LocalTalk is a particular implementation of the physical layer of the AppleTalk networking system from Apple Computer. LocalTalk specifies a system of shielded twisted pair cabling, plugged into self-terminating transceivers, running at a rate of 230.4 kbit/s. CSMA/CA was implemented as a random multiple access method. Networking was envisioned in the Macintosh during planning, so the Mac was given expensive RS-422 capable serial ports; the ports were driven by the Zilog SCC, which could serve as either a standard UART or handle the much more complicated HDLC protocol, a packet oriented protocol that incorporated addressing, bit-stuffing, packet checksumming in hardware. Coupled together with the RS422 electrical connections, this provided a reasonably high-speed data connection; the 230.4 kbit/s bit rate is the highest in the series of standard serial bit rates derived from the 3.6864 MHz clock after the customary divide-by-16. This clock frequency, 3.6864 MHz, was chosen to support the common asynchronous baud rates up to 38.4 kbit/s using the SCC's internal baud-rate generator.
When the SCC's internal PLL was used to lock to the clock embedded in the LocalTalk serial data stream a divide-by-16 setting on the PLL yielded the fastest rate available, namely 230.4 kbit/s. Released as "AppleTalk Personal Network," LocalTalk used shielded twisted-pair cable with 3-pin Mini-DIN connectors. Cables were daisy-chained from transceiver to transceiver; each transceiver had two, 3-pin, Mini-DIN ports, a cable to connect to the Mac's DE-9 serial connector. When the Mac Plus introduced the 8-pin Mini-DIN serial connector, transceivers were updated as well. A variation of LocalTalk called, it used standard unshielded side-by-side telephone wire, with six-position modular connectors connected to a PhoneNet transceiver, instead of the expensive, twisted-pair cable. In addition to being lower cost, PhoneNet-wired networks were more reliable due to the connections being more difficult to accidentally disconnect. In addition, because it used the "outer" pair of the modular connector, it could travel on many pre-existing phone cables and jacks where just the inner pair was in use for RJ11 telephone service.
PhoneNet was able to use an office's existing phone wire, allowing for entire floors of computers to be networked. Farallon introduced a 12-port hub, which made constructing star topology networks of up to 48 devices as easy as adding jacks at the workstations and some jumpers in the phone closet; these factors led to PhoneNet supplanting LocalTalk wiring in low-cost networking. The useful life of PhoneNet was extended with the introduction of LocalTalk switching technology by Tribe Computer Works. Introduced in 1990, the Tribe LocalSwitch was a 16 port packet switch designed to speed up overloaded PhoneNet networks; the widespread availability of Ethernet-based networking in the early 1990s led to the swift disappearance of both LocalTalk and PhoneNet. They remained in use for some time in low-cost applications and applications where Ethernet was not available, but as Ethernet became universal on the PC most offices were installing it anyway. Early models of Power Macintosh and the Macintosh Quadra supported 10BASE-T via the Apple Attachment Unit Interface while still supporting LocalTalk-based networking.
For older Macintosh computers that did not have built-in Ethernet expansion options, a high speed SCSI-to-Ethernet adapter was available, was popular on PowerBooks. This enabled all but the earliest Macintosh models to access a high speed Ethernet network. With the release of the iMac in 1998 the traditional Mac serial port — and thus, the ability to use both LocalTalk and PhoneNet — disappeared from new models of Macintosh. LocalTalk-to-Ethernet bridges were introduced to allow legacy devices to function on newer networks. For old Macintosh computers, LocalTalk remains the only option; the LocalTalk connector had the distinction of being the first to use Apple's unified AppleTalk Connector Family design, created by Brad Bissell of Frogdesign using Rick Meadows' Apple Icon Family designs. LocalTalk connectors were first released in January 1985 to connect the LaserWriter printer with the Macintosh family of computers as an integral part of the newly announced Macintosh Office. However, well past the move to Ethernet, the connector's design continued to be used on all of Apple's peripherals and cable connectors as well as influencing the connectors used throughout the industry as a whole.
