Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, acquired by Lenovo in 2014. Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, high-definition television, its business and government customers consisted of wireless voice and broadband systems, public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses are now part of Motorola Solutions.
Google sold Motorola Home to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion. Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Known as the Personal Communication Sector prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s, it had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. It focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system; the first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid. The handset division was spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion.
On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google. Motorola started in Chicago, Illinois, as Galvin Manufacturing Corporation in 1928 when brothers Paul V. and Joseph E. Galvin purchased the bankrupt Stewart Battery Company's battery-eliminator plans and manufacturing equipment at auction for $750. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation set up shop in a small section of a rented building; the company had $565 in five employees. The first week's payroll was $63; the company's first products were the battery eliminators, devices that enabled battery-powered radios to operate on household electricity. Due to advances in radio technology, battery-eliminators soon became obsolete. Paul Galvin learned that some radio technicians were installing sets in cars, challenged his engineers to design an inexpensive car radio that could be installed in most vehicles, his team was successful, Galvin was able to demonstrate a working model of the radio at the June 1930 Radio Manufacturers Association convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
He brought home enough orders to keep the company in business. Paul Galvin wanted a brand name for Galvin Manufacturing Corporation's new car radio, created the name “Motorola” by linking "motor" with "ola", a popular ending for many companies at the time, e.g. Moviola, Crayola; the company sold its first Motorola branded radio on June 23, 1930, to Herbert C. Wall of Fort Wayne, for $30. Wall went on to become one of the first Motorola distributors in the country; the Motorola brand name became so well known that Galvin Manufacturing Corporation changed its name to Motorola, Inc. Galvin Manufacturing Corporation began selling Motorola car-radio receivers to police departments and municipalities in November 1930; the company's first public safety customers included the Village of River Forest, Village of Bellwood Police Department, City of Evanston Police, Illinois State Highway Police, Cook County Police with a one-way radio communication. In the same year, the company built its research and development program with Dan Noble, a pioneer in FM radio and semiconductor technologies, who joined the company as director of research.
The company produced the hand-held AM SCR-536 radio during World War II, vital to Allied communication. Motorola ranked 94th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Motorola went public in 1943, became Motorola, Inc. in 1947. At that time Motorola's main business was selling televisions and radios. In October 1946 Motorola communications equipment carried the first calls on Illinois Bell telephone company's new car radiotelephone service in Chicago; the company began making televisions in 1947, with the model VT-71 with 7-inch cathode ray tube. In 1952, Motorola opened its first international subsidiary in Toronto, Canada to produce radios and televisions. In 1953, the company established the Motorola Foundation to support leading universities in the United States. In 1955, years after Motorola started its research and development laboratory in Phoenix, Arizona, to research new solid-state technology, Motorola introduced the world's first commercial high-power germanium-based transistor.
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in
The PowerBook 190 and its companion PowerBook 190cs are laptop computers manufactured by Apple Computer as part of their PowerBook brand, introduced to the market in August 1995. The two models differ only in their screen: The 190 had a 9.5" greyscale display, while the 190cs featured a 10.4" color display. Apple's target sales audience for this model was the college student in need of a no-frills portable computer. In terms of hardware, along with the PowerBook 150, the 190 has much in common with Apple's "professional" laptop of the same period, the PowerBook 5300 series. In exchange for the cheaper price point, the 190 was equipped with a passive matrix LCD rather than a crisper active matrix screen. More while the 5300s ran PowerPC 603e processors at 100 or 117 MHz, the 190 had only a Motorola 68LC040 clocked at 33 MHz - in fact, the 190s were the last Macintoshes to use a 68k CPU. However, Apple offered a PPC upgrade for the 190, a marketed selling point for all new 68040 Macs at the time.
