A potlatch is a gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States, among whom it is traditionally the primary governmental institution, legislative body, economic system. This includes the Heiltsuk, Nuxalk, Makah, Nuu-chah-nulth, Kwakwaka'wakw, Coast Salish cultures. Potlatches are a common feature of the peoples of the Interior and of the Subarctic adjoining the Northwest Coast, although without the elaborate ritual and gift-giving economy of the coastal peoples. A potlatch involves giving away or destroying wealth or valuable items in order to demonstrate a leader's wealth and power. Potlatches are focused on the reaffirmation of family and international connections, the human connection with the supernatural world. Legal proceedings may include namings, business negotiations and transactions, divorces, end of mourning, transfers of physical and intellectual property, initiations, treaty proceedings, monument commemorations, honouring of the ancestors.
Potlatch serves as a strict resource management regime, where coastal peoples discuss and affirm rights to and uses of specific territories and resources. Potlatches involve music, singing, storytelling and joking and games; the honouring of the supernatural and the recitation of oral histories are a central part of many potlatches. Potlatches went through a history of rigorous ban by the Canadian federal government, continuing underground despite the risk of criminal punishment, have been studied by many anthropologists. Since the practice was de-criminalized after World War II, the potlatch has re-emerged in some communities. In many it is still the bedrock of indigenous governance, as in the Haida Nation, which has rooted its democracy in potlatch law; the word comes from the Chinook Jargon, meaning "to give away" or "a gift". N. B; this overview concerns the Kwakwaka'wakw potlatch. Potlatch traditions and formalities and kinship systems in other cultures of the region differ substantially. A potlatch was held on the occasion of births, adoptions and other major events.
The potlatch was practiced more in the winter seasons as the warmer months were for procuring wealth for the family, clan, or village coming home and sharing that with neighbors and friends. The event was hosted by ` House', in Kwakwaka ` wakw culture. A numaym was a complex cognatic kin group headed by aristocrats, but including commoners and occasional slaves, it had about one hundred members and several would be grouped together into a nation. The House drew its identity from its ancestral founder a mythical animal who descended to earth and removed his animal mask, thus becoming human; the mask became a family heirloom passed from father to son along with the name of the ancestor himself. This made him the leader of the numaym, considered the living incarnation of the founder. Only rich people could host a potlatch. Tribal slaves were not allowed to attend a potlatch as a guest. In some instances, it was possible to have multiple hosts at one potlatch ceremony. If a member of a nation had suffered an injury or indignity, hosting a potlatch could help to heal their tarnished reputation The potlatch was the occasion on which titles associated with masks and other objects were "fastened on" to a new office holder.
Two kinds of titles were transferred on these occasions. Firstly, each numaym had a number of named positions of ranked "seats" transferred within itself; these ranked titles granted rights to hunting and berrying territories.:198 Secondly, there were a number of titles that would be passed between numayma to in-laws, which included feast names that gave one a role in the Winter Ceremonial.:194 Aristocrats felt safe giving these titles to their out-marrying daughter's children because this daughter and her children would be rejoined with her natal numaym and the titles returned with them.:201 Any one individual might have several "seats" which allowed them to sit, in rank order, according to their title, as the host displayed and distributed wealth and made speeches. Besides the transfer of titles at a potlatch, the event was given "weight" by the distribution of other less important objects such as Chilkat blankets, animal skins and ornamental "coppers", it is the distribution of large numbers of Hudson Bay blankets, the destruction of valued coppers that first drew government attention to the potlatch.:205 On occasion, preserved food was given as a gift during a potlatch ceremony.
Gifts known as sta-bigs consisted of preserved food, wrapped in a mat or contained in a storage basket. Dorothy Johansen describes the dynamic: "In the potlatch, the host in effect challenged a guest chieftain to exceed him in his'power' to give away or to destroy goods. If the guest did not return 100 percent on the gifts received and destroy more wealth in a bigger and better bonfire, he and his people lost face and so his'power' was diminished." Hierarchical relations within and between clans and nations, were observed and reinforced through the distribution or sometimes destruction of wealth, dance performances, other ceremonies. The status of any given family is raised not by who has the most resources, but by who distributes the most resources; the hosts d
The tennis players Ivan Lendl and Mats Wilander met 22 times during their careers. Lendl leads their overall head-to-head series 15–7. Lendl and Wilander's rivalry, with 5 Grand Slam finals between them, has the fourth most of any rivalry. At the time of Wilander's 1988 USO triumph, their 5 finals were the most between any two players. Lendl–Wilander: 22 All matches: Lendl 15–7 All finals: Lendl 6–3 Carpet courts: Lendl 4–0 Clay courts: Lendl 6–4 Grass courts: Wilander 1–0 Hard courts: Lendl 5–2 Davis Cup matches: Wilander 1–0 Grand Slam finals: Wilander 3–2 Grand Slam matches: Lendl 5–4 Year-End Championships finals: Lendl 1–0 Year-End Championships matches: Lendl 2–0 List of tennis rivalries Lendl–Wilander head-to-head
Bayside High School is a public high school located in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The school is one of several magnet programs in Virginia Beach, its feature is the Health Sciences Academy. The school has a written agreement with Eastern Virginia Medical School regarding preferential admissions for Academy graduates. Bayside is in the top three in Standards of Learning scores within the school district. Bayside High has achieved the highest End of Course SOL Algebra II and World History I pass rates among all schools in the district. Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr. – NASA astronaut Derrick Gardner – jazz trumpeter Charles Clark – sprinter EJ Manuel – Florida State and Buffalo Bills quarterback Taquan Mizzell – Chicago Bears wide receiver Quin Blanding – Carolina Panthers safety 1974 Forensics 1975 Forensics 1976 Forensics 1976 Baseball 1977 Softball 1978 Boys Indoor Track 1979 Softball 1980 Forensics 1981 Forensics 1981 Softball 1987 Boys Indoor Track 1988 Forensics 1990 Basketball 1991 Basketball 1995 Girls Outdoor Track 2000 Forensics 2006 Boys Outdoor Track https://web.archive.org/web/20151119200132/http://www.vbschools.com/school_data/report_cards/1415/high/AnnualSchoolReportCard-BaysideHS.pdf Virginia Beach City Public Schools Bayside HS official site
The United States Department of the Army offers a variety of awards and incentive programs to honor and recognize the contribution and efforts of its civilian workforce. There are three categories of recognition: monetary and time-off. Special Act or Service Award- A SASA is a cash award given to recognize a meritorious personal effort, service, scientific or other achievement accomplished within or outside assigned job responsibilities. All appropriated. Cash awards range depending on the achievement being recognized. On-the-Spot Cash Award- The OTS cash award is a small SASA which may be given by a supervisor for day to day accomplishments of subordinate employees. Time Off Award- Employees may be granted up to 80 hours of time off during a leave year without charge to leave or loss of pay as an award for achievements or performance contributing to the Army mission. Performance Award- A performance award is a monetary award given in recognition of high-level performance for a specific period.
