click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Potassium cyanide

Potassium cyanide is a compound with the formula KCN. This colorless crystalline salt, similar in appearance to sugar, is soluble in water. Most KCN is used in gold mining, organic synthesis, electroplating. Smaller applications include jewelry for chemical buffing. Potassium cyanide is toxic; the moist solid emits small amounts of hydrogen cyanide due to hydrolysis, which smells like bitter almonds. Not everyone, can smell this; the taste of potassium cyanide has been described as acrid and bitter, with a burning sensation similar to lye. KCN is produced by treating hydrogen cyanide with aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide, followed by evaporation of the solution in a vacuum: HCN + KOH → KCN + H2OAbout 50,000 tons of potassium cyanide are produced yearly. Before 1900 and the invention of the Castner process, potassium cyanide was the most important source of alkali metal cyanides. In this historical process, potassium cyanide was produced by decomposing potassium ferrocyanide:K4 → 4 KCN + FeC2 + N2 In aqueous solution, KCN is dissociated into hydrated potassium ions and cyanide ions.

The common form of solid KCN, stable at ambient pressure and temperature, has the same cubic crystal structure as sodium chloride, with each potassium ion surrounded by six cyanide ions, vice versa. Despite the cyanide ions being diatomic, thus less symmetric than chloride, they rotate so their time-averaged shape is spherical. At low temperature and high pressure, this free rotation is hindered, resulting in a less symmetric crystal structure with the cyanide ions arranged in sheets. KCN and sodium cyanide are used in organic synthesis for the preparation of nitriles and carboxylic acids in the von Richter reaction, it finds use for the synthesis of hydantoins, which can be useful synthetic intermediates, when reacted with a carbonyl compound such as an aldehyde or ketone in the presence of ammonium carbonate. KCN is used as a photographic fixer in the wet plate collodion process; the KCN dissolves silver. This stabilizes the image, making it no longer sensitive to light. Modern wet plate photographers may prefer less toxic fixers opting for the less toxic sodium thiosulfate, but KCN is still used.

It was extensively used by high ranking Nazi officials to commit suicide in the last days of World War 2. In gold mining, KCN forms the water-soluble salt potassium gold cyanide and potassium hydroxide from gold metal in the presence of oxygen and water: 4 Au + 8 KCN + O2 + 2 H2O → 4 K + 4 KOHA similar process uses NaCN to produce sodium gold cyanide. Potassium cyanide is a potent inhibitor of cellular respiration, acting on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, hence blocking oxidative phosphorylation; this prevents the body from oxidizing food to produce useful energy. Lactic acidosis occurs as a consequence of anaerobic metabolism. Acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy complexion in the victim because the tissues are not able to use the oxygen in the blood; the effects of potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide are identical, symptoms of poisoning occur within a few minutes of ingesting the substance: the person loses consciousness, brain death follows. During this period the victim may suffer convulsions.

Death is caused by cerebral hypoxia. The median lethal dose for potassium cyanide is estimated at 200–300 mg. A number of prominent persons were killed or committed suicide using potassium cyanide, including members of the Young Bosnia and famous personalities in the Third Reich, such as Erwin Rommel, Hitler's longtime companion Eva Braun, Joseph Goebbels, Heinrich Himmler, Hermann Göring, World War II–era British agents, computer scientist Alan Turing, polymer chemist Wallace Carothers, 19th-century German chemist Viktor Meyer, various religious cult suicides such as by the Peoples Temple, Danish writer Gustav Wied in 1914, members of the LTTE involved in the assassination of Indian prime minister Rajiv Gandhi, Jason Altom, a promising graduate student in the lab of Nobel Prize–winning chemist EJ Corey at Harvard, John B. Mclemore, an Alabamian man whose life and suicide were the subject of the popular podcast "S-town." Slobodan Praljak, a wartime general in Republic of Croatia and convicted war criminal, committed suicide by drinking from a vial containing potassium cyanide during the reading of his sentence in The Hague on International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia on 29 November 2017.

It is used by professional entomologists as a killing agent in collecting jars, as insects succumb within seconds to the HCN fumes it emits, thereby minimizing damage to highly fragile specimens. KCN can be detoxified most efficiently with hydrogen peroxide or with a solution of sodium hypochlorite; such solutions should be kept alkaline whenever possible so as to eliminate the possibility of generation of hydrogen cyanide: KCN + H2O2 → KOCN + H2O International Chemical Safety Card 0671 Hydrogen cyanide and cyanides National Pollutant Inventory - Cyanide compounds fact sheet NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards CSST NIST Standard Reference Database Institut national de recherche et de sécurité. "Cyanure de sodium. Cyanure de potassium". Fiche toxicologique n° 111, Paris:INRS, 6pp

Lizzie Gordon

Lizzie M. Gordon was an alleged teenage mystic and stigmatic from Boston, Massachusetts, she claimed to see visions of the Blessed Virgin Mary and her dead brother. In 1881, Gordon's parents sued Fr. John H. Fleming and Archbishop John Joseph Williams for $5,000 in Suffolk Superior Court. Three years prior, Gannon began going into trances, during which should could not speak unless Fleming or a few others placed their hands on her; when she came out of them, she claimed to have received revelations from the Virgin Mary and to have seen saints and the faces of those who died. Her family sent for Fleming, their parish priest, in the fall of 1878. Fleming would attend to the girl in the company of another priest, the visits seemed to help her. In one of her revelations, Gannon said that the Virgin Mary had a message for Fleming, that he was to write a book that told Gannon's story and of all of her visions. Fleming declined to write the book. In the fall of 1879, Fleming visited the girl, entranced and holding in her hands two or three images or dolls of angels.

