Pour le Mérite

The Pour le Mérite is an order of merit established in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia. The Pour le Mérite was awarded as both a military and civil honour and ranked, along with the Order of the Black Eagle, the Order of the Red Eagle and the House Order of Hohenzollern, among the highest orders of merit in the Kingdom of Prussia. After 1871, when the various German kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies and Hanseatic city states had come together under Prussian leadership to form the federally structured German Empire, the Prussian honours assumed, at least in public perception, the status of honours of Imperial Germany though many honours of the various German states continued to be awarded; the Pour le Mérite was an honour conferred both for civil services. It was awarded as a recognition of extraordinary personal achievement, rather than as a general marker of social status or a courtesy-honour, although certain restrictions of social class and military rank were applied; the order was secular, membership endured for the remaining lifetime of the recipient, unless renounced or revoked.

New awards of the military class ceased with the end of the Prussian monarchy in November 1918. The civil class was revived as an independent organization in 1923. Instead of the King of Prussia, the President of Germany acted as head of the order. After the Second World War, the civil class was re-established in 1952; this version of the Pour le Mérite is still active today. The Pour le Mérite is still an order into which a person is admitted into membership, like the United Kingdom's Order of the British Empire, is not a medal or state decoration. German author Ernst Jünger, who died in 1998, was the last living recipient of the military class award; the Pour le Mérite was founded in 1740 by King Frederick II of Prussia. It was named in French, the leading international language and the favoured language at Frederick's court; the French name was retained, despite the rising tide of nationalism and increasing hostility between French and Germans during the 19th century, many of its recipients were honoured for acts performed in wars against France.

The insignia of the military award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with golden eagles between the arms and the Prussian royal cypher and the words Pour le Mérite written in gold letters on the body of the cross. The ribbon was black with edge stripes of silver-white; the order consisted of only one class, both civil and military, until 1810. Only a few civilians were honored: Francesco Algarotti and Voltaire. In January 1810, during the Napoleonic wars, King Frederick William III decreed that the award could be presented only to serving military officers. In March 1813, the king added an additional distinction, a spray of gilt oak leaves attached above the cross. Award of the oak leaves indicated extraordinary achievement in battle, was reserved for high-ranking officers; the original regulations called for the capture or successful defense of a fortification, or victory in a battle. By World War I, the oak leaves indicated a second or higher award of the Pour le Mérite, though in most cases the recipients were still high-ranking officers.

In early 1918, it was proposed to award the oak leaves to Germany's top flying ace, Manfred von Richthofen, but he was deemed ineligible under a strict reading of the regulations. Instead, Prussia awarded von Richthofen a less prestigious honor, the Order of the Red Eagle, 3rd Class with Crown and Swords; this was still a high honor, as the 3rd Class was awarded to colonels and lieutenant colonels, von Richthofen's award was one of only two of the 3rd Class with Crown and Swords during World War I. In 1866, a special military Grand Cross class of the award was established; this grade of the award was given to those who, through their actions, caused the retreat or destruction of an army. There were only five awards of the Grand Cross: to King Wilhelm I in 1866, to Crown Prince Frederick William of Prussia and Prince Frederick Charles of Prussia in 1873, to Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1878, to Helmuth Graf von Moltke in 1879; the Pour le Mérite gained international fame during World War I.

Although it could be awarded to any military officer, its most famous recipients were the pilots of the German Army Air Service, whose exploits were celebrated in wartime propaganda. In aerial warfare, a fighter pilot was entitled to the award upon downing eight enemy aircraft. Aces Max Immelmann and Oswald Boelcke were the first airmen to receive the award, on January 12, 1916, it was awarded to Germany's highest-scoring ace, Manfred von Richthofen, in January 1917. Although it has been reported that because of Immelmann's renown among his fellow pilots and the nation at large, the Pour le Mérite became known, due to its color and Immelmann's first name, as the "Blue Max," that has not been confirmed; the number of aerial victories necessary to receive the aw

1990 Los Angeles Rams season

The 1990 Los Angeles Rams season was the team's 53rd year with the National Football League and the 45th season in Los Angeles. On November 11, 1990, Marcus Dupree made his NFL debut against the New York Giants; the Rams temporarily playing in the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum looked to improve on their 11-5 season from 1989 and make the playoffs for the 3rd straight season and be possible contenders for the Super Bowl. However, the Rams would struggle all season, starting 1-4 before winning 2 of their next 3 games before losing their next 2 games as they dipped to a 3-7 record. After a win over Cleveland, the Rams upset the 49ers 28-17 in San Francisco to improve to 5-7. However, this would be the only good highlight of the season for the Rams, as after the win, they ended the season on a 4 game losing streak as the Rams finished with a disappointing 5-11 record and missed the playoffs for the first time since 1987. Other Anaheim–based teams in 1990California Angels 1990 California Angels season 1990 Los Angeles Rams at

Songs from the Archives

Songs from the Archives is Crimson Moonlight's first compilation album. Tracks 1–5 are taken from the Eternal Emperor EP, tracks 15–18 are taken from a 2001 demo, tracks 19–20 are taken from The Covenant Progress; the version of "A Thorn in My Heart" that appears on this album is an older version, rearranged for release on The Covenant Progress. "Preludium" - 01:58 "Where Darkness Cannot Reach" - 03:29 "Symphony of Moonlight - 02:19 "Eternal Emperor - 04:29 "The Final Battle - 05:41] "Glorification of the Master of Light - 02:54 "From Death to Life - 03:37 "Alone in Silence - 01:51 "Skymingsljus" - 04:10 "Ljuset - 04:14 "Eternal Emperor" - 03:57 "Postludium - 02:03 "Fullmånen Skola Vändas Uti Blod" - 00:38 "Blood Covered My Needs" - 03:38 "Your Face" - 07:31 "Touch of Emptiness" - 01:38 "... And Thus Rejoice" - 06:34 "A Thorn in My Heart" - 05:34 "The Pilgrimage" - 04:13 "A Painting in Dark" - 04:51