He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who travelled through Asia and met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time, the three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa, Marco was imprisoned and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a merchant, married. He died in 1324 and was buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Venice, Marco Polo was not the first European to reach China, but he was the first to leave a detailed chronicle of his experience. This book inspired Christopher Columbus and many other travellers, there is a substantial literature based on Polos writings, he influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map. Marco Polo was born in 1254 in Venice Republic and his exact date and place of birth are archivally unknown. Some historians mentioned that he was born on September 15 but that date is not endorsed by mainstream scholarship, Marco Polos birthplace is generally considered Venice, but varies between Constantinople, and the island of Korčula.
There is dispute as to whether the Polo family is of Venetian origin, the first recorded Polo is Venetian Domenico Polo who was mentioned in 971 regarding the prohibition of trade with the Arabs. Later other Polos were mentioned in the service of the realm, whether they were related with the family of Marco Polo is uncertain, but this could indicate that his ancestors travelled between Venice and Dalmatia. Some of the first indications of where his family originated and were resident come from Venetian documents and manuscripts. Some scholars argued that this account could go along with the note from Il Milione that his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo Polo, the non-Venetian i. e. Sanuto mentioned a captain from Korčula, Antonio di Polo. Moule cited two early 17th century Venetian manuscripts questi ueneno de dalmatia, Polo questi uene de Dalmatia, scholars etymologically argued that his family name derives from Latin Paulus, the name of a certain bird species, or like Albert tSerstevens considered - from Eastern origin.
However, the habitat of the shorebird is non-existent on Korčula, the surname Polo seems related with other widespread Dalmatian surnames. The lack of evidence makes the Korčula theory as a specific birthplace strongly disputed, in 1168, his great-uncle, Marco Polo, borrowed money and commanded a ship in Constantinople. His grandfather, Andrea Polo of the parish of San Felice, had three sons, yet another Marco, and the travellers father Niccolò and this genealogy, described by Ramusio, is not universally accepted as there is no additional evidence to support it. His father, Niccolò Polo, a merchant, traded with the Near East, becoming wealthy, Niccolò and his brother Maffeo set off on a trading voyage before Marcos birth. In 1260, Niccolò and Maffeo, while residing in Constantinople, the capital of the Latin Empire, foresaw a political change, they liquidated their assets into jewels and moved away. According to The Travels of Marco Polo, they passed through much of Asia, and met with Kublai Khan and their decision to leave Constantinople proved timely
Condensed milk is cows milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found in the form of sweetened condensed milk, with sugar added, sweetened condensed milk is a very thick, sweet product which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if not opened. Condensed milk is used in dessert dishes in many countries. A related product is evaporated milk, which has undergone a more complex process, evaporated milk is known in some countries as unsweetened condensed milk. According to the writings of Marco Polo, in the 13th century the Tatars were able to condense milk, Marco Polo reported that ten pounds of milk paste was carried by each man, who would subsequently mix the product with water. However, this refers to the soft Tatar curd, which can be made into a drink by diluting it. Nicolas Appert condensed milk in France in 1820, and Gail Borden, Jr. in the United States in 1853, before this development, milk could only be kept fresh for a short while and was only available in the immediate vicinity of a cow.
While returning from a trip to England in 1851, Borden was devastated by the deaths of several children, by 1858, Bordens milk, sold as Eagle Brand, had gained a reputation for purity and economy. In 1864, Gail Bordens New York Condensed Milk Company constructed the New York Milk Condensery in Brewster and this was the largest and most advanced milk factory of its day and was Bordens first commercially successful plant. Over 200 dairy farmers supplied 20,000 gallons of milk daily to the Brewster plant as demand increased driven by the American Civil War, the U. S. government ordered huge amounts of condensed milk as a field ration for Union soldiers during the war. This was a field ration for the 19th century, a typical 10 oz can contained 1,300 calories,1 oz each of protein and fat. Soldiers returning home from the war soon spread the word, the first Canadian condensery was built at Truro, Nova Scotia, in 1871. Stuart opened the first Pacific Coast Condensed Milk Company plant in Kent, the condensed milk market developed into a bubble, with too many manufacturers chasing too little demand.