AppleTalk Econet List of device bandwidths
Small Computer System Interface is a set of standards for physically connecting and transferring data between computers and peripheral devices. The SCSI standards define commands, electrical and logical interfaces. SCSI is most used for hard disk drives and tape drives, but it can connect a wide range of other devices, including scanners and CD drives, although not all controllers can handle all devices; the SCSI standard defines command sets for specific peripheral device types. The ancestral SCSI standard, X3.131-1986 referred to as SCSI-1, was published by the X3T9 technical committee of the American National Standards Institute in 1986. SCSI-2 was published in August 1990 as X3. T9.2 / 86-109, with subsequent adoption of a multitude of interfaces. Further refinements have resulted in improvements in performance and support for ever-increasing storage data capacity. SCSI is derived from "SASI", the "Shugart Associates System Interface", developed circa 1978 and publicly disclosed in 1981. Larry Boucher is considered to be the "father" of SASI and SCSI due to his pioneering work first at Shugart Associates and at Adaptec.
A SASI controller provided a bridge between a hard disk drive's low-level interface and a host computer, which needed to read blocks of data. SASI controller boards were the size of a hard disk drive and were physically mounted to the drive's chassis. SASI, used in mini- and early microcomputers, defined the interface as using a 50-pin flat ribbon connector, adopted as the SCSI-1 connector. SASI is a compliant subset of SCSI-1 so that many, if not all, of the then-existing SASI controllers were SCSI-1 compatible; until at least February 1982, ANSI developed the specification as "SASI" and "Shugart Associates System Interface. A full day was devoted to agreeing to name the standard "Small Computer System Interface", which Boucher intended to be pronounced "sexy", but ENDL's Dal Allan pronounced the new acronym as "scuzzy" and that stuck. A number of companies such as NCR Corporation and Optimem were early supporters of SCSI; the NCR facility in Wichita, Kansas is thought to have developed the industry's first SCSI controller chip.
The "small" reference in "small computer system interface" is historical. Since its standardization in 1986, SCSI has been used in the Amiga, Apple Macintosh and Sun Microsystems computer lines and PC server systems. Apple started using the less-expensive parallel ATA for its low-end machines with the Macintosh Quadra 630 in 1994, added it to its high-end desktops starting with the Power Macintosh G3 in 1997. Apple dropped on-board SCSI in favor of IDE and FireWire with the Power Mac G3 in 1999, while still offering a PCI SCSI host adapter as an option on up to the Power Macintosh G4 models. Sun switched its lower-end range to Serial ATA. Commodore included SCSI on the Amiga 3000/3000T systems and it was an add-on to previous Amiga 500/2000 models. Starting with the Amiga 600/1200/4000 systems Commodore switched to the IDE interface. Atari included SCSI as standard in its Atari MEGA Atari TT and Atari Falcon computer models. SCSI has never been popular in the low-priced IBM PC world, owing to the lower cost and adequate performance of ATA hard disk standard.
However, SCSI drives and SCSI RAIDs became common in PC workstations for video or audio production. Recent physical versions of SCSI—Serial Attached SCSI, SCSI-over-Fibre Channel Protocol, USB Attached SCSI —break from the traditional parallel SCSI bus and perform data transfer via serial communications using point-to-point links. Although much of the SCSI documentation talks about the parallel interface, all modern development efforts use serial interfaces. Serial interfaces have a number of advantages over parallel SCSI, including higher data rates, simplified cabling, longer reach, improved fault isolation and full-duplex capability; the primary reason for the shift to serial interfaces is the clock skew issue of high speed parallel interfaces, which makes the faster variants of parallel SCSI susceptible to problems caused by cabling and termination. The non-physical iSCSI preserves the basic SCSI paradigm the command set unchanged, through embedding of SCSI-3 over TCP/IP. Therefore, iSCSI uses logical connections instead of physical links and can run on top of any network supporting IP.