In addition, a rather cramped 500 MB IDE hard drive was standard, factory models shipped with System 7.5.2. It is the only one of the 100 series PowerBooks that does not use the original 140 case design, thus was the only one to include a 68040 processor, a trackpad rather than the standard trackball, along with the 150 the only ones to provide for more than 14MB RAM expansion and larger, less-expensive IDE drives; the 190 was the de facto replacement for the PowerBook 500 series, discontinued with the introduction of the 5300 and the only 68040-based PowerBook Apple offered. Sales figures for the 190 are unavailable, but in any event it did not benefit from reports of "exploding battery syndrome," where the similar 5300 factory-default lithium-ion battery could short-circuit and burst into flames. Apple offered a recall on all such batteries; the PowerBook 190 series used a nickel metal hydride battery. Production of the 190 halted in June 1996, while the 190cs was sold until October of that year, when it was replaced by the PowerBook 1400cs.
With the discontinuation of the 190, Apple abandoned its market strategy of having two strata of laptops, instead offering low- and high-end configurations of the same model number. The concept did not return in Apple's product lineup until the 1999 introduction of the consumer-oriented iBook. Apple's datasheets: PowerBook 190, PowerBook 190cs apple-history.com: PowerBook 190, PowerBook 190cs
The Motorola 68000 is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector. Introduced in 1979 with HMOS technology as the first member of the successful 32-bit Motorola 68000 series, it is software forward-compatible with the rest of the line despite being limited to a 16-bit wide external bus. After 39 years in production, the 68000 architecture is still in use; the 68000 grew out of the MACSS project, begun in 1976 to develop an new architecture without backward compatibility. It would be a higher-power sibling complementing the existing 8-bit 6800 line rather than a compatible successor. In the end, the 68000 did retain a bus protocol compatibility mode for existing 6800 peripheral devices, a version with an 8-bit data bus was produced. However, the designers focused on the future, or forward compatibility, which gave the 68000 design a head start against 32-bit instruction set architectures.
For instance, the CPU registers are 32 bits wide, though few self-contained structures in the processor itself operate on 32 bits at a time. The MACSS team drew on the influence of minicomputer processor design, such as the PDP-11 and VAX systems, which were microcode-based. In the mid 1970s, the 8-bit microprocessor manufacturers raced to introduce the 16-bit generation. National Semiconductor had been first with its IMP-16 and PACE processors in 1973–1975, but these had issues with speed. Intel had worked on their advanced 16/32-bit Intel iAPX 432 since 1975 and their Intel 8086 since 1976. Arriving late to the 16-bit arena afforded the new processor more transistors, 32-bit macroinstructions, acclaimed general ease of use; the original MC68000 was fabricated using an HMOS process with a 3.5 µm feature size. Formally introduced in September 1979, initial samples were released in February 1980, with production chips available over the counter in November. Initial speed grades were 4, 6, 8 MHz. 10 MHz chips became available during 1981, 12.5 MHz chips by June 1982.
The 16.67 MHz "12F" version of the MC68000, the fastest version of the original HMOS chip, was not produced until the late 1980s. The 68k instruction set was well suited to implement Unix, the 68000 and its successors became the dominant CPUs for Unix-based workstations including Sun workstations and Apollo/Domain workstations; the 68000 was used for mass-market computers such as the Apple Lisa, Macintosh and Atari ST. The 68000 was used in Microsoft Xenix systems, as well as an early NetWare Unix-based Server; the 68000 was used in the first generation of desktop laser printers, including the original Apple Inc. LaserWriter and the HP LaserJet. In 1982, the 68000 received an update to its ISA allowing it to support virtual memory and to conform to the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements; the updated chip was called the 68010. A further extended version, which exposed 31 bits of the address bus, was produced in small quantities as the 68012. To support lower-cost systems and control applications with smaller memory sizes, Motorola introduced the 8-bit compatible MC68008 in 1982.
This was a 68000 with a smaller address bus. After 1982, Motorola devoted more attention to the 88000 projects. Several other companies were second-source manufacturers of the HMOS 68000; these included Hitachi, who shrank the feature size to 2.7 µm for their 12.5 MHz version, Rockwell, Thomson/SGS-Thomson, Toshiba. Toshiba was a second-source maker of the CMOS 68HC000. Encrypted variants of the 68000, being the Hitachi FD1089 and FD1094, store decryption keys for opcodes and opcode data in battery-backed memory and were used in certain Sega arcade systems including System 16 to prevent piracy and illegal bootleg games; the 68HC000, the first CMOS version of the 68000, was designed by Hitachi and jointly introduced in 1985. Motorola's version was called the MC68HC000, while Hitachi's was the HD68HC000; the 68HC000 was offered at speeds of 8–20 MHz. Except for using CMOS circuitry, it behaved identically to the HMOS MC68000, but the change to CMOS reduced its power consumption; the original HMOS MC68000 consumed around 1.35 watts at an ambient temperature of 25 °C, regardless of clock speed, while the MC68HC000 consumed only 0.13 watts at 8 MHz and 0.38 watts at 20 MHz.
