Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired at high temperatures to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware and porcelain; the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical and refractory products." In archaeology of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" means vessels only, figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious. Pottery is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine discovered in the Czech Republic dating back to 29,000–25,000 BC, pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, which date back to 18,000 BC.
Early Neolithic and pre-Neolithic pottery artifacts have been found, in Jōmon Japan, the Russian Far East, Sub-Saharan Africa, South America, the Middle East. Pottery is made by forming a ceramic body into objects of a desired shape and heating them to high temperatures in a bonfire, pit or kiln and induces reactions that lead to permanent changes including increasing the strength and rigidity of the object. Much pottery is purely utilitarian, but much can be regarded as ceramic art. A clay body can be decorated after firing. Clay-based pottery can be divided into three main groups: earthenware and porcelain; these require more specific clay material, higher firing temperatures. All three are made for different purposes. All may be decorated by various techniques. In many examples the group a piece belongs to is visually apparent, but this is not always the case; the fritware of the Islamic world does not use clay, so technically falls outside these groups. Historic pottery of all these types is grouped as either "fine" wares expensive and well-made, following the aesthetic taste of the culture concerned, or alternatively "coarse", "popular" "folk" or "village" wares undecorated, or so, less well-made.
All the earliest forms of pottery were made from clays that were fired at low temperatures in pit-fires or in open bonfires. They were hand undecorated. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600 °C, is fired below 1200 °C; because unglazed biscuit earthenware is porous, it has limited utility for the storage of liquids or as tableware. However, earthenware has had a continuous history from the Neolithic period to today, it can be made from a wide variety of clays, some of which fire to a buff, brown or black colour, with iron in the constituent minerals resulting in a reddish-brown. Reddish coloured varieties are called terracotta when unglazed or used for sculpture; the development of ceramic glaze made impermeable pottery possible, improving the popularity and practicality of pottery vessels. The addition of decoration has evolved throughout its history. Stoneware is pottery, fired in a kiln at a high temperature, from about 1,100 °C to 1,200 °C, is stronger and non-porous to liquids; the Chinese, who developed stoneware early on, classify this together with porcelain as high-fired wares.
In contrast, stoneware could only be produced in Europe from the late Middle Ages, as European kilns were less efficient, the right type of clay less common. It remained a speciality of Germany until the Renaissance. Stoneware is tough and practical, much of it has always been utilitarian, for the kitchen or storage rather than the table, but "fine" stoneware has been important in China and the West, continues to be made. Many utilitarian types have come to be appreciated as art. Porcelain is made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C; this is higher than used for the other types, achieving these temperatures was a long struggle, as well as realizing what materials were needed. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Although porcelain was first made in China, the Chinese traditionally do not recognise it as a distinct category, grouping it with stoneware as "high-fired" ware, opposed to "low-fired" earthenware.
This confuses the issue of. A degree of translucency and whiteness was achieved by the Tang dynasty, considerable quantities were being exported; the modern level of whiteness was not reached until much in the 14th century. Porcelain was made in Korea and in Japan from the end of the 16th century, after suitable kaolin was located in those countries, it was not made outside East Asia until the 18th century. Before being shaped, clay must be prepared. Kneading helps to ensure an moisture content throughout the body. Air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed; this is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a machine called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can help produce an moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After it has been shaped, it is dried and fired. Greenware refers to
Paulus Melissus was a humanist Neo-Latin writer and composer. Melissus was born in Mellrichstadt, he studied and attended school in Zwickau from 1557 to 1559, studied philology in Erfurt and Jena. From 1560 to 1564 he lived in Vienna, he stayed in Prague and Leipzig, was called to the court of the bishop of Würzburg and went on a campaign to Hungary with him. He was an ambassador in the service of Emperor Maximilian II and Rudolf II, traveled to France, Switzerland and England and was director of the Electoral library in Heidelberg, where he died. Melissus translated works of Clément Marot and Théodore de Bèze for the Hugenot church services in rhyme using the Psalms in German, he was the first to use the terza rima in German lyric. In his lifetime he was recognized as an author versed in Latin love poetry. Cantiones, poems Psalmen Davids Schediasmata, poems Schediasmatum reliquiae, poems Epigrammata Odae Palatinae Meletemata, poems Erich Schmidt, "Melissus, Paul Schede", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 21, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 293–297 Jörg-Ulrich Fechner, Hans Dehnhard, "Melissus, Paulus", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 17, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 15–16 Fritz Roth, Restlose Auswertungen von Leichenpredigten für genealogische und kulturhistorische Zwecke.
Sogeti is the Technology and Engineering Services Division of Capgemini. The Sogeti Group is an information technology consulting company specializing in local professional services, with headquarters in Paris, employing around 25,000 people at around 300 branches in 15 countries; the current CEO is Stefan Ek. Sogeti was the original name for the entire Capgemini Group; the name was an acronym for "Société de Gestion des Entreprises et de Traitement de l'Information" which means "Business Management and Information Processing Company". In 2002, the Cap Gemini Group founded a subsidiary called Sogeti in six countries to focus on the local IT market. In 2008, Sogeti UK acquired software testing firm Vizuri with an aim to focus on software testing. In 2010, Capgemini integrated its software testing resources with Sogeti; the Sogeti Graduate Scheme allows non-technical graduates into the technology sector. Sogeti USA has around 2,300 employees in 22 offices. In 2013, Sogeti was voted the 10th best company to work for in Washington State.
In 2013, Sogeti built a bespoke data system for The Radiocommunications Agency, who are funded by the Dutch Government. The system was designed to improve business intelligence efficiency. In 2015, Sogeti helped. In 2014, French researcher Jean-Marie Bourbon was suspended from Sogeti for publishing details of flaws in FireEye Malware Analysis System 6.4. CEFAM DYA framework Test Management Approach Official Sogeti Website