The Potsdam Agreement was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, the Soviet Union. It concerned the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany, its borders, the entire European Theatre of War territory, it addressed Germany's demilitarisation and the prosecution of war criminals. Executed as a communiqué, the agreement was not a peace treaty according to international law, although it created accomplished facts, it was superseded by the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany signed on 12 September 1990. As De Gaulle had not been invited to the Conference, the French resisted implementing the Potsdam Agreements within their occupation zone. In particular, the French refused to resettle any expelled Germans from the east. Moreover, the French did not accept any obligation to abide by the Potsdam Agreement in the proceedings of the Allied Control Council. After the end of World War II in Europe, the decisions of the earlier Tehran and Yalta Conferences, the Allies by the Berlin Declaration of June 5, 1945, had assumed supreme authority over Germany.
In the Three Power Conference of Berlin from 17 July to 2 August 1945, they agreed to and adopted the Protocol of the Proceedings, August 1, 1945, signed at Cecilienhof Castle in Potsdam. The signatories were General Secretary Joseph Stalin, President Harry S. Truman, Prime Minister Clement Attlee, who, as a result of the British general election of 1945, had replaced Winston Churchill as the UK's representative; the three powers agreed to invite France and China to participate as members of the Council of Foreign Ministers established to oversee the agreement. The Provisional Government of the French Republic accepted the invitation on August 7, with the key reservation that it would not accept a priori any commitment to the eventual reconstitution of a central government in Germany. In the Potsdam Agreement the Allies agree: Establishment of a Council of Foreign Ministers including France and China. See the London Conference of Foreign Ministers and the Moscow Conference which took place in 1945.
The principles to govern the treatment of Germany in the initial control period. See European Advisory Commission and Allied Control CouncilA. Political principles. Post-war Germany to be divided into four Occupation Zones under the control of Britain, the Soviet Union, the United States and France. Democratization. Treatment of Germany as a single unit. Disarmament and Demilitarization. Elimination of all Nazi influence. B. Economic principles. Reduction or destruction of all civilian heavy-industry with war-potential, such as shipbuilding, machine production and chemical factories. Restructuring of German economy towards agriculture and light-industry. Reparations from Germany; this section covered reparation claims of the USSR from the Soviet occupation zone in Germany. The section agreed that 10% of the industrial capacity of the western zones unnecessary for the German peace economy should be transferred to the Soviet Union within two years; the Soviet Union withdrew its previous objections to French membership of the Allied Reparations Commission, established in Moscow following the Yalta conference.
Disposal of the German Navy and merchant marine. All but thirty submarines to be sunk and the rest of the German Navy was to be divided between the three powers; the German merchant marine was to be divided between the three powers, they would distribute some of those ships to the other Allies. But until the end of the war with the Empire of Japan all the ships would remain under the authority of the Combined Shipping Adjustment Board and the United Maritime Authority. City of Königsberg and the adjacent area; the United States and Britain declared that they would support the transfer of Königsberg and the adjacent area to the Soviet Union at the peace conference. War criminals This was a short paragraph and covered the creation of the London Charter and the subsequent Nuremberg Trials: The Three Governments have taken note of the discussions which have been proceeding in recent weeks in London between British, United States and French representatives with a view to reaching agreement on the methods of trial of those major war criminals whose crimes under the Moscow Declaration of October 1943 have no particular geographical localization.
The Three Governments reaffirm their intention to bring these criminals to sure justice. They hope that the negotiations in London will result in speedy agreement being reached for this purpose, they regard it as a matter of great importance that the trial of these major criminals should begin at the earliest possible date; the first list of defendants will be published before 1st September. Austria: The government of Austria was to be decided after British and American forces entered Vienna, that Austria should not pay any reparations. Poland There should be a Provisional Government of National Unity recognised by all three powers, that those Poles who
Walter Victor Hutchinson was a conservative British publisher, who managed the Hutchinson publishing company, founded in London in 1887 by his father, Sir George Hutchinson. Hutchinson was born on 16 May 1887 to Frances Octavia Cornwall. For his education he attended Haileybury and St. John's College, Oxford. At Oxford he studied jurisprudence, leading to his being called to the Bar by the Inner Temple in 1911. However, he never went on to practice law and joined the family publishing firm in 1909. In the First World War he was an honorary private secretary to the Secretary of the War Office from 1915 to 1919. From there he was superintendent of publicity and publications of the coalition Government. To this end he was founder and editor of Popular View, a publication'devoted to the furtherance of their interests'. Hutchinson took the decision to take the printing of his publications in house and founded the Hutchinson Printing Trust, he carried out a series of mergers, buying Jarrolds and Blackett, Skeffington and Blount, Rider and Co. Andrew Melrose and Geographia Limited.