Apple selected the 68HC000 for use in the Macintosh Portable. Motorola replaced the MC68008 with the MC68HC001 in 1990; this chip resembled the 68HC000 in most respects, but its data bus could operate in either 16-bit or 8-bit mode, depending on the value of an input pin at reset. Thus, like the 68008, it could be used in systems with cheaper 8-bit memories; the evolution of the 68000 focused on more modern embedded control applications and on-chip peripherals. The 68EC000 chip and SCM68000 core expanded the address bus to 32 bits, removed the M6800 peripheral bus, excluded the MOVE from SR instruction from user mode programs. In 1996, Motorola updated the standalone core with static circuitry, drawing only 2 µW in l
Power Macintosh G3
The Power Macintosh G3 is a series of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from November 1997 to August 1999. It represented Apple's first step towards eliminating redundancy and complexity in the product line by replacing eight Power Macintosh models with three: Desktop and Mini Tower models for professional and home use, an All-In-One model for education; the introduction of the Desktop and Mini Tower models coincided with Apple starting to sell build-to-order Macs directly from its web site in an online store, unusual for the time as Dell was the only major computer manufacturer doing this. Apple's move to build-to-order sales of the Power Macintosh G3 coincided with the acquisition of Power Computing Corporation, providing telephone sales of Macintosh clones for more than two years; the Power Macintosh G3 is named for its third-generation PowerPC chip, introduced a fast and large Level 2 backside CPU cache, running at half processor speed. As a result, these machines benchmarked faster than Intel PCs of similar CPU clock speed at launch, which prompted Apple to create the "Snail" and "Toasted Bunnies" television commercials.
Magazine benchmarks showed the G3/266 CPU outperforming the 350 MHz PowerPC 604ev chip in the Power Macintosh 9600 as well. Two generations of the Power Macintosh G3 were released; the first generation, known colloquially as "Beige" was introduced at a special event on November 10, 1997. The second generation, known as "Blue and White", was introduced at MacWorld San Francisco on January 5, 1999, its replacement, the Power Mac G4, was introduced in August of the same year. Apple sold three beige Power Macintosh G3 models: a horizontally-oriented desktop, a mini tower enclosure, a version with a built-in screen called All-In-One; the All-In-One model was shaped like a human tooth, thus earned the moniker Molar Mac. Equipped with a 233, 266, 300, or 333 MHz PowerPC 750 CPU from Motorola, these machines use a 66.83 MHz system bus and PC66 SDRAM, standard ATA hard disk drives instead of the SCSI drives used in most previous Apple systems. A legacy Fast SCSI internal bus is still included with 10 MB/s speed, along with the proprietary out-of-spec DB-25 external SCSI bus which had a top speed of 5 MB/s.
Each bus could support a maximum of 7 devices. Apple developed a prototype G3-based six-slot full tower to be designated the Power Macintosh 9700. Despite demand from high-end users for more PCI slots in a G3-powered computer, Apple decided not to develop the prototype into a shipping product, leaving the 9600 as the last six-slot Mac Apple would make. Initial units were shipped with Mac OS 8; the G3 supports up to Mac OS X 10.2, although some devices will not work under Mac OS X, such as the floppy drive, the video features of the "Wings" personality card, the 3D graphics acceleration functions of the onboard ATI Rage series video. Support for newer versions is possible with the use of third party software solutions such as XPostFacto. Mac OS X 10.5 can be run. The Power Macintosh G3 was intended to be a midrange series, between the low-end Performa/LC models and the six-PCI slot Power Macintosh 9600, it is the earliest Old World ROM Macintosh model able to boot into Mac OS X, one of only two Old World ROM models able to boot into Mac OS X, the other model being the early PowerBook G3.