This award is used to recognize all appropriated fund employees, except Senior Executive Service employees. Performance awards will be computed as a percentage of pay with a maximum award of 10 percent of the employee’s base pay; the Secretary of the Army Award for Valor is awarded for acts of heroism or bravery connected with by Army employee or Army activity, or that in some way benefits the Army. Recipients will have distinguished themselves by exhibiting great courage or sacrifice involving heroism or bravery; the performance of the act must be a voluntary action beyond the call of duty. The act may be recognized if it is connected with an Army employee or Army activity, or if the Army in some way benefits from the act. Awards will be made only to recognize single acts of bravery; this award is not presented in recognition of activities or conflict with an armed enemy. The situation must have involved the voluntary risk of life. Awards are not made for saving a life. Honorary awards are intended to be presented to Department of the Army civilian employees in recognition of noteworthy acomplisments.
Honorary awards may be given to civilian employees at any time in their careers, including occasions such as retirement, transfer, or separation, provided the individual’s accomplishments meet the criteria for the particular award. Distinguished Civilian Service Medal Superior Civilian Service Medal Meritorious Civilian Service Medal Civilian Service Commendation Medal Civilian Service Achievement MedalOther federal honorary awardsPatriotic Public Service Lapel Pin Civilian Award for Humanitarian Service Certificate of Achievement Commendation Certificate Certificate of Appreciation Secretary of the Army Award for Outstanding Achievement in Materiel Acquisition Department of the Army Certificate of Promotion Armed Forces Civilian Service Medal Award for Outstanding Service in the Army Senior Executive Service Awards for Outstanding Service in a Senior Level or Senior Scientific and Professional Position Awards for public service may be awarded to persons or groups who are not employed by the Army.
Presidential appointees and non-career senior Army officials are eligible for these awards. Army civilian employees who are eligible for Army honorary awards, military personnel, Army contractors are ineligible; these awards are in hierarchical order from the highest to the lowest. Distinguished Public Service Medal Superior Public Service Medal Meritorious Public Service Medal Public Service Commendation Medal Patriotic Public Service Lapel Pin Civilian Award for Humanitarian Service Certificate of Appreciation Awards and decorations of the United States government
Otogar is a rapid transit station on the M1 line of the Istanbul Metro. It is located in southwestern Bayrampaşa in the center of the Esenler Bus Terminal. Otogar was opened on 31 January 1994 as part of the M1's extension to Zeytinburnu; the station has three tracks with two island platforms and is one of only five stations in the metro system to have such a layout, the others being Yenikapı, Bostancı, Sanayi and Olimpiyat. West of Otogar the M1 splits into M1B service. M1A continues southwest on the original line to Istanbul Atatürk Airport, while the M1B branches off and heads west to Kirazlı, where connection to the M3 is available. Otogar is one of the busiest stations in Istanbul as it lies in the center of the main intercity and regional bus terminal of the city. Buses to many cities in Turkey as well as Europe depart from the Esenler terminal. Otogar station is referred to in English as Coach Station on maps and signs
Enga Thambi is a 1993 Tamil action romance film directed by Sabapathy Dekshinamurthy. The film stars Prashanth and Subhashri in the lead roles with Lakshmi and Nassar in supporting roles. Ilaiyaraaja composed the film's music; the film was later dubbed and released in Telugu as Allari Prema. Pichumani is an orphan, Muthu brings him up. Pichumani falls in love with Indu. Indu is determined to wed her first love. To avert this, Dinakar hatches a plan; when Indu gives up hope, advocate Shanthi emerges to fight his case. It is revealed that Dinakar have been in a relationship earlier. Now, will their past work in the favor of the lovebirds or will it make matters worse is the rest of the story. In the end, Dinakar gets arrested and comes to know that Pichumani is his son and that Shanthi is his mother; the film ends with Indu getting married. Subhashri, sister of Kannada actress Malasri, was recommended by Thiagarajan to be the heroine of the film, he had recommended the actress to be a part of Shankar's Gentleman, while the director had met with Prashanth and his father Thiagarajan, while considering the casting for Kadhalan.
The film opened to mixed reviews, with a critic from The New Straits Times noting that the film "makes best of a weak story", praising the performances of Prashanth and Nassar. The Indian Express wrote "S. D. Saba handles the script and his artists with confidence and his narration is neat." The music of the film was composed by Ilaiyaraaja and released by actor Rajinikanth at a launch event. The lyrics written by Vaali, Pulamaipithan and Ponnadiyan. Enga Thambi on IMDb