Overall his companies had 10 farms. During the Second World War he published two of Robert Vansittart, 1st Baron Vansittart's pamphlets – played a vital role in their production and distribution. However, compared with sales of some of Vansittart's brochures, the print runs of the Fight for Freedom pamphlets were small, too small in fact to justify their commercial viability. There may have been some financial support from Lord Robert Vansittart, 1st Baron Vansittart, though there is no evidence to support such a claim. In 1949 he opened a "National Gallery of British Sports and Pastimes", at Hutchinson House, off Oxford Street, but financial troubles led to its quick demise and the collection was sold in 1951. Walter Hutchinson at Library of Congress Authorities, with 12 catalogue records
Heydon Hall is an Elizabethan house set in parkland near the village of Heydon, England. The hall is Grade I listed on the National Heritage List for England, its gardens are Grade II* listed on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the hall is just north-east of Heydon, about 3 miles north-east of Reepham, 6 miles west of Aylsham and 14 miles north-west of Norwich from where it is best reached via the B1149 road. The hall was built between 1581-4 for an Auditor of the Receipt of the Exchequer. From the time of Oliver Cromwell it was first owned by the Earle family being bought by Erasmus Earle, a Serjeant-at-law to Cromwell. An ancient oak tree at Heydon Park is said to be where Cromwell once hid from a bull, during a visit to Erasmus. A descendant, daughter of Augustine Earle married William Bulwer and it came into the Bulwer family of Wood Dalling; the original large park covered 600 acres but has been broken up. The hall was featured in the BBC's 1996 version of The Moonstone. Part of the British film A Cock and Bull Story was filmed at the hall.
East Shore is a census-designated place in Plumas County, United States. The population was 156 at the 2010 census, down from 177 at the 2000 census. East Shore is located along the south-east shoreline of Lake Almanor, at 40°14′33″N 121°4′38″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.2 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that East Shore had a population of 156; the population density was 131.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of East Shore was 143 White, 0 African American, 7 Native American, 1 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 5 from other races, 0 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7 persons; the Census reported that 156 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 78 households, out of which 7 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 56 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 0 had a female householder with no husband present, 0 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 2 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 0 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 19 households were made up of individuals and 9 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.00. There were 56 families; the population was spread out with 8 people under the age of 18, 6 people aged 18 to 24, 13 people aged 25 to 44, 76 people aged 45 to 64, 53 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 60.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.7 males. There were 265 housing units at an average density of 224.0 per square mile, of which 65 were owner-occupied, 13 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 7.1%. 129 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 27 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 177 people, 87 households, 62 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 171.9 people per square mile. There were 332 housing units at an average density of 322.4 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.09% White, 4.52% Native American, 0.56% Asian, 1.69% from other races, 1.13% from two or more races. 6.21 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 87 households out of which 11.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.0% were married couples living together, 1.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.6% were non-families. 20.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.03 and the average family size was 2.29. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 10.2% under the age of 18, 3.4% from 18 to 24, 15.3% from 25 to 44, 45.2% from 45 to 64, 26.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 54 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $38,125, the median income for a family was $38,906. Males had a median income of $25,781 versus $8,750 for females.
The per capita income for the CDP was $18,985. About 10.8% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under the age of eighteen or sixty five or over. In the state legislature, East Shore is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican Brian Dahle, the 1st Assembly District, represented by Republican Megan Dahle. Federally, East Shore is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republican Doug LaMalfa
The Yanomami spelled Yąnomamö or Yanomama, are a group of 35,000 indigenous people who live in some 200–250 villages in the Amazon rainforest on the border between Venezuela and Brazil. The ethnonym Yanomami was produced by anthropologists on the basis of the word yanõmami, which, in the expression yanõmami thëpë, signifies "human beings." This expression is opposed to the categories yaro and yai, but napë. According to ethnologist Jacques Lizot: Yanomami is the Indians' self-denomination...the term refers to communities disseminated to the south of the Orinoco, the variant Yanomawi is used to refer to communities north of the Orinoco. The term Sanumá corresponds to a dialect reserved for a cultural subgroup, much influenced by the neighboring Ye'kuana people. Other denominations applied to the Yanomami include Waika or Waica, Shiriana, Guaharibo or Guajaribo, Yanoama and Xamatari or Shamatari; the first report of the Yanomami to the Western world is from 1759, when a Spanish expedition under Apolinar Diez de la Fuente visited some Ye'kuana people living on the Padamo River.