The Desktop model inherited its enclosure directly from the Power Macintosh 7300. The 233 and 266 MHz desktop models shipped with 4 GB hard drives, the 300 MHz with a 6 GB drive, all at 5400 RPM; this model, sometimes referred to as an Outrigger Macintosh due to its ease of access, was the last horizontally-oriented desktop model offered by Apple until the introduction of the Mac mini in 2005. The Desktop model received an update in August 1998, with the 233 MHz model being discontinued. Unlike the Mini Tower model, the Desktop model was not updated with 366 MHz CPUs; the 233 MHz Mini Tower model's enclosure is similar to the Power Macintosh 8600. It shipped with a 4 GB drive, the 266 MHz with a 6 GB drive, the 300 MHz variant shipped with two 4 GB drives in a RAID configuration; as with the Desktop model, the Mini Tower received an update in August 1998, with the CPU updated to 333 MHz and 366 MHz. These models shipped with a 9.1 GB 7200 RPM SCSI drive, attached to a SCSI/PCI card, as well as 100BASE-TX Ethernet, though this was in the form of a PCI card, which occupied another PCI slot.
The Macintosh Server G3/300Mhz shipped with a PCI Ultra Wide SCSI card and the 100Base-T Ethernet PCI card. The 333 and the 366 MHz model had only 6 MiB VRAM; the Macintosh Server G3 is identical to the Mini Tower model, but was sold with additional server software and different specifications. Software included AppleShare IP 5.0, Apple Network Administrator Toolkit, SoftRAID. Introduced March 1998: Good: 233 MHz, 512 KB L2 cache, 64 MB SDRAM, 6 GB IDE HDD. $2,919. Better: 266 MHz, 512 KB L2 cache, 64 MB SDRAM, 4 GB Ultra/Wide SCSI. $3,609. Best: 300 MHz, 1MB L2 cache, 128 MB SDRAM, Two 4 GB Ultra/Wide SCSI. $4,969. Introduced September 1998: 333 MHz, 1 MB L2 cache, 128 MB SDRAM, Two 4 GB Ultra/Wide SCSI. $4,599. The All-In-One model was introduced in April 1998 as a replacement for the Power Macintosh 5400 and 5500, it was available in two basic configurations: a 233 MHz version with a floppy drive and a 4 GB hard drive and a 266 MHz vers
A pointing device is an input interface that allows a user to input spatial data to a computer. CAD systems and graphical user interfaces allow the user to control and provide data to the computer using physical gestures by moving a hand-held mouse or similar device across the surface of the physical desktop and activating switches on the mouse. Movements of the pointing device are echoed on the screen by movements of the pointer and other visual changes. Common gestures are drag and drop. While the most common pointing device by far is the mouse, many more devices have been developed. However, the term "mouse" is used as a metaphor for devices that move the cursor. For most pointing devices, Fitts's law can be used to predict the speed with which users can point at an higher speed. To classify several pointing devices, a certain number of features can be considered. For example, the device's movement, positioning or resistance; the following points should provide an overview of the different classifications.
Direct vs. indirect inputIn case of a direct-input pointing device, the on-screen pointer is at the same physical position as the pointing device. An indirect-input pointing device is not at the same physical position as the pointer but translates its movement onto the screen. Absolute vs. relative movementAn absolute-movement input device provides a consistent mapping between a point in the input space and a point in the output space. A relative-movement input device maps displacement in the input space to displacement in the output state, it therefore controls the relative position of the cursor compared to its initial position. Isotonic vs. elastic vs. isometricAn isotonic pointing device is movable and measures its displacement whereas an isometric device is fixed and measures the force which acts on it. An elastic device increases its force resistance with displacement. Position control vs. rate controlA position-control input device directly changes the absolute or relative position of the on-screen pointer.
