Hammondville is a town in DeKalb County, United States. It was incorporated in 1937; as of the 2010 census, the population of the town is 488. Hammondville is located at 34°34′10″N 85°38′18″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.9 square miles, all land. As of the 2010 census Hammondville had a population of 488; the racial and ethnic composition of the population was 88.3% non-Hispanic white, 0.8% black or African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 5.1% from some other race, 3.3% from two or more races and 6.8% Hispanic or Latino or any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 486 people, 193 households, 150 families residing in the town; the population density was 99.0 people per square mile. There were 216 housing units at an average density of 44.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.27% White, 1.65% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.62% from other races, 1.85% from two or more races. 2.67% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 193 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.7% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.8% were non-families. 18.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.83. In the town, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 13.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $33,056, the median income for a family was $34,500. Males had a median income of $33,542 versus $17,045 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,582. About 8.0% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 20.0% of those age 65 or over
Fort Payne, Alabama
Fort Payne is a city in and county seat of DeKalb County, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 14,012. In the 19th century, the site of Fort Payne was the location of Willstown, an important village of the Cherokee people. For a time it was the home of Sequoyah, a silversmith who invented the Cherokee syllabary, enabling reading and writing in the language; the settlement was called Willstown, after its headman, a red-headed mixed-race man named Will. According to Major John Norton, a more accurate transliteration would have been Titsohili; the son of a Cherokee adoptee of the Mohawk people, Norton grew up among Native Americans and traveled extensively throughout the region in the early 19th century. He stayed at Willstown several times. During the 1830s prior to Indian removal, the US Army under command of Major John Payne built a fort here, used to intern Cherokees until relocation to Oklahoma, their forced exile became known as the Trail of Tears. By the 1860s, Fort Payne and the surrounding area were still sparsely settled.
It had no strategic targets and was the scene of only minor skirmishes between Union and Confederate forces during the Civil War. About the time of the Second Battle of Chattanooga, a large Union force entered the county, but it did not engage substantial Confederate forces. In 1878 Fort Payne became the county seat, in 1889 it was incorporated as a town; the community of Lebanon had served as the county seat since 1850. With the completion of rail lines between Birmingham and Chattanooga, Fort Payne began to grow, as it was on the rail line. County sentiment supported having the seat in a community served by the railroad. In the late 1880s, Fort Payne experienced explosive growth as investors and workers from New England and the North flooded into the region to exploit coal and iron deposits discovered a few years earlier; this period is called the "Boom Days", or the "Boom". Many of the notable and historic buildings in Fort Payne date from this period of economic growth, including the state's oldest standing theater, the Fort Payne Opera House.
Today, it serves as a museum of local history. The iron and coal deposits turned out to be much smaller. Many of the Boom promoters left the region for Birmingham, Fort Payne experienced a period of economic decline; that downturn shifted in 1907, when the W. B. Davis Hosiery Mill began operations; this was the beginning of decades of hosiery manufacture in Fort Payne. By the beginning of the 21st century, the hosiery industry in Fort Payne employed over 7,000 people in more than 100 mills, it produced more than half of the socks made in the United States and was designated the "Sock Capital of the World." Beginning in the 1990s, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Central American Free Trade Agreement lowered tariffs on textile products imported into the United States, resulting in large increases in sock imports. Many businesses in Fort Payne accused foreign manufacturers those from China, of engaging in dumping of socks below cost to force American companies out of the sock business.
By 2005, hosiery mill employment in Fort Payne had declined to around 5,500, several mills had closed. In late 2005, the federal government gained an agreement with the Chinese government to slow the schedule for the removal of tariffs, delaying their full removal until 2008; the hosiery industry continues to have a foothold in the community, diversifying from athletic socks to boutique designs like Zkano, other specialty & medical socks. Reacting more to changes than at the end of the Boom, in the 1990s, business and civic leaders in Fort Payne began to take steps to diversify the city's economy. Several new commercial and industrial projects were developed; the largest was the 2006 construction of a distribution center for The Children's Place stores, a facility that employed 600 people in its first phase of operation. Other large corporations with locations in Fort Payne include Heil Environmental Industries. Fort Payne houses the headquarters for the nearby Little River Canyon National Preserve, a 14,000-acre National Park Service facility established by Congress in 1992.
The canyon itself is on Lookout Mountain outside the city limits. Another attraction based on natural resources is DeSoto State Park, a smaller facility with a lodge, restaurant and river access areas. Manitou Cave is near Fort Payne; the country music group Alabama is based in Fort Payne. The city houses the group's fan club and museum. Fort Payne is within a 30-minute drive of substantial water recreational areas, notably Guntersville Lake, Weiss Lake, an artificial lake on the Coosa River. Fort Payne is near Mentone, a popular mountain resort area known for summer children's camps and rustic hotels and cabins. Fort Payne is located in northeastern Alabama at 34°27′14″N 85°42′24″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 55.8 square miles, of which 55.5 square miles is land and 0.35 square miles, or 0.64%, is water. The city center lies in a narrow valley on Big Wills Creek in the Cumberland Plateau region west of Lookout Mountain, with Sand Mountain somewhat more removed to the west.
