonate and Potassium Hydrocarbonate in Methanol". Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data. 47: 1175–1176. Doi:10.1021/je020012v. International Chemical Safety Card 1588
Sallekhana known as samlehna, samadhi-marana or sanyasana-marana, is a supplementary vow to the ethical code of conduct of Jainism. It is the religious practice of voluntarily fasting to death by reducing the intake of food and liquids, it is viewed in Jainism as the thinning of human passions and the body, another means of destroying rebirth-influencing karma by withdrawing all physical and mental activities. It is not considered as a suicide by Jain scholars because it is not an act of passion, nor does it deploy poisons or weapons. After the sallekhana vow, the ritual preparation and practice can extend into years. Sallekhana is a vow available to both for Jain householders. Historic evidence such as nishidhi engravings suggest sallekhana was observed by both men and women, including queens, in Jain history. However, in the modern era, death through sallekhana has been a uncommon event. There is debate about the practice from a freedom of religion viewpoint. In 2015, the Rajasthan High Court banned the practice.
That year, the Supreme Court of India stayed the decision of the Rajasthan High Court and lifted the ban on sallekhana. There are Five Great vows prescribed to followers of Jainism. A further seven supplementary vows are prescribed, which include three Gunavratas and four Shiksha vratas; the three Gunavratas are: Digvrata, Bhogopabhogaparimana, Anartha-dandaviramana. The Shikshavratas include: Samayika, Prosadhopavāsa, Atithi-samvibhag. Sallekhana is treated as a supplementary to these twelve vows. However, some Jain teachers such as Kundakunda, Devasena and Vasunandin have included it under Shikshavratas. Sallekhana means to properly'thin out','scour out' or'slender' the passions and the body through abstaining from food and drink. Sallekhana is divided into two components: Kashaya Sallekhana or Abhayantra Sallekhana and Kaya Sallekhana or Bahya Sallekhana, it is described as "facing death voluntarily through fasting". According to Jain texts, Sallekhana leads to Ahimsa, as a person observing Sallekhana subjugates the passions, which are the root cause of Himsa.
While Sallekhana is prescribed for both householders and ascetics, Jain texts describe conditions when it is appropriate. It should not be observed by a householder without guidance of a Jain ascetic. Sallekhana is always voluntary, undertaken after public declaration, never assisted with any chemicals or tools; the fasting causes thinning away of body by withdrawing by choice water to oneself. As death is imminent, the individual stops all food and water, with full knowledge of colleagues and spiritual counsellor. In some cases, Jains with terminal illness undertake sallekhana, in these cases they ask for permission from their spiritual counsellor. For a successful sallekhana, the death must be with "pure means", planned, undertaken with calmness and joy where the person accepts to scour out the body and focuses his or her mind on spiritual matters. Sallekhana differs from other forms of ritual deaths recognized in Jainism as appropriate; the other situations consider ritual death to be better for a mendicant than breaking his or her Five Great vows.
For example, celibacy is one of the Five vows, ritual death is considered better than being raped or seduced or if the mendicant community would be defamed. A ritual death under these circumstances by consuming poison is believed to be better and allows for an auspicious rebirth; the duration of the practice can vary from a few days to years. The sixth part of the Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra describes Sallekhana and its procedure as follows— Giving up solid food by degrees, one should take to milk and whey giving them up, to hot or spiced water. Giving up hot water and observing fasting with full determination, he should give up his body, trying in every possible way to keep in mind the pancha-namaskara mantra. Jain texts mention five transgressions of the vow: the desire to be reborn as a human, the desire to be reborn as a divinity, the desire to continue living, the desire to die and the desire to live a sensual life in the next life. Other transgressions include: recollection of affection for friends, recollection of the pleasures enjoyed, longing for the enjoyment of pleasures in the future.
The ancient Svetambara Jain text Acharanga Sutra, dated to about 3rd or 2nd century BCE, describes three forms of Sallekhana: the Bhaktapratyakhyana, the Ingita-marana, the Padapopagamana. In Bhaktapratyakhyana, the person who wants to observe the vow selects an isolated place where he lies on a bed made of straw, does not move his limbs, avoids food and drink until he dies. In Ingita-marana, the person sleeps on bare ground, he can sit, walk, or move, but avoids food until he dies. In Padapopagamana, a person stands drink until he dies. Another variation of Sallekhana is Itvara which consists of voluntarily restricting oneself in a limited space and fasting to death; the Acharanga Sutra describ
County Hall is a municipal facility at Raikes Lane in Mold, Flintshire. Following the implementation of the Local Government Act 1888, which established county councils in every county, Flintshire County Council established its base at the old County Hall in Chester Street in Mold. Additional facilities acquired included a local militia barracks, converted for use as council offices in the late 1880s; the Chester Street facilities became cramped and by the 1930s the county council needed modern facilities. A new building, designed by Robert Harvey, the county architect, influenced by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright, was built in the brutalist style and completed in October 1967, it was opened as the Shire Hall by Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon in May 1968. An extension to the building was opened by Princess Anne in July 1972. After the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972, the new building became the home of Clwyd County Council in 1974. On 1 April 1996, under the Local Government Act 1994, Clwyd County Council was broken up and the building was acquired by the new Flintshire County Council who subsequently renamed it County Hall.