They appeared to be cut from heavy paper. Gordon said, her brother, to whom she had been quite attached, had died two years prior. She claimed to have received several other items from angels or spirits, including a letter written by the Virgin Mary. Fleming persuaded the girl to give the images to him. During his visits, Fleming called in doctors and others to see if they could help the girl and she was diagnosed with hysteria by Dr. Hodges. A Dr. Porter suggested Gordon be sent to a hospital. Over time Fleming came to believe the girl was faking, so stopped visiting around Christmas in 1880. Gordon's father tried to persuade Fleming to continuing visiting the girl; when he was unsuccessful in that a year after she had given up the dolls, he asked for their return. Fleming told her father. Gordon's father appealed to Archbishop John Joseph Williams but the bishop sided with the priest; when the suit was brought in the summer of 1881, the girl had hardly spoken for a year. She could not see or speak, according to her lawyers.

Other testified that they had seen her doing work around the home, out shopping with her mother in the neighborhood, speaking. Her parents contended. Others contended that the suit was brought when Fleming refused to help the girl and her family seek publicity. Before the case went to trial, Gordon's father published a book about his daughter; the jury found for Gordon and awarded damages of $0.01

Pleurotomella striatulata

Pleurotomella striatulata is an extinct species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Raphitomidae. Fossils of this marine species were found in Miocene strata in Aquitaine, France Lamarck, 1822 Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres, présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux, leur distinction, leurs classes, leurs familles, leurs genres, et la citation des principales espèces qui s'y rapportent, t. 7, p. 1-711 Deshayes, 1843 Histoire des Mollusques. In: Deshayes, G.-P. & Milne Edwards, H. Histoire naturelle des Animaux sans vertèbres présentant les caractères généraux et particuliers de ces animaux... par LAMARCK, deuxième édition, revue et augmentée, t. 9, p. 1-728

Northwest Township, Orange County, Indiana

Northwest Township is one of ten townships in Orange County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population was 375 and it contained 199 housing units. Northwest Township was named from its position in the northwestern corner of Orange County. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 30.41 square miles, of which 30.3 square miles is land and 0.11 square miles is water. Bonds at 38.681163°N 86.629439°W / 38.681163. U. S. Route 150 Springs Valley Community School Corporation Indiana's 9th congressional district State House District 62 State Senate District 48 "Northwest Township, Orange County, Indiana". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2009-10-17. United States Census Bureau 2008 TIGER/Line Shapefiles IndianaMap Indiana Township Association United Township Association of Indiana City-Data.com page for Northwest Township

In Sickness & In Health

In Sickness & In Health is the debut album of Welsh psychobilly band Demented Are Go. It was released in 1986 on ID Records; the band did two interpretations of early rock'n' roll songs plus a cover-version of The Osmonds song "Crazy Horses". The two rock'n' roll songs featured on the album were Gene Vincent's "Be-Bop-A-Lula" and Mack Self's "Vibrate". "Be Bop A Lula" "Pervy in the Park" " Busted Hymen" "Holy Hack Jack" "Frenzied Beat" "Pickled and Preserved" "Crazy Horses" "Transvestite Blues" "Rubber Buccaneer" "Vibrate" "Rubber Love" "Nuke Mutants" "Pvc Chair" "Don't Go in the Woods" Sparky - Vocals, Winger-Wanger Ant Thomas - Drums Dick - Lead Guitar, Electric Bass, Vocals Ray Thompson -Double Bass Simon Cohen -Fiddle Simon Crowfoot -Double Bass on Rubber Love Producer: Pete Gage Engineers: Malcolm, Pete Gage Mastering: CD Mastering: Photography: Tim Wilkins

With Our Own Eyes

With Our Own Eyes is a studio album by American jazz pianist Mulgrew Miller with bassist Richie Goods and drummer Tony Reedus. The album was released in December 1993 by Novus Records; this is Miller's second record for tenth overall. Scott Yanow of Allmusic wrote "The consistent pianist Mulgrew Miller leads his trio... through a set dominated by his originals but including "Body and Soul" and Michel Legrand's "Summer Me, Winter Me." The McCoy Tyner influence will always remain a significant part of Miller's style but he is such a powerful player in his own right that one does not mind. His originals on this set range from the modal 6/4 piece "Somewhere Else" and the thoughtful "Dreamin'" to the melancholy "Carousel." As with all of Mulgrew Miller's releases thus far, this one is well worth picking up". Reviewers of Billboard noted that "One of the unsung heroes of jazz piano, Miller is once again tasteful, poignant and on-target with a trio." Band Mulgrew Miller – piano Richie Goods – bass Tony Reedus – drumsProduction Michael Marciano – assistant engineer Daniel Miller – photography Jacqueline Murphy – art direction James Nichols – editing, mastering Tim Patterson – direction, producer Ed Reed – assistant engineer Sean Smith – design