By 1912, high stocks of condensed milk led to a drop in price, in 1911, Nestlé constructed the worlds largest condensed milk plant in Dennington, Australia. Hunzikers book was republished in an edition in October 2007 by Cartwright Press. The First World War regenerated interest in, and the market for, condensed milk, primarily due to its storage, in the US the higher price for raw milk paid by condenseries created significant problems for the cheese industry. Raw milk is clarified and standardised, and is heated to 85–90 °C for several seconds. This heating process destroys some microorganisms, decreases fat separation and inhibits oxidation, some water is evaporated from the milk and sugar is added until a 9,11 ratio of sugar to milk is reached
Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, usually prepared for bottle-feeding or cup-feeding from powder or liquid. Although E. sakazakii can cause illness in all age groups, between 1958 and 2006, there have been several dozen reported cases of E. sakazakii infection worldwide. The WHO believes that such infections are under-reported, the use and marketing of infant formula has come under scrutiny. Despite the recommendation that babies be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months, some studies have shown that use of formula can vary according to the parents socio-economic status, ethnicity or other characteristics. For example, according to a research conducted in Vancouver, Canada,82, the use of hydrolysed cow milk baby formula versus standard milk baby formula does not appear to change the risk of allergies or autoimmune diseases. In some cases, breastfeeding is medically contraindicated and these include, Mothers health, The mother is infected with HIV or has active tuberculosis.
She is extremely ill or has had certain kinds of breast surgery, Breastfeeding by an HIV-infected mother poses a 5–20% chance of transmitting HIV to the baby. However, if a mother has HIV, she is likely to transmit it to her child during the pregnancy or birth than during breastfeeding. A2012 study conducted by researchers from the University of North Carolina School of Medicine showed reduced HIV-1 transmission in humanized mice, cytomegalovirus infection poses potentially dangerous consequences for pre-term babies. Baby is unable to breastfeed, The child has a defect or inborn error of metabolism such as galactosemia that makes breastfeeding difficult or impossible. Risks can often be mitigated with improved diet and education of mothers and caregivers, including availability of macro and micronutrients. For example, in Canada, marketed infant formulas are fortified with vitamin D, personal preferences and experiences, The mother may dislike breast-feeding or think it is inconvenient. In addition, breastfeeding can be difficult for victims of rape or sexual abuse, for example, many families bottle feed to increase the fathers role in parenting his child.
Absence of the mother, The child is adopted, abandoned, the mother is separated from her child by being in prison or a mental hospital. The mother has left the child in the care of another person for a period of time. Food allergies, The mother eats foods that may provoke a reaction in the infant. Financial pressures, Maternity leave is unpaid, insufficient, or lacking, the mothers employment interferes with breastfeeding. However, formula is expensive and breastfeeding is effectively free, social pressures, Family members, such as mothers husband or boyfriend, or friends or other members of society may encourage the use of infant formula
Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails, in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks. On the other hand, in the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, the word hiking is often used in the UK, along with rambling and fell walking. The term bushwalking is endemic to Australia, having been adopted by the Sydney Bush Walkers club in 1927, in New Zealand a long, vigorous walk or hike is called tramping. It is an activity with numerous hiking organizations worldwide. In the United States, the Republic of Ireland, a day hike refers to a hike that can be completed in a single day. However, in the United Kingdom, the walking is used, as well as rambling. In Northern England, Including the Lake District and Yorkshire Dales, fellwalking describes hill or mountain walks, hiking sometimes involves bushwhacking and is sometimes referred to as such. This specifically refers to walking through dense forest, undergrowth, or bushes.
In extreme cases of bushwhacking, where the vegetation is so dense that human passage is impeded, the Australian term bushwalking refers to both on and off-trail hiking. Common terms for hiking used by New Zealanders are tramping, walking or bushwalking, trekking is the preferred word used to describe multi-day hiking in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal, North America, South America, Iran and in the highlands of East Africa. Hiking a long-distance trail from end-to-end is referred to as trekking, in North America, multi-day hikes, usually with camping, are referred to as backpacking. The idea of taking a walk in the countryside for pleasure developed in the 18th-century, in earlier times walking generally indicated poverty and was associated with vagrancy. Thomas West, an English priest, popularized the idea of walking for pleasure in his guide to the Lake District of 1778. To this end he included various stations or viewpoints around the lakes, published in 1778 the book was a major success.