Survival! is a collection of science fiction stories by American writer Gordon R. Dickson, it was first published by Baen Books in 1984. Most of the stories appeared in the magazines Astounding and Science Fiction, If, Fantastic, Infinity Science Fiction and Venture Preface, by Sandra Miesel "The Question" "Our First Death" "No Shield from the Dead" "The Underground" "After the Funeral" "The General and the Axe" "Button, Button" "Rescue" "Friend for Life" "Carry Me Home" "Jean Duprès" "Breakthrough Gang" Brown, Charles N.. "The Locus Index to Science Fiction". Retrieved 2008-01-20. Clute, John; the Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. P. 332. ISBN 0-312-13486-X. Thompson, Raymond H. "Frontiers of the Mind", Fantasy Review, 8: 18–19
Polyvision was the name given by the French film critic Émile Vuillermoz to a specialized widescreen film format devised for the filming and projection of Abel Gance's 1927 film Napoleon. It involved the simultaneous projection of three reels of silent film arrayed in a horizontal row, making for a total aspect ratio of 4:1; this configuration is considered to be a similar precursor to Cinerama, which would debut a quarter of a century later. Three film cameras were stacked vertically to shoot the widescreen compositions which would be viewed across all three sections. Gance used the three strips to create triptych compositions of panels contrasting or simultaneous action, mirrored sides framing the center strip, perceptual cross-cutting. In this respect, Polyvision can arguably be said to have inspired split screen compositions as well as in-eye edited experiments such as Mike Figgis's Timecode. Gance was unable to eliminate the problem of the two seams dividing the three panels of film as shown on screen, so he avoided the problem by putting three different shots together in some of the Polyvision scenes.
When Gance viewed Cinerama many years he noticed that the widescreen image was still not seamless, that the problem was not fixed. Polyvision was only used for the final reel of Napoleon, to create a climactic finale. Filming the whole story in Polyvision was impractical as Gance wished for a number of innovative shots, each requiring greater flexibility than was allowed by three interlocked cameras; when the film was re-cut by the distributors early on during exhibition, the new version only retained the center strip in order to allow projection in standard single-projector cinemas. Brownlow's restored version, first seen on 31 August 1979 at the Telluride Film Festival, in Telluride, finishes with a flourish intended by Gance: it uses red and blue tinted film on the left and right panels to create le tricolore—the flag of Napoleon's triumphant army. Difficulties in mounting a full screening of Napoleon with three simultaneous projectors mean that a true Polyvision presentation is seen, with recent exhibitions of Napoleon using Polyvision having been in December 2004 and November 2013 at the Royal Festival Hall, in December 2009 at Cité de la Musique, in March 2012 at the Paramount Theatre in Oakland, California.
Gance continued to tinker with the system with Parvo camera designer Andre Debrie for several decades afterward, by 1956, it evolved into a system called Magirama similar to the Cinemiracle format. Magirama used three 35 mm film cameras at Academy format with the two side cameras shooting into mirrors; this system was only used on a limited number of shots. List of film formats
Ingrid Rebecka Elisabet Hemse is a Swedish actress. She is best known for her role as Martin Beck's daughter Inger, she works at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm. In 2008, she was Ofelia in Staffan Valdemar Holm's theatre play Hamlet and Karoline in the play Kasimir och Karoline. In 2009, she was Sanna Rönne in Final. Earlier Hemse has played Clara in Riddartornet, Mária Jefimovna Grékova in Platonov, the princess from Athens in Fedra, Agnes in August Strindberg's Ett drömspel. Quicksand Jordskott Beck – Sjukhusmorden Beck – Invasionen Beck – Familjen Beck – Rum 302 Beck – Levande begravd Beck – I Guds namn Beck – Det tysta skriket Beck – Den svaga länken Beck – Den japanska shungamålningen Beck – Gamen Beck – Advokaten Beck – Flickan i jordkällaren Beck – Skarpt läge Drowning Ghost Details Beck – Sista vittnet Beck – Pojken i glaskulan Beck – Annonsmannen Beck – Okänd avsändare Beck – Enslingen Beck – Kartellen Beck – Mannen utan ansikte Beck – Hämndens pris Syndare i sommarsol Judith Beck – Vita nätter Beck – Öga för öga Beck – Monstret Beck – The Money Man Beck – Spår i mörker Chock Beck – Pensionat Pärlan Beck – Mannen med ikonerna Beck – Lockpojken Sebastian Radioskugga Sökarna "Rebecka Hemse".
Swedish Film Institute. Retrieved 2010-02-04. Rebecka Hemse on IMDb Rebecka Hemse