The city limits reach
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Section is a town in Jackson County, United States and is included in the Chattanooga-Cleveland-Dalton, TN-GA-AL Combined Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population of the town was 770, an increase of one person from 2000. Section is located on top of Sand Mountain. Section lived; the community was known as Mt. Zion when the first post office was established. There were communities such as Kirby's Creek, Gossets Hollow, Fern Cliff; these communities came together to form the Town of Section. Pioneer settlers came in 1862 in large numbers. Settlers were required to live on the land for five years before claiming the property as their own, it became known as "Section" because it was the location of a square-mile parcel of land, known as the 16th Section, required by the federal government to be set aside in support of public schools. Bort Harrison ran a 6-horsepower, water-powered flour and grist mill in 1886, the first store in the community was built in 1889; the first school was built in the area before 1890, the year it burned.
Its successor lasted 25 years before it burned. Section was cited as having incorporated in 1910, but must have dis-incorporated prior to 1920 as it did not appear on either census. On the 1950 U. S. Census rolls, it stated Section incorporated in 1946. Section is located at 34°34′41″N 85°59′17″W; the town is situated along southeast of Scottsboro. It lies along the western edge of Sand Mountain, several points in the town, including Weathington Park, offer dramatic views of the Tennessee River and valley to the west. State Route 71 intersects State Route 35 in Section, connecting the area with Dutton and the Pisgah area to the northeast. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 4.6 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 769 people, 321 households, 228 families residing in the township; the population density was 167.9 people per square mile. There were 352 housing units at an average density of 76.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 93.89% White, 0.78% Black or African American, 2.34% Native American, 0.13% from other races, 2.86% from two or more races.
0.52% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 321 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.1% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.7% were non-families. 25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.88. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,500, the median income for a family was $37,115. Males had a median income of $29,205 versus $20,781 for females; the per capita income for the township was $17,036. About 15.0% of families and 16.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.5% of those under age 18 and 12.4% of those age 65 or over.
Section High School is a kindergarten through twelfth grade school and is part of the Jackson County school system. Section became a high school in 1955; the first principal was Roy L. Buford. Louvin Brothers - American country music duo Media related to Section, Alabama at Wikimedia Commons
Henagar is a city in DeKalb County, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 2,344. Henagar is located on top of a southern extension of the Cumberland Plateau. Henagar was first settled circa 1855; the town is named after George Henegar. A post office was established in 1878, it was that a postal official misspelled the town's name as "Henagar". In 1901, a public school was built. Henagar incorporated in 1965. Henagar is located in northern DeKalb County at 34°38′1″N 85°44′35″W, its northwest border follows the Jackson County line. Alabama State Route 40 passes through the original center of town, leading east 8 miles to Interstate 59 in Hammondville and west 19 miles to Scottsboro. Alabama State Route 75 crosses AL 40 in the newer commercial part of Henagar and leads northeast 8 miles to Ider and southwest 10 miles to Rainsville. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Henagar has a total area of 22.3 square miles, of which 22.3 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.15%, is water.
South Sauty Creek, a tributary of the Tennessee River, flows southwest through the central and southern part of the city. The Sand Mountain Potato Festival is celebrated each July in Henagar, with potatoes, live music, entertainment and crafts, fireworks. A drive-in theater is located in Henagar; as of the census of 2000, there were 2,400 people, 937 households, 715 families residing in the town. The population density was 109.8 people per square mile. There were 1,056 housing units at an average density of 48.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.46% White, 1.67% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. 0.71% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 937 households out of which 34.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.8% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.6% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 12.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $29,777, the median income for a family was $34,469. Males had a median income of $29,309 versus $19,401 for females; the per capita income for the town was $14,836. About 10.3% of families and 16.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.0% of those under age 18 and 25.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,344 people, 942 households, 676 families residing in the town; the population density was 107.0 people per square mile. There were 1,092 housing units at an average density of 49.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.2% White, 1.8% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races.
1.4% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 942 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 25.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.93. In the town the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 29.7% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.4 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,130, the median income for a family was $39,432. Males had a median income of $40,227 versus $24,122 for females; the per capita income for the town was $21,701. About 17.9% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.5% of those under age 18 and 13.6% of those age 65 or over.
Students are served by the DeKalb County Board of Education. Henagar Junior High School, home of "The Wildcats", is located in the town. Charlie Louvin, country music singer City of Henagar official website
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi