click links in text for more info

Potassium permanganate

Potassium permanganate is a chemical compound with chemical formula KMnO4. It is a purplish-black crystalline solid, that dissolves in water to give intensely pink or purple solutions. Potassium permanganate is used in chemical industry and laboratories as a strong oxidizing agent, as a medication for dermatitis, for cleaning wounds, general disinfection. In 2000, worldwide production was estimated at 30,000 tonnes. All applications of potassium permanganate exploit its oxidizing properties; as a strong oxidant that does not generate toxic byproducts, KMnO4 has many niche uses. Potassium permanganate is used for a number of skin conditions; this includes fungal infections of the foot, pemphigus, superficial wounds and tropical ulcers. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Potassium permanganate is used extensively in the water treatment industry, it is used as a regeneration chemical to remove iron and hydrogen sulfide from well water via a "Manganese Greensand" Filter.

"Pot-Perm" is obtainable at pool supply stores and is used additionally to treat waste water. It was used to disinfect drinking water and can turn the water pink, it finds application in the control of nuisance organisms such as zebra mussels in fresh water collection and treatment systems. Aside from its use in water treatment, the other major application of KMnO4 is as a reagent for the synthesis of organic compounds. Significant amounts are required for the synthesis of ascorbic acid, saccharin, isonicotinic acid, pyrazinoic acid. Called Baeyer's reagent after the German organic chemist Adolf von Baeyer, KMnO4 is used in qualitative organic analysis to test for the presence of unsaturation; the reagent is an alkaline solution of potassium permanganate. Reaction with double or triple bonds causes the color to fade from purplish-pink to brown. Aldehydes and formic acid give a positive test; the test is antiquated. Potassium permanganate can be used to quantitatively determine the total oxidizable organic material in an aqueous sample.

The value determined is known as the permanganate value. In analytical chemistry, a standardized aqueous solution of KMnO4 is sometimes used as an oxidizing titrant for redox titrations; as potassium permanganate is titrated, the solution becomes a light shade of magenta, which darkens as excess of the titrant is added to the solution. In a related way, it is used as a reagent to determine the Kappa number of wood pulp. For the standardization of KMnO4 solutions, reduction by oxalic acid is used. Aqueous, acidic solutions of KMnO4 are used to collect gaseous mercury in flue gas during stationary source emissions testing. In histology, potassium permanganate was used as a bleaching agent. Ethylene absorbents extend storage time of bananas at high temperatures; this effect can be exploited by packing bananas in polyethylene together with potassium permanganate. By removing ethylene by oxidation, the permanganate delays the ripening, increasing the fruit's shelf life up to 4 weeks without the need for refrigeration.

Potassium permanganate is included in survival kits: as a hypergolic fire starter, water sterilizer, for creating distress signals on snow. Potassium permanganate is added to "plastic sphere dispensers" to create backfires and controlled burns. Polymer spheres resembling ping-pong balls containing small amounts of permanganate are injected with ethylene glycol and projected towards the area where ignition is desired, where they spontaneously ignite seconds later. Both handheld and helicopter- or boat-mounted plastic sphere dispensers are used. Potassium permanganate is one of the principal chemicals used in the film and television industries to "age" props and set dressings, its ready conversion to brown MnO2 creates "hundred-year-old" or "ancient" looks on Hessian cloth, ropes and glass. Potassium permanganate can be used to oxidize cocaine increase its stability; this led to the Drug Enforcement Administration launching Operation Purple in 2000, with the goal of monitoring the world supply of potassium permanganate.

In agricultural chemistry, it is used for estimation of available nitrogen in soil. In 1659, Johann Rudolf Glauber fused a mixture of the mineral pyrolusite and potassium carbonate to obtain a material that, when dissolved in water, gave a green solution which shifted to violet and finally red; this report represents the first description of the production of potassium permanganate. Just under 200 years London chemist Henry Bollmann Condy had an interest in disinfectants, he patented this solution, marketed it as'Condy's Fluid'. Although effective, the solution was not stable; this was overcome by using potassium hydroxide rather than NaOH. This was more stable, had the advantage of easy conversion to the effective potassium permanganate crystals; this crystalline material was known as'Condy's crystals' or'Condy's powder'. Potassium permanganate was comparatively easy to manufacture, so Condy was subsequently forced to spend considerable time in litigation to stop competitors from marketing similar

Jon Waters

Jonathan N. "Jon" Waters is an American marching band director. He served as the Director of Marching and Athletic Bands at Ohio State University, was fired in 2014 after an investigation found that he failed to address a sexualized culture within the band that promoted sexual harassment; some alumni of the marching band have disputed these claims. Waters sued OSU for defamation. In 2016, Waters was hired to be an assistant professor of music and the director of bands at Heidelberg University, Ohio. Waters was born in Toledo, Ohio and at the age of 12 he moved to Elmore, Ohio, he was a guitar and saxophone player in eighth grade, when he saw The Ohio State University Marching Band on television with his father, decided he would one day dot the "i" in the Script Ohio. His middle school music teacher told him that if he wanted to be in the Ohio State Band he needed to choose another instrument because there were no saxophones in the Band, he switched from saxophone to sousaphone. Upon entering Ohio State in fall 1994 with a plan to become a lawyer, he tried out for the Marching Band, but was cut during tryouts.

He earned a spot the following year. In 1996, he switched his major to music, he went on to dot the "i" on November 1998 at the home game against Michigan. Waters was a band member through 1999. In 2000, he received a bachelor's degree in music education. In 2000, after completing five years as a band member, Waters began his professional career as a band director, staying on with The Ohio State University Marching Band as a graduate assistant. In 2002 he was hired as an assistant director. Upon the retirement of director Jon Woods in September 2011, Waters was given the role of interim director. On 10 October 2012, executive dean and vice provost of the College of Arts and Sciences Joseph Steinmetz, announced his promotion to director. On October 6, 2012 at the home game vs. Nebraska, Waters' band performed a video game tribute show featuring unprecedented use of animations, including a horse which galloped down the field and reared up on its hindquarters, as well as the Tetris and Pac-Man video games.

This show received national attention, with a YouTube video achieving four million hits by the following Monday. In 2013 the band began using iPads to reduce paper usage and to design and execute more complex shows. Waters and his staff created shows with extensive animation, including a Michael Jackson show which animated Mr. Jackson moonwalking and doing "the splits", the Hollywood Blockbuster show with animations of Superman saving a falling building, Harry Potter winning a Quidditch match, a dinosaur eating a Michigan football player, an epic battle at sea between two sailing ships; the band and Waters received national attention for these shows, Waters was interviewed by a long list of national news outlets, including Good Morning America, The Today Show, CNN, USA Today. In May 2014 he delivered a TEDx talk on "Tradition thru Innovation". On July 24, 2014, Ohio State president Michael V. Drake announced that, following an investigation of the marching band culture, Waters had been dismissed, alleging that the marching band was a sexualized culture that promoted sexual harassment.

Waters was fired on the basis that he "knew or should have known" about the alleged problems within the band but failed to address them. Subsequently, several problems were found in the investigation report, used as cause to fire Waters. Several witnesses stepped forward and claimed that their testimony had been used out of context, that they disagreed with the conclusions of the investigation; the former Title IX coordinator for Ohio State alleged that she was prevented by her superior from doing her job with respect to the marching band, however a third-party investigator determined that there was insufficient evidence to support this claim. On September 11, 2014, the Department of Education announced that it had agreed to conclude a four-year investigation of Ohio State ahead of schedule due to its handling of the Jon Waters case; the following day the marching band alumni organization released its own investigation report into the circumstances around Waters' firing, alleging many problems with the original investigation, suggesting that Waters was sacrificed to prove Title IX compliance to the Department of Education.