The actual physical links are realized on lower network layers, independently from iSCSI. Predominantly, Ethernet is used, of serial nature. SCSI is popular on high-performance workstations and storage appliances. All RAID subsystems on servers have used some kind of SCSI hard disk drives for decades, though a number of manufacturers offer SATA-based RAID subsystems as a cheaper option. Moreover, SAS offers compatibility with SATA devices, creating a much broader range of options for RAID subsystems together with the existence of nearline SAS drives. Instead of SCSI, modern desktop computers and notebooks use SATA interfaces for internal hard disk drives, with M.2 and PCIe gaining popularity as SATA can bottleneck modern solid-state drives. SCSI is available in a variety of int
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies used in local area networks, metropolitan area networks and wide area networks. It was commercially introduced in 1980 and first standardized in 1983 as IEEE 802.3, has since retained a good deal of backward compatibility and been refined to support higher bit rates and longer link distances. Over time, Ethernet has replaced competing wired LAN technologies such as Token Ring, FDDI and ARCNET; the original 10BASE5 Ethernet uses coaxial cable as a shared medium, while the newer Ethernet variants use twisted pair and fiber optic links in conjunction with switches. Over the course of its history, Ethernet data transfer rates have been increased from the original 2.94 megabits per second to the latest 400 gigabits per second. The Ethernet standards comprise several wiring and signaling variants of the OSI physical layer in use with Ethernet. Systems communicating over Ethernet divide a stream of data into shorter pieces called frames; each frame contains source and destination addresses, error-checking data so that damaged frames can be detected and discarded.
As per the OSI model, Ethernet provides services up including the data link layer. Features such as the 48-bit MAC address and Ethernet frame format have influenced other networking protocols including Wi-Fi wireless networking technology. Ethernet is used in home and industry; the Internet Protocol is carried over Ethernet and so it is considered one of the key technologies that make up the Internet. Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974, it was inspired by ALOHAnet. The idea was first documented in a memo that Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the luminiferous aether once postulated to exist as an "omnipresent, completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves." In 1975, Xerox filed a patent application listing Metcalfe, David Boggs, Chuck Thacker, Butler Lampson as inventors. In 1976, after the system was deployed at PARC, Metcalfe and Boggs published a seminal paper; that same year, Ron Crane, Bob Garner, Roy Ogus facilitated the upgrade from the original 2.94 Mbit/s protocol to the 10 Mbit/s protocol, released to the market in 1980.
Metcalfe left Xerox in June 1979 to form 3Com. He convinced Digital Equipment Corporation and Xerox to work together to promote Ethernet as a standard; as part of that process Xerox agreed to relinquish their'Ethernet' trademark. The first standard was published on September 1980 as "The Ethernet, A Local Area Network. Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications"; this so-called DIX standard specified 10 Mbit/s Ethernet, with 48-bit destination and source addresses and a global 16-bit Ethertype-type field. Version 2 was published in November, 1982 and defines what has become known as Ethernet II. Formal standardization efforts proceeded at the same time and resulted in the publication of IEEE 802.3 on June 23, 1983. Ethernet competed with Token Ring and other proprietary protocols. Ethernet was able to adapt to market realities and shift to inexpensive thin coaxial cable and ubiquitous twisted pair wiring. By the end of the 1980s, Ethernet was the dominant network technology. In the process, 3Com became a major company.
3Com shipped its first 10 Mbit/s Ethernet 3C100 NIC in March 1981, that year started selling adapters for PDP-11s and VAXes, as well as Multibus-based Intel and Sun Microsystems computers. This was followed by DEC's Unibus to Ethernet adapter, which DEC sold and used internally to build its own corporate network, which reached over 10,000 nodes by 1986, making it one of the largest computer networks in the world at that time. An Ethernet adapter card for the IBM PC was released in 1982, and, by 1985, 3Com had sold 100,000. Parallel port based Ethernet adapters were produced with drivers for DOS and Windows. By the early 1990s, Ethernet became so prevalent that it was a must-have feature for modern computers, Ethernet ports began to appear on some PCs and most workstations; this process was sped up with the introduction of 10BASE-T and its small modular connector, at which point Ethernet ports appeared on low-end motherboards. Since Ethernet technology has evolved to meet new bandwidth and market requirements.