Diez wrote: By interlocution of an Uramanavi Indian, I asked Chief Yoni if he had navigated by the Orinoco to its headwaters. From 1630 to 1720, the other river-based indigenous societies who lived in the same region were wiped out or reduced as a result of slave-hunting expeditions by the conquistadors and bandeirantes. How this affected the Yanomami is unknown. Sustained contact with the outside world began in the 1950s with the arrival of members of the New Tribes Mission as well as Catholic missionaries from the Society of Jesus and Salesians of Don Bosco. In Roraima, the 1970s saw the implementation of development projects within the framework of the "National Integration Plan" launched by the Brazilian military governments of the time; this meant the opening of a stretch of perimeter road and various colonization programs on land traditionally occupied by the Yanomami. During the same period, the Amazonian resources survey project RADAM detected important mineral deposits in the region.
This triggered a progressive movement of gold prospectors, which after 1987 took the form of a real gold rush. Hundreds of clandestine runways were opened by gold miners in the major tributaries of the Branco River between 1987 and 1990; the number of gold miners in the Yanomami area of Roraima was estimated at 30 to 40 thousand, about five times the indigenous population resident there. Although the intensity of this gold rush has subsided since 1990, gold prospecting continues today in the Yanomami land, spreading violence and serious health and social problems. Increasing pressure from farmers, cattle ranchers, gold miners, as well as those interested in securing the Brazilian border by constructing roads and military bases near Yanomami communities, led to a campaign to defend the rights of the Yanomami to live in a protected area. In 1978 the Pro-Yanomami Commission was established. Named the Commission for the Creation of a Yanomami Park, it is a Brazilian non-governmental nonprofit organization dedicated to the defense of the territorial and civil and political rights of the Yanomami.
CCPY devoted itself to a long national and international campaign to inform and sensitize public opinion and put pressure on the Brazilian government to demarcate an area suited to the needs of the Yanomami. After 13 years the Yanomami indigenous land was demarcated in 1991 and approved and registered in 1992, thus ensuring that indigenous people had the constitutional right to the exclusive use of 96,650 square kilometres located in the States of Roraima and Amazonas; the Alto Orinoco-Casiquiare Biosphere Reserve was created in 1993 with the objective of preserving the traditional territory and lifestyle of the Yanomami and Ye'kuana peoples. However, while the constitution of Venezuela recognizes indigenous peoples’ rights to their ancestral domains, few have received official title to their territories and the government has announced it will open up large parts of the Amazon rainforest to legal mining; the Yanomami do not recognize themselves as a united group, but rather as individuals associated with their politically autonomous villages.
Yanomami communities are grouped together because they have similar ages and kinship, militaristic coalitions interweave communities together. The Yanomami have common historical ties to Carib speakers who resided near the Orinoco river and moved to the highlands of Brazil and Venezuela, the location the Yanomami occupy. Mature men hold most religious authority. A tuxawa acts as the leader of each village, but no single leader presides over the whole of those classified as Yanomami. Headmen gain political power by demonstrating skill in settling disputes both within the village and with neighbouring communities. A consensus of mature males is required for action that involves the community, but individuals are not required to take part. Groups of Yanomami live in villages consisting of their children and extended families. Villages vary in size, but contain between 50 and 400 native people. In this communal system, the entire village lives under a common roof called the shabono. Shabonos have a characteristic oval shape, with open grounds in the centre measuring an average of 100 yards.
The shabono shelter constitutes the perimeter of the village, if it has not been fortified with palisades. Under the roof, divisions e
Vanguard Visionaries is the title of a compilation recording by American fingerstyle guitarist and composer John Fahey, released in 2007. Vanguard Records had a high profile during the 1960s folk revival and released music by many folk artists such as Doc Watson and many others. To celebrate their 60th anniversary, Vanguard had released a series of artist samplers called Vanguard Visionaries from the 1960s and early-'70s era; each contained all the tracks are available on other compilation packages. Fahey recorded two albums for Vanguard: The Yellow Princess and Requia. Allmusic critic Thom Jurek favorably reviewed the album, writing " is forever unpredictable, no matter how one hears these songs, his playing is the element of imagination and surprise itself. While it's true that "Requiem for Milly," may be off-putting for those looking for a real introduction to Fahey, this is his earliest experimentation with the electronic sounds he explored a great deal more in his career, stands as a singular moment in his catalog."
All songs by John Fahey. "Lion" – 5:10 "March! For Martin Luther King" – 3:43 "Requiem for John Hurt" – 5:09 "Dance of the Inhabitants of the Invisible City of Bladensburg" – 4:10 "The Yellow Princess" – 4:51 "Irish Setter" – 7:16 "Requiem for Molly, Pt. 1" – 7:40 "Requiem for Molly, Pt. 2" – 7:45 "Requiem for Molly, Pt. 3" – 2:33 "Requiem for Molly, Pt. 4" – 2:56 John Fahey – guitarProduction notes: John Fahey – producer Samuel Charters – producer Barrett Hansen – producer Vince Hans – compilation producer Georgette Cartwright – creative services director Amy L. Von Holzhausen – package design