Waters sued for reinstatement in September, accusing the university, President Drake, a provost of discriminating against him by disciplining him differently than a female employee and denying him due process. Ohio State responded with a press release, now claiming that Waters had concealed the culture, "took it upon himself to take corrective action". On October 23rd, Ohio State filed a response to this lawsuit, renewing its claims of a sexualized culture, offering additional evidence of that culture; the filing emphasized claims that Waters misled investigators regarding the degree of problems in the band. David Briggs. "Elmore native's career hits highest note at OSU". Toledo Blade. Retrieved 2014-09-05

Fu Chong

Fu Chong was an emperor of the Chinese/Di state Former Qin. He assumed the throne in 394 after the death of Fu Deng, he would die in battle against the Western Qin, ending Former Qin. Fu Chong was first mentioned in history in 386, when his father assumed imperial title of Former Qin after the death of Fu Pi. In 387, Fu Deng created Fu Pi's son Fu Yi crown prince and created Fu Chong the Prince of Dongping and made him one of the key officials. After Fu Yi died in 388, Fu Chong was created crown prince, his involvements in his father's campaigns against the rival Later Qin's emperor Yao Chang are not clear. In 394, after Yao Chang's death, Fu Deng launched a major attack against Later Qin. Yao Xing set up his army at Mawei to prevent Former Qin forces from reaching the river near Mawei, Former Qin forces collapsed in thirst. Upon hearing the defeat, Fu Guang and Fu Chong abandoned the two bases that they were holding, Fu Deng was unable to recapture them, he instead fled to Pingliang and into the mountains.

He sent his son Fu Zong the Prince of Ruyin to the ruler of Western Qin, Qifu Gangui and married his sister to Qifu Gangui as his princess, seeking aid from Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui sent his general Qifu Yizhou to aid Fu Deng, but as Fu Deng came out of the mountains to join Qifu Yizhou's forces, Yao Xing ambushed and captured him, executed him. Upon hearing his father's death, Fu Chong fled to Huangzhong, under Qifu Gangui's control, declared himself emperor, he created his son Fu Xuan crown prince. However, in winter 394, Qifu Gangui expelled him, he fled to one of his father's last remaining generals, Yang Ding the Prince of Longxi. Yang led his forces to join Fu Chong's to attack Qifu Gangui. Qifu Gangui sent Qifu Yizhou and two other generals, Qifu Ketan and Yuezhi Jiegui against Yang and Fu Chong, Yang was successful against Qifu Yizhou. However, the three Western Qin generals counterattacked and killed Yang and Fu Chong in battle; this ended Former Qin, as while Fu Chong's crown prince Fu Xuan fled to and allied with Yang Ding's cousin and successor Yang Sheng, he did not seek to reestablish Former Qin's governmental structure.

Fu Xuan was mentioned in history in 397, when both he and Yang Sheng were given general titles by Jin, in 407, when he led Yang Sheng's army against Later Qin, in 413, when he was forced by Jin to return to Yang's domain of Chouchi. Yanchu 394 Father Fu Deng Children Fu Xuan, the Crown Prince


Carmen is an opera in four acts by French composer Georges Bizet. The libretto was written by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy, based on a novella of the same title by Prosper Mérimée; the opera was first performed by the Opéra-Comique in Paris on 3 March 1875, where its breaking of conventions shocked and scandalized its first audiences. Bizet died after the 33rd performance, unaware that the work would achieve international acclaim within the following ten years. Carmen has since become one of the most popular and performed operas in the classical canon; the opera is written in the genre of opéra comique with musical numbers separated by dialogue. It is set in southern Spain and tells the story of the downfall of Don José, a naïve soldier, seduced by the wiles of the fiery gypsy Carmen. José abandons his childhood sweetheart and deserts from his military duties, yet loses Carmen's love to the glamorous torero Escamillo, after which José kills her in a jealous rage; the depictions of proletarian life and lawlessness, the tragic death of the main character on stage, broke new ground in French opera and were controversial.