In addition to computers, Ethernet is now used to interconnect appliances and other personal devices. As Industrial Ethernet it is used in industrial applications and is replacing legacy data transmission systems in the world's telecommunications networks. By 2010, the market for Ethernet equipment amounted to over $16 billion per year. In February 1980, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers started project 802 to standardize local area networks; the "DIX-group" with Gary Robinson, Phil Arst, Bob Printis submitted the so-called "Blue Book" CSMA/CD specification as a candidate for the LAN specification. In addition to CSMA/CD, Token Ring and Token Bus were considered as candidates for a LAN standard. Competing proposals and broad interest in the initiative led to strong disagreement over which technology to standardize. In December 1980, the group was split into three subgroups, standardization proceeded separately for each proposal. Delays in the standards process put at risk the market introduction of the Xerox Star workstation and 3Com's Ethernet LAN products.
With such business implications in mind, David Liddle an
PowerPC is a reduced instruction set computing instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA, while the old name lives on as a trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture-based processors. PowerPC was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s. Intended for personal computers, the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Power Macintosh, PowerBook, iMac, iBook, Xserve lines from 1994 until 2006, when Apple migrated to Intel's x86, it has since become a niche in personal computers, but remains popular for embedded and high-performance processors. Its use in 7th generation of video game consoles and embedded applications provided an array of uses. In addition, PowerPC CPUs are still used in third party AmigaOS 4 personal computers. PowerPC is based on IBM's earlier POWER instruction set architecture, retains a high level of compatibility with it.
The history of RISC began with IBM's 801 research project, on which John Cocke was the lead developer, where he developed the concepts of RISC in 1975–78. 801-based microprocessors were used in a number of IBM embedded products becoming the 16-register IBM ROMP processor used in the IBM RT PC. The RT PC was a rapid design implementing the RISC architecture. Between the years of 1982–1984, IBM started a project to build the fastest microprocessor on the market; the result is the POWER instruction set architecture, introduced with the RISC System/6000 in early 1990. The original POWER microprocessor, one of the first superscalar RISC implementations, is a high performance, multi-chip design. IBM soon realized that a single-chip microprocessor was needed in order to scale its RS/6000 line from lower-end to high-end machines. Work began on a one-chip POWER microprocessor, designated the RSC. In early 1991, IBM realized its design could become a high-volume microprocessor used across the industry. Apple had realized the limitations and risks of its dependency upon a single CPU vendor at a time when Motorola was falling behind on delivering the 68040 CPU.
Furthermore, Apple had conducted its own research and made an experimental quad-core CPU design called Aquarius, which convinced the company's technology leadership that the future of computing was in the RISC methodology. IBM approached Apple with the goal of collaborating on the development of a family of single-chip microprocessors based on the POWER architecture. Soon after, being one of Motorola's largest customers of desktop-class microprocessors, asked Motorola to join the discussions due to their long relationship, Motorola having had more extensive experience with manufacturing high-volume microprocessors than IBM, to form a second source for the microprocessors; this three-way collaboration between Apple, IBM, Motorola became known as the AIM alliance. In 1991, the PowerPC was just one facet of a larger alliance among these three companies. At the time, most of the personal computer industry was shipping systems based on the Intel 80386 and 80486 chips, which have a complex instruction set computer architecture, development of the Pentium processor was well underway.