Another famous early exponent of walking for pleasure, was the English poet William Wordsworth, in 1790 he embarked on an extended tour of France and Germany, a journey subsequently recorded in his long autobiographical poem The Prelude. His famous poem Tintern Abbey was inspired by a visit to the Wye Valley made during a tour of Wales in 1798 with his sister Dorothy Wordsworth. Wordsworths friend Coleridge was another keen walker and in the autumn of 1799, he and Wordsworth undertook a three weeks tour of the Lake District. John Keats, who belonged to the generation of Romantic poets began, in June 1818, a walking tour of Scotland, Ireland
Caramelization is the browning of sugar, a process used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown colors are produced by three groups of polymers, caramelans and caramelins, as the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor. Like the Maillard reaction, caramelization is a type of non-enzymatic browning, unlike the Maillard reaction, caramelization is pyrolysis, as opposed to reaction with amino acids. When caramelization involves the disaccharide sucrose, it is broken down into the monosaccharides fructose and glucose, specific sugars each have their own point at which the reactions begin to proceed readily. Impurities in the sugar, such as the remaining in brown sugar. The caramelization reactions are sensitive to the chemical environment, by controlling the level of acidity, the reaction rate can be altered. The rate of caramelization is generally lowest at near-neutral acidity, onions require 30 to 45 minutes of cooking to caramelize.
Media related to caramelization at Wikimedia Commons Maillard reaction Sugar in food management
Confectionery, called sweets or candy, is sweet food. The term varies among English-speaking countries, in general, confectionery is divided into two broad and somewhat overlapping categories, bakers confections and sugar confections. Bakers confectionery, called flour confections, includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, in the Middle East and Asia, flour-based confections are more dominant. Sugar confectionery includes sweets, candied nuts, chewing gum and bubblegum, pastillage, in some cases, chocolate confections are treated as a separate category, as are sugar-free versions of sugar confections. The words candy and lollies are common words for the most common varieties of sugar confectionery, the confectionery industry includes specialized training schools and extensive historical records. Traditional confectionery goes back to ancient times, and continued to be eaten through the Middle Ages into the modern era, confections are low in micronutrients and protein but high in calories.
They may be fat-free foods, although some confections, especially fried doughs, are high-fat foods, many confections are considered empty calories. Specially formulated chocolate has been manufactured in the past for use as a high-density food energy source. Confections are defined by the presence of sweeteners and these are usually sugars, but it is possible to buy sugar-free sweets, such as sugar-free peppermints. The most common sweetener for cooking is table sugar, which is chemically a disaccharide containing both glucose and fructose. Hydrolysis of sucrose gives a mixture called invert sugar, which is sweeter and is a commercial ingredient. Finally confections, especially commercial ones, are sweetened by a variety of syrups obtained by hydrolysis of starch and these sweeteners include all types of corn syrup. Bakers confectionery includes sweet baked goods, especially those that are served for the dessert course, bakers confections are sweet foods that feature flour as a main ingredient and are baked.
Major categories include cakes, sweet pastries, scones, Sugar confections include sweet, sugar-based foods, which are usually eaten as snack food. This includes sugar candies, candied fruits and nuts, chewing gum, in the European Union, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community scheme matches the UN classification, under code number 10.82. Ice cream and sorbet are classified with dairy products under ISIC1050, NACE10.52, different dialects of English use regional terms for sugar confections, In Britain and some Commonwealth countries, sweets or, more colloquially, sweeties. In Australia and New Zealand, lollies and Chuddy are Australian slang for chewing gum. In North America, although this generally refers to a specific range of confectionery
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process that kills microbes in food and drink, such as milk, canned food, and others. It was invented by French scientist Louis Pasteur during the nineteenth century, in 1864 Pasteur discovered that heating beer and wine was enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused spoilage, preventing these beverages from turning sour. The process achieves this by eliminating pathogenic microbes and lowering microbial numbers to prolong the quality of the beverage, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all microorganisms in the food, instead, it aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease. Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because it affects the taste. Certain foods, such as products, may be superheated to ensure pathogenic microbes are destroyed. The process of heating wine for preservation purposes has been known in China since 1117, much later, in 1768, an Italian priest and scientist Lazzaro Spallanzani proved experimentally that heat killed bacteria, and that they do not reappear if the product is hermetically sealed.