After the premiere, most reviews were critical, the French public was indifferent. Carmen gained its reputation through a series of productions outside France, was not revived in Paris until 1883. Thereafter, it acquired popularity at home and abroad. Commentators have asserted that Carmen forms the bridge between the tradition of opéra comique and the realism or verismo that characterised late 19th-century Italian opera; the music of Carmen has since been acclaimed for brilliance of melody, harmony and orchestration, for the skill with which Bizet musically represented the emotions and suffering of his characters. After the composer's death, the score was subject to significant amendment, including the introduction of recitative in place of the original dialogue; the opera has been recorded many times since the first acoustical recording in 1908, the story has been the subject of many screen and stage adaptations. In the Paris of the 1860s, despite being a Prix de Rome laureate, Bizet struggled to get his stage works performed.

The capital's two main state-funded opera houses—the Opéra and the Opéra-Comique—followed conservative repertoires that restricted opportunities for young native talent. Bizet's professional relationship with Léon Carvalho, manager of the independent Théâtre Lyrique company, enabled him to bring to the stage two full-scale operas, Les pêcheurs de perles and La jolie fille de Perth, but neither enjoyed much public success; when artistic life in Paris resumed after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, Bizet found wider opportunities for the performance of his works. Although this failed and was withdrawn after 11 performances, it led to a further commission from the theatre, this time for a full-length opera for which Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy would provide the libretto. Halévy, who had written the text for Bizet's student opera Le docteur Miracle, was a cousin of Bizet's wife, Geneviève. Bizet was delighted with the Opéra-Comique commission, expressed to his friend Edmund Galabert his satisfaction in "the absolute certainty of having found my path".

The subject of the projected work was a matter of discussion between composer and the Opéra-Comique management. It was Bizet. Mérimée's story is a blend of travelogue and adventure yarn inspired by the writer's lengthy travels in Spain in 1830, had been published in 1845 in the journal Revue des deux Mondes, it may have been influenced in part by Alexander Pushkin's 1824 poem "The Gypsies", a work Mérimée had translated into French. Bizet may first have encountered the story during his Rome sojourn of 1858–60, since his journals record Mérimée as one of the writers whose works he absorbed in those years. Cast details are as provided by Mina Curtiss from vocal score; the stage designs are credited to Charles Ponchard. Place: Seville and surrounding hills Time: Around 1820 A square, in Seville. On the right, a door to the tobacco factory. At the back, a bridge. On the left, a guardhouse. A group of soldiers relax in the square, waiting for the changing of the guard and commenting on the passers-by.

Micaëla appears, seeking José. Moralès tells her that "José invites her to wait with them, she declines. José arrives with the new guard, greeted and imitated by a crowd of urchins; as the factory bell rings, the cigarette girls emerge and exchange banter with young men in the crowd. Carmen sings her provocative habanera on the untameable nature of love; the men plead with her to choose a lover, after some teasing she throws a flower to Don José, who thus far has been ignoring her but is now annoyed by her insolence. As the women go back to the factory, Micaëla returns and gives José a letter


Duror Duror of Appin is a small, remote coastal village that sits at the base of Glen Duror, in district of Appin, in the Scottish West Highlands, within the council area of Argyll and Bute in Scotland. Duror is known for the first building of the Telford Parliamentary churches by the Scottish civil engineer and stonemason, Thomas Telford, from 1826, the first in a series of 32, built in Scotland. William Thomson was the architect. Duror is the location of the famous Appin Murder. Although no direct evidence for this connection exists, the murder event and the kidnap of James Annesley provided the inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson writing the novel Kidnapped. Duror is a ancient settlement, at least 5000 years old, when the Achara stone, described below, was placed close to the shore of Loch Linnhe and was a religious meeting place for pagan Iron Age settlers, who worshiped a pantheon of Gods and Goddesses, with religious ceremonies conducted by Druids who spoke a form of a Celtic language.