The PowerPC chip was one of several joint ventures involving the three alliance members, in their efforts to counter the growing Microsoft-Intel dominance of personal computing. For Motorola, POWER looked like an unbelievable deal, it allowed the company to sell a tested and powerful RISC CPU for little design cash on its own part. It maintained ties with an important customer and seemed to offer the possibility of adding IBM too, which might buy smaller versions from Motorola instead of making its own. At this point Motorola had its own RISC design in the form of the 88000, doing poorly in the market. Motorola was doing well with its 68000 family and the majority of the funding was focused on this; the 88000 effort was somewhat starved for resources. The 88000 was in production, however; the 88000 had achieved a number of embedded design wins in telecom applications. If the new POWER one-chip version could be made bus-compatible at a hardware level with the 88000, that would allow both Apple and Motorola to bring machines to market far faster since they would not have to redesign their board architecture.
The result of these various requirements is the PowerPC specification. The differences between the earlier POWER instruction set and that of PowerPC is outlined in Appendix E of the manual for PowerPC ISA v.2.02. Since 1991, IBM had a long-standing desire for a unifying operating system that would host all existing operating systems as personalities upon one microkernel. From 1991 to 1995, the company designed and aggressively evangelized what would become Workplace OS targeting PowerPC; when the first PowerPC products reached the market, they were met with enthusiasm. In addition to Apple, both IBM and the Motorola Computer Group offered systems built around the processors. Microsoft released Windows NT 3.51 for the architecture, used in Motorola's
Power Mac G4
The Power Mac G4 is a series of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1999 to 2004 as part of the Power Macintosh line. Built around the PowerPC G4 series of microprocessors, the Power Mac G4 was marketed by Apple as the first "personal supercomputers", reaching speeds of 4 to 20 gigaFLOPS; this was the first existing Macintosh product to be shortened as "Mac", is the last Mac able to boot into classic Mac OS. The enclosure style introduced with the Power Macintosh G3 was retained through its entire five year production run of the Power Mac G4, albeit with significant changes to match Apple's evolving industrial design and to accommodate increasing cooling needs; the G4 and the enclosure were retired with the introduction of the Power Mac G5. The original Power Mac G4 was introduced at the Seybold conference in San Francisco on August 31, 1999. There were two variants titled Power Mac G4 with 400 MHz, 450 MHz and 500 MHz configurations available, Power Mac G4, with 350 MHz and 400 MHz configurations.
Colloquially, this generation of Power Mac is referred to as "Graphite", owing to the colors of the case being similar to the iMac G3 Graphite. Apple planned to ship the 500 MHz configuration in October 1999, but they were forced to postpone this because of poor yield of the CPUs. In response, Apple reduced the clock speed of the processor in each configuration by 50 MHz, which caused some controversy because they did not lower the original prices; the early 400 MHz PCI-based version used a motherboard identical to the one used in Power Macintosh G3 computers including the use of Zero Insertion Force processors sockets, in a "graphite" colored case and with the new Motorola PowerPC 7400 CPU. The higher-speed models, code name "Sawtooth", used a modified motherboard design with AGP 2x graphics; the PCI variant was discontinued at the end of 1999. The machines featured DVD-ROM drives as standard; the 400 MHz and 450 MHz versions had 100 MB Zip drives as standard equipment, as an option on the 350 MHz Sawtooth.
This series had a 100 MHz system bus and four PC100 SDRAM slots for up to 2 GB of RAM. The AGP Power Macs were the first to include an AirPort slot and DVI video port; the computers could house a total of three hard drives, two 128 GB ATA hard drives and up to a single 20GB SCSI hard drive, with the installation of a SCSI card. The 500 MHz version was reintroduced on February 16, 2000, accompanied by 400 MHz and 450 MHz models. DVD-RAM and Zip drives featured on these 450 MHz and 500 MHz versions and were an option on the 400 MHz; the Power Mac G4 model was introduced at Macworld Expo New York on July 19, 2000. It was the first personal computer to include gigabit Ethernet as standard. Most people saw this revision as a stopgap release; the dual 500 MHz models featured DVD-RAM optical drive. Zip drives were optional on all models; these models introduced Apple's proprietary Apple Display Connector video port. A new line with a revamped motherboard but the familiar "Graphite" case debuted on January 9, 2001.