He placed the food in glass jars, sealed them with cork and sealing wax, in that same year, the French military offered a cash prize of 12,000 francs for a new method to preserve food. After some 14 or 15 years of experimenting, Appert submitted his invention and won the prize in January 1810, that year, Appert published LArt de conserver les substances animales et végétales. This was the first cookbook of its kind on modern food preservation methods, la Maison Appert, in the town of Massy, near Paris, became the first food-bottling factory in the world, preserving a variety of food in sealed bottles. Apperts method was to fill thick, large-mouthed glass bottles with produce of every description, ranging from beef and fowl to eggs and his greatest success for publicity was an entire sheep. He left air space at the top of the bottle, the bottle was wrapped in canvas to protect it, while it was dunked into boiling water and boiled for as much time as Appert deemed appropriate for cooking the contents thoroughly.
Appert patented his method, sometimes called appertisation, in his honor, Apperts method was so simple and workable that it quickly became widespread. In 1810, British inventor and merchant Peter Durand, of French origin, patented his own method, in 1812, Englishmen Bryan Donkin and John Hall purchased both patents and began producing preserves. Just a decade later, Apperts method of canning had made its way to America, Apperts preservation by boiling involved heating the food to an unnecessarily high temperature, and for an unnecessarily long time, which could destroy some of the flavor of the preserved food. A less aggressive method was developed by the French chemist Louis Pasteur during an 1864 summer holiday in Arbois, in honour of Pasteur, the process became known as pasteurization. Pasteurization was originally used as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring, in the United States in the 1870s, it was common for milk to contain substances intended to mask spoilage before milk was regulated.
Milk is an excellent medium for growth, and when stored at ambient temperature bacteria
A prop, formally known as property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production. In practical terms, a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, costumes, consumable food items appearing in the production are considered props. The earliest known use of the properties in English to refer to stage accessories is in the 1425 CE Morality play. The Oxford English Dictionary finds the first usage of props in 1841, during the Renaissance in Europe, small acting troupes functioned as cooperatives, pooling resources and dividing any income. Many performers provided their own costumes, but special items—stage weapons, furniture or other hand-held devices—were considered company property, some experts however seem to think that the term comes from the idea that stage or screen objects belong to whoever uses them on stage. There is no difference between props in different media, such as theatre, film, or television, bland Wade, a properties director, says, A coffee cup onstage is a coffee cup on television, is a coffee cup on the big screen.
He adds, There are definitely different responsibilities and different vocabulary, the term theatrical property originated to describe an object used in a stage play and similar entertainments to further the action. Technically, a prop is any object that gives the scenery, actors, or performance space specific period, props in a production originate from off stage unless they have been preset on the stage before the production begins. Props are stored on a prop table backstage near the entrance during production generally locked in a storage area between performances. The term has readily transferred to television, motion picture and video game production, in recent years, the increasing popularity of movie memorabilia has added new meaning to the term prop, broadening its existence to include a valuable after-life as a prized collectors item. Typically not available until after a premiere, movie props appearing on-screen are called screen-used. However, a prop must read well from the house or on-screen, in some cases, a prop is designed to behave differently from how the real object would, often for the sake of safety. A mop, representing a string mop, but built out of a shape covered with fabric. A prop weapon that reads well but lacks the intentional harmfulness of the real weapon.
In the theater, prop weapons are almost always either non-operable replicas, guns fire caps or noisy blanks, swords are dulled, and knives are often made of plastic or rubber. In film production, fully functional weapons are used. Real cartridges with bullets removed are still dangerously charged which has caused several instances when used on stage or film. The safety and proper handling of weapons used as movie props is the premiere responsibility of the prop master
Cocaine, known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. It is commonly snorted, inhaled, or injected into the veins, mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, high doses can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes, Cocaine has a small number of accepted medical uses such as numbing and decreasing bleeding during nasal surgery. Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the pathway in the brain. After a short period of use, there is a risk that dependence will occur. Its use increases the risk of stroke, myocardial infarction, lung problems in those who smoke it, blood infections, Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, quinine, or sugar which can result in additional toxicity. Following repeated doses a person may have decreased ability to feel pleasure, Cocaine acts by inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine.