Sea levels were some 14 metres higher, during that time in pre-history, indicating the Achara stone may have been sited next to the seashore. This can be explicitly seen in the Clach Thoull - The Holed Stone, considered the mythical entrance to the nether regions under the sea, where the hole in the stone has been created by sea erosion. During that time, there were many more islands in Cuil Bay. A female deity, worshiped in the Duror area during the first millennium BC, was represented by a large figure, crudely carved in wood, found buried in peat, at Alltshellach in North Ballachulish; this Sheela na gig is kept in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh. Traces of wicker suggest the remains of a wooden shrine, her identity was unknown, but was an early example of a Celtic nature goddess. One Celtic deity, whose cult originated in Gaul, was the warrior-god Camulus, whose worship spread to the British Isles by the 1st century AD, with religious ceremonies conducted by Druids and who spoke a form of Celtic language.

Around 1300BC, the climate changed with temperatures dropping and rainfall levels doubling within 10 years. Evidence indicated this caused the whole population of the Scottish Highlands, to move to the Central Belt, with the tree line dropping from about 750 metres to 500 metres, equivalent to a temperature drop of 1.5°, seen in England as a reduction in elm growth. The climate became more suitable and settlers returned to the Scottish Highlands, around between 100 and 600AD. From the 6th century AD to the 8th century AD, Duror was part of the kingdom of Dál Riata part of the Loarn mac Eirc, the Kingdom of Lorne, one of the four main northerly clans or kindreds of Dál Riata; the Dál Riatas, people who were called the Scoti, who were Irish immigrants from Ireland, introduced the Gaelic language and Christianity into Scotland, gave Scotland its name. At the centre of Dál Riata Christianity was the monastery founded by Saint Columba on Iona, the small island in the Inner Hebrides. Duror has a medieval church, now a ruin located in Kiel, dedicated to Saint Columba.

It was disused in the days of James Stewart. It is possible that Saint Columba visited Duror, on the dedication of the church. During the 9th century and 10th century, like much of western Scotland, was conquered by the Vikings. During the 14th century and 15th century, the district of Durer was incorporated into lands owned by the Lord of the Isles; this was part Scottish Gaelic speaking principality, ruled by the Clan Macdonalds. Towards the end of the 15th century, the MacDonald Lords lost their power, when in 1493, John MacDonald forfeited his estates and titles to King James IV of Scotland, to their disadvantage. Clan Campbell, from their heartland in Loch Awe and Loch Avich, began to expand their territory across mainland Argyll and into the Hebrides islands The expansion of Clan Campbell meant that the Lord of Lorne, whose title derived from their control of the mid-Argyll district of that name, whose family name was Stewart, who had their family seat at Dunstaffnage Castle lost control of the jurisdiction of the Appin area.

For the next 300 years, the branches of the Clan Campbell's, operating from their stronghold, Barcaldine Castle controlled the land surrounding Appin, an area that the Stewart Lords of Lorn expected to be theirs indefinitely. The Stewarts fought back, John Stewart's son, Dugald Stewart, retreated from Lorn but stubbornly refused to subordinate themselves to their new masters. In the bloody Battle of Stalc, fought in Portnacroish, 7 miles southwest of Duror, now a graveyard. Colin Campbell organized a massive raid against Dugald and his clan losing many men, Dugald destroyed the military strength of the MacFarlanes and killed Alan MacCoul, his father's murderer; the battle solidified Dugald's claim to Appin and the surrounding area, formally granted to him by King James III on 14 April 1470. At the battle of Battle of Inverlochy in 1645, the third battle at Inverlochy, Daniel Colquhoun was granted land at Duror but most of Appin land was retained by the Clan Stewart of Appin until 1766, when the Appin Estate was sold to Hugh Seton of Touch.