A rate-control input device changes the speed and direction of the movement of the on-screen pointer. Translation vs. rotationAnother classification is the differentiation between whether the device is physically translated or rotated. Degrees of freedomDifferent pointing devices have different degrees of freedom. A computer mouse has namely its movement on the x - and y-axis; however the Wiimote has 6 degrees of freedom: x-, y- and z-axis for movement as well as for rotation. Possible statesAs mentioned in this article, pointing devices have different possible states. Examples for these states are out of range, dragging. Examples a computer mouse is an indirect, isotonic, position-control, translational input device with two degrees of freedom andthree states. A touch screen is a direct, isometric, position-control input device with two degrees of freedom andtwo states. A joystick is an indirect, elastic, rate-control, translational input device with two degrees of freedom andtwo states. A Wiimote is an indirect, elastic, rate-control, translational input device with six degrees of freedom andtwo states.
The following table shows a classification of pointing devices by their number of dimensions and which property is sensed introduced by Bill Buxton. The sub-rows distinguish between mechanical touch-sensitive, it is rooted in the human motor/sensory system. Continuous manual input devices are categorized. Sub-columns distinguish devices; the table is based on the original graphic of Bill Buxton's work on "Taxonomies of Input". This model describes different states; the three common states as described by Buxton are out of range and dragging. Not every pointing device can switch to all states. Fitts's law is a predictive model of human movement used in human–computer interaction and ergonomics; this scientific law predicts that the time required to move to a target area is a function of the ratio between the distance to the target and the width of the target. Fitts's law is used to model the act of pointing, either by physically touching an object with a hand or finger, or by pointing to an object on a computer monitor using a pointing device.
In other words, this means for example, that the user needs more time to click on a small button, distant to the cursor, than he needs to click a large button near the cursor. Thereby it is possible to predict the speed, needed for a selective movement to a certain target; the common metric to calculate the average time to complete the movement is the following: MT = a + b ⋅ ID = a + b ⋅ log 2 where: MT is the average time to complete the movement. A and b are constants that depend on the choice of input device and are determined empirically by regression analysis. ID
The PowerBook 1400 is a notebook computer, designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1996 to 1998 as part of their PowerBook series of Macintosh computers. Introduced in October 1996 at a starting price of $2499, it was the first new PowerBook after the controversial PowerBook 5300. After the introduction of the more powerful PowerBook 3400 in February 1997, the 1400 took on the role of Apple's entry level notebook and remained there until its discontinuation in May 1998, its successor, the PowerBook G3 Series would go on to replace and consolidate not only the 1400, but the 2400 and 3400 as well. Throughout its 18 months on the market, the PowerBook 1400 was available in a number of different configurations, it was released with a 117 MHz PowerPC 603e processor. Each version was available as either a "c" or a "cs" model, differentiated by type of LCD technology used. While both models came with 11.3" color displays with 800 x 600 resolution, the pricier 1400c came equipped with an active matrix display and the 1400cs came with a less expensive passive matrix, dual-scan display.
The optional 6x CD-ROM is implemented using a sleep-swappable module system similar to the one pioneered by the PowerBook 5300. A pioneering feature of the 1400 is the "BookCover" laptop skin which allows owners the opportunity to give their PowerBook a customized look; every 1400 shipped with a gray cover, a clear cover, six inserts. The 1400 was upgradeable. System memory modules can be "piggy-backed" onto each other, allowing the use of additional RAM; the CPU is located on a removable daughter card, which can be replaced with one containing a faster processor, including a number of commercially available cards with PowerPC G3 processors from vendors such as Sonnet Technologies, NewerTech, Vimage. Aside from its two PC Card slots, the 1400 included an internal expansion slot. Although few applications were developed to utilize it, Apple did release their own branded video card which included an increased amount of VRAM and an external video port. Other devices included a third-party video card, as well as a rare Ethernet networking card.
There are several well-known issues concerning the PowerBook 1400. Like all other PowerBooks prior to the PowerBook G4, the drive controller used in the 1400 is incompatible with ATA-6 hard drives. Compatibility issues could arise with hard drives larger than 8.2GB, resolvable by partitioning the boot drive to less than 8.2 GB or by using Mac OS 8.6 or later. Additionally, unlike all Apple notebooks to come after it, the 1400 would not boot from a CD by holding down the "C" key while starting the machine. According to Low End Mac the 117 MHz model is a "compromised Mac" due to the lack of a level 2 cache. Apple-history.com: 1400 series specs Lowendmac.com: 1400 series specs