Known as the Power Mac G4, it is in effect a Quicksilver design inside the Graphite enclosure. Motorola had added a seventh pipeline stage in the new PowerPC G4 design to achieve faster clock frequencies. New features included a fourth PCI slot, a 133 MHz system bus, an improved 4X AGP slot, a new "digital audio" Tripath Class T amplifier sound system; the models were offered in 466 MHz, 533 MHz, dual 533 MHz, 667 MHz and 733 MHz configurations, the latter two using a newer PowerPC 7450 processor. The number of RAM slots was reduced to three, accommodating up to 1.5 Gigabytes of PC133 SDRAM. The 733 MHz model was the first Macintosh to include a built-in DVD-R or Apple-branded SuperDrive, the rest of the line became the first Macs to ship with CD-RW drives; this was the first series of Macs to include an Nvidia graphics card, the GeForce 2MX. At Macworld Expo New York on July 18, 2001, a new line debuted featuring a cosmetically redesigned case known as Quicksilver, various upgrades to the specifications.
It was available in 733 867 MHz and dual 800 MHz configurations. The 733 MHz model was notable for not having a level three cache; the SuperDrive was offered on the mid-range 867 MHz model, UltraATA/100 hard drives were offered on all models. The internal speaker received an upgrade. Quicksilver received criticism in MacWorld's review for removing the "eject" button and the manual eject pinhole, as well as the pass-through monitor power plug, for the base specification of 128 MB RAM as being insufficient for running Mac OS X. Updated Quicksilver machines named Power Mac G4, were introduced on January 28, 2002 with 800 MHz, 933 MHz and dual 1 GHz configurations; this was the first Mac. Again, the low end 800 MHz model did not include any level three cache; the graphics in this series were provided by an Nvidia GeForce4 MX400 card. Some of these models have ATA controllers with 48 bit LBA for hard drives larger than 128 GB. Another generation of Apple Power Mac G4s named "Mirrored Drive Doors", was introduced on August 13, 2002, featuring both a new Xserve-derived DDR motherboard architecture and a new case design.
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association was a group of computer hardware manufacturers, operating under that name from 1989 to 2009/2010. Starting with the eponymous PCMCIA card in 1990, it created various standards for peripheral interfaces designed for laptop computers; the PCMCIA industry organization was based on the original initiative of the British mathematician and computer scientist Ian Cullimore, one of the founders of the Sunnyvale-based Poqet Computer Corporation, seeking to integrate some kind of memory card technology as storage medium into their early DOS-based palmtop PCs, when traditional floppy drives and harddisks were found to be too power-hungry and large to fit into their battery-powered handheld devices. When in July 1989, Poqet contacted Fujitsu for their existing but still non-standardized SRAM memory cards, Intel for their flash technology, the necessity and potential of establishing a worldwide memory card standard became obvious to the parties involved.
This led to the foundation of the PCMCIA organization in September 1989. By early 1990, some thirty companies had joined the initiative including Poqet, Intel, Mitsubishi, IBM, Microsoft and SCM Microsystems. From 1990 onwards, the association published and maintained a sequence of standards for parallel communication peripheral interfaces in laptop computers, notably the PCMCIA card renamed to PC Card, the ExpressCard, all of them now technologically obsolete; the PCMCIA association was dissolved in 2009 and all of its activities have since been managed by the USB Implementer's Forum, according to the PCMCIA website. PCMCIA stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, the group of companies that defined the standard; this acronym was difficult to say and remember, was sometimes jokingly referred to as "People Can't Memorize Computer Industry Acronyms". To recognize increased scope beyond memory, to aid in marketing, the association acquired the rights to the simpler term "PC Card" from IBM.
This was the name of the standard from version 2 of the specification onwards. These cards were used for wireless networks and other functions in notebook PCs. "The Official PCMCIA Association Website". Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. Archived from the original on 2008-12-25. Retrieved 2016-08-14