This results in concentrations of these three neurotransmitters in the brain. It can easily cross the barrier and may lead to the breakdown of the barrier. Cocaine is made from the leaves of the plant which are mostly grown in South America. In 2013,419 kilograms were produced legally and it is estimated that the illegal market for cocaine is 100 to 500 billion USD each year. With further processing crack cocaine can be produced from cocaine, after cannabis, cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally. Between 14 and 21 million people use the drug each year, use is highest in North America followed by Europe and South America. Between one and three percent of people in the world have used cocaine at some point in their life. In 2013 cocaine use resulted in 4,300 deaths. The leaves of the plant have been used by Peruvians since ancient times. Cocaine was first isolated from the leaves in 1860, since 1961 the international Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has required countries to make recreational use of cocaine a crime
Food drying is a method of food preservation in which food is dried. Drying inhibits the growth of bacteria and mold through the removal of water, dehydration has been used widely for this purpose since ancient times, the earliest known practice is 12,000 B. C. by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions. Water is traditionally removed through evaporation, although today electric food dehydrators or freeze-drying can be used to speed the drying process, many different foods can be prepared by dehydration. Meat has held a significant role. For centuries, much of the European diet depended on dried cod—known as salt cod, bacalhau and it formed the main protein source for the slaves on the West Indian plantations, and was a major economic force within the triangular trade. Dried shark meat, known as Hákarl, is a delicacy in Iceland, currently popular dried meats include prosciutto, bresaola and beef jerky. Dried fruits have been consumed historically due to their sugar content and sweet taste.
Fruits are often observed differently when dried, the plum becomes a prune, the grape a raisin. Figs and dates are transformed into new, different products that can either be eaten as they are, used in recipes, freeze-dried vegetables are often found in food for backpackers and the military. Garlic and onion are often dried, edible mushrooms, as well as other fungi, are sometimes dried for preservation purposes or to be used as seasonings. Home drying of vegetables and meat can be carried out with electrical dehydrators or by sun-drying or by wind, preservatives such as potassium metabisulfite, BHA, or BHT may be used, but are not required. However, dried products without these preservatives may require refrigeration or freezing to ensure safe storage for a long time, industrial food dehydration is often accomplished by freeze-drying. In this case food is flash frozen and put into a system which causes the water to sublimate directly from the solid to the gaseous phase. Industrial hot air dryers are simple and easy to design, more so, it is very affordable and has been reported to retain most of the nutritional properties of food if dry using appropriate drying conditions.
There are many different methods for drying, each with their own advantages for particular applications, these include, National Center for Home Food Preservation, drying section
Freeze-drying works by freezing the material and reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water in the material to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. The process of freeze-drying was invented in 1906 by Arsène dArsonval, in 1911 Downey Harris and Shackle developed the freeze-drying method of preserving live rabies virus which eventually led to development of the first antirabies vaccine. Modern freeze-drying was developed during World War II, the freeze-drying process was developed as a commercial technique that enabled serum to be rendered chemically stable and viable without having to be refrigerated. Shortly thereafter, the process was applied to penicillin and bone. Since that time, freeze-drying has been used as a preservation or processing technique for a variety of products. There are four stages in the drying process, freezing, primary drying. Pretreatment includes any method of treating the product prior to freezing and this may include concentrating the product, formulation revision, decreasing a high-vapor-pressure solvent, or increasing the surface area.
In many instances the decision to pretreat a product is based on knowledge of freeze-drying and its requirements. On a larger scale, freezing is usually done using a freeze-drying machine, in this step, it is important to cool the material below its triple point, the lowest temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of the material can coexist. This ensures that sublimation rather than melting will occur in the following steps, larger crystals are easier to freeze-dry. To produce larger crystals, the product should be frozen slowly or can be cycled up and this cycling process is called annealing. In this case, the freezing is done rapidly, in order to lower the material to below its eutectic point quickly, the freezing temperatures are between −50 °C and −80 °C. The freezing phase is the most critical in the whole freeze-drying process, amorphous materials do not have a eutectic point, but they do have a critical point, below which the product must be maintained to prevent melt-back or collapse during primary and secondary drying.
During the primary drying phase, the pressure is lowered, the amount of heat necessary can be calculated using the sublimating molecules latent heat of sublimation. In this initial drying phase, about 95% of the water in the material is sublimated and this phase may be slow, because, if too much heat is added, the materials structure could be altered. In this phase, pressure is controlled through the application of partial vacuum, the vacuum speeds up the sublimation, making it useful as a deliberate drying process. Furthermore, a cold condenser chamber and/or condenser plates provide a surface for the vapour to re-solidify on. This condenser plays no role in keeping the material frozen, rather, it prevents water vapor from reaching the vacuum pump, condenser temperatures are typically below −50 °C