In the 1760s, the primary school at Duror was established, where 29 scholars, from a wide range of backgrounds were declared in 1777 to have reached a satisfactory level in reading of English and writing. In 1788, Hugh Seton employed the firm responsible for the Forth and Clyde Canal in project jointly funded by the Forfeited Estates Commission to improve the Water of Duror, long su

Elena Mukhina

Elena Vyacheslavovna Mukhina was a Soviet gymnast who won the all-around title at the 1978 World Championships in Strasbourg, France. Her career was on the rise and she was touted as the next great gymnastics star until 1979 when a broken leg left her out of several competitions, the recovery from that injury combined with pressure to master a dangerous and difficult tumbling move caused her to break her neck just two weeks before the opening of the 1980 Summer Olympics, leaving her permanently quadriplegic just one month past the age of 20. Elena Mukhina was born June 1, 1960 in Moscow, Russian SFSR, she lost her mother by the time. She was raised by Anna Ivanova. Mukhina took an interest in gymnastics and figure skating at an early age; when an athletic scout visited her school, she eagerly volunteered to try out for gymnastics. She joined the CSKA Moscow sports club. In recognition of her accomplishments, Mukhina was inducted into the CSKA Hall of Fame. Up until 1975, Mukhina was an unremarkable gymnast, Soviet coaches ignored her.

Two separate incidents brought her skills to the forefront for the Soviet team: Romanian domination of the Soviet gymnastics machine at the 1976 Olympics. She burst onto the scene at the 1978 World Championships in France. In one of the most stunning all-around performances in history, she won the gold medal, beating out Olympic Champions Nadia Comăneci and top-ranked Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim, among others, she tied for the gold medal in the floor exercise event final, as well as winning the silver in balance beam and uneven bars. She made history in this competition by unveiling her signature moves: a full-twisting layout Korbut Flip on bars. Yet, in spite of these innovations, Mukhina maintained the classic Soviet style, inspired by ballet movements and expressive lines, she established herself as an athlete to watch for at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. A documentary film of the Soviet national team features Mukhina talking with her coach, Mikhail Klimenko, footage of her rigorous training regimen.

Mukhina's floor exercise tumbling passes were considered revolutionary at the time because they included a never-before seen combination salto, but in 1979, her coach wanted her to become one of the few female gymnasts doing an element taken from men's gymnastics, the Thomas salto. Though she won the All Around title and floor exercises at the 1978 world championship with daring bar routines, a revolutionary balance beam dismount, a floor routine with its own signature move, she was pressured to add this element to her floor exercises by her own coach and other higher-ranking Soviet coaches. Mukhina soon realized the Thomas salto was dangerous because it depended on being able to get enough height and speed to make all the flips and mid-air twists and still land in-bounds with enough room to do the forward roll, it took near-perfect timing to avoid either under-rotation or over-rotation. In the 1991 documentary More than a Game, Mukhina spoke of trying to convince her coach that the Thomas salto was a dangerous injury could have been expected.

It was an accident. It was inevitable. I had said more than once. I had hurt myself badly several times but he just replied people like me don't break their necks. In 1979, while training for the 1979 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships, Mukhina suffered a broken leg, which kept her out of the World Championships in Fort Worth, Texas, a competition in which the Soviet team suffered its first defeat at the hands of their archrivals from Romania, with only Nellie Kim and Stella Zakharova able to medal in apparatus and All Around disciplines. With less than a year until the 1980 Summer Olympics to be held in Moscow, the pressure was on the Soviet team coaches and doctors to get the previous All Around champion Mukhina back on her feet and ready for the games. In an interview with Ogonyok magazine, Mukhina blamed the doctors at TsITO who were serving the National Team for attempting to rush her back into training too soon, saying she begged them not to remove her cast and discharge her because "they're dragging me from home to workouts" and she knew she was not yet healed.

When doctors removed her cast against her wishes and had her try walking on the leg, she said that she knew she was walking "crookedly" and that something was not right. The TsITO doctors X-rayed the leg and discovered that the fracture had not healed properly and would not be able to sustain the pounding of gymnastics in its present condition. Mukhina was rushed into surgery that afternoon, but the damage had been done to her reputation.