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Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work or of transferring heat, i.e. the amount of energy transferred or converted per unit time. In the International System of Units, the unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second; the equation for power can be written as the rate of work: power = work time Power is a scalar quantity that requires both a change in the physical system and a specified time interval in which the change occurs. This is distinct from the concept of work, measured only in terms of a net change in the state of the physical system; the same amount of work is done. But more power is needed; the output power of a motor is the product of the torque that the motor generates and the angular velocity of its output shaft. The power involved in moving a ground vehicle is the product of the traction force on the wheels and the velocity of the vehicle; the power of a jet-propelled vehicle is the product of the engine thrust and the velocity of the vehicle. The rate at which a light bulb converts electrical energy into light and heat is measured in watts—the electrical energy used per unit time.

The dimension of power is energy divided by time. The SI unit of power is the watt, equal to one joule per second. Other common and traditional measures are horsepower. Other units of power include ergs per second, foot-pounds per minute, dBm, a logarithmic measure relative to a reference of 1 milliwatt, calories per hour, BTU per hour, tons of refrigeration. Power, as a function of time, is the rate at which work is done, so can be expressed by this equation: P = d W d t where P is power, W is work, t is time; because work is a force F applied over a distance x, W = F ⋅ x for a constant force, power can be rewritten as: P = d W d t = d d t = F ⋅ d x d t = F ⋅ v In fact, this is valid for any force, as a consequence of applying the fundamental theorem of calculus. As a simple example, burning one kilogram of coal releases much more energy than does detonating a kilogram of TNT, but because the TNT reaction releases energy much more it delivers far more power than the coal. If ΔW is the amount of work performed during a period of time of duration Δt, the average power Pavg over that period is given by the formula: P a v g = Δ W Δ t It is the average amount of work done or energy converted per unit of time.

The average power is simply called "power" when the context makes it clear. The instantaneous power is the limiting value of the average power as the time interval Δt approaches zero. P = lim Δ t → 0 P a v g = lim Δ t → 0 Δ W Δ t = d W d t In the case of constant power P, the amount of work performed during a period of duration t is given by: W = P t In the context of energy conversion, it is more customary to use the symbol E rather than W. Power in mechanical systems is the combination of forces and movement. In particular, power is the product of a force on an object and the object's velocity, or the product of a torque on a shaft and the shaft's angular velocity. Mechanical power is described as the time derivative of work. In mechanics, the work done by a force F on an object that travels along a curve C is given by the line integral: W C = ∫ C F ⋅ v d t = ∫ C F ⋅ d x where x defines the path C and v is the velocity along this path. If the force F is derivable from a potential applying the gradient theorem yields: W C = U − U where A and B are the beginning and

Harold Augenbraum

Harold Augenbraum is an American writer and translator. He is the former Executive Director of the National Book Foundation, former member of the Board of Trustees of the Asian American Writers Workshop, former vice chair of the New York Council for the Humanities. Before taking up his position at the National Book Foundation in November 2004, for fifteen years Augenbraum was Director of The Mercantile Library of New York, where he established the Center for World Literature, the New York Festival of Mystery, the Clifton Fadiman Medal, the Proust Society of America, he has been awarded eight grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities, received a Raven Award from the Mystery Writers of America for distinguished service to the mystery field, coordinated the national celebration of the John Steinbeck Centennial. He is based at Amherst College. Augenbraum has published six books on Latino literature of the United States and translations of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca’s Chronicle of the Narváez Expedition and the Filipino novelist José Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere and El filibusterismo for Penguin Classics.

He edited the Collected Poems of Marcel Proust. 2013—Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Narrative of the Narváez Expedition, edited 2013—Marcel Proust, Collected Poems, edited with an Introduction by 2012—Juan Rulfo, The Plain in Flames, translated by Ilan Stavans and Harold Augenbraum 2011—José Rizal, El Filibusterismo, edited and with an Introduction by 2010 -- Norton Anthology of U. S. Latino Literature, General Editor, Ilan Stavans, Co-Editor, Harold Augenbraum, et al. 2006 -- Lengua Fresca: Latinos on the Edge, edited with Ilan Stavans 2006—José Rizal, Noli Me Tangere, translation 2005 -- Encyclopedia Latina, General Editor, Ilan Stavans, Associate Editor, Harold Augenbraum. 2002—Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Chronicle of the Narváez Expedition, revised translation 2002 -- How to Organize a Steinbeck Book or Film Discussion Group, with Susan Shillinglaw 2000 -- U. S. Latino Literature: A Critical Guide for Students and Teachers, edited with Margarite Fernandez-Olmos 1997 -- The Latino Reader: An American Literary Tradition from 1542 to the Present Day, edited with Margarite Fernandez-Olmos 1993 -- Growing Up Latino: Memoirs and Stories, with Ilan Stavans 1993 -- Bendíceme, América, with Terry Quinn and Ilan Stavans 1992 -- Latinos in English: A Selected Bibliography of Latino Fiction Writers of the United States, edited SourcesContemporary Authors Penguin Classics author biography National Book Foundation Harold Augenbraum at Library of Congress Authorities, with 13 catalog records

Carol Handley

Carol Margaret Handley was headmistress of Camden School for Girls and President of the Classical Association. Handley is now a classics tutor at Cambridge. Handley is known for her longstanding advocacy for Classics education in schools and universities, as well as for her work on teaching and examination materials for the Joint Association of Classical Teachers and for the University of Cambridge. After completing her Classics BA at UCL in 1951, Handley began her teaching career at Queen's Gate School, London in 1952, she moved to Camden School for Girls in 1956 as a Classics teacher becoming the Senior Classics mistress. In 1965 Handley became Deputy Head and Headmistress in 1971. Throughout this time Handley was involved with the Joint Association of Classical Teachers and was instrumental in finding Bryanston School for the location of the JACT summer school, she retired from Camden School for Girls in 1985 From 1991 to 2005, Handley was the Director of the Reading Greek courses at the Institute of Continuing Education, Cambridge.

During this time Handley became President of the Classical Association in 1996 and her Presidential Address in 1997 was published as Things That Matter. Handley was only the fifth woman president since the Classical Association was founded in 1903, she is now a Classics tutor at Cambridge. Handley married Eric Handley on 31 July 1952, he was the leading scholar in the rediscovery of the playwright Menander, writing an important commentary on the Dyskolos. He was Professor of Greek at UCL and held the Regius Professor of Greek chair at Trinity College, Cambridge until his death in 2013, he was a fellow of the British Academy. With Pat Easterling Greek Scripts: An Illustrated Introduction Things That Matter with Jeannie Cohen, James Morwood, James Neville An Independent Study Guide to Reading Greek The Future of Greek in Schools, Didaskalos v2 n2 p. 12-22

Coat of arms of Silesia

The Silesian coat of arms is derived from the ancestral crests of the Silesian Piasts. The image of the eagle was used by the Opole prince Kazimierz I in 1222, it is the oldest image of the eagle as the prince's emblem on the Polish lands. In Lower Silesia, a black eagle in a golden field with a silver band on its wings was used with a white cross in the middle, while the lands of Upper Silesia used the golden eagle in a blue field. In the German Upper Silesia, the shield was partitioned in the middle by a scythe blade, below which the miner's emblem was located. In the Polish tradition, the Silesian eagle is not crowned, in the Czech and German the opposite, although e.g. the eagle on the coat of arms of the Prussian Upper Silesia did not have a crown. The colors of the lands are related to the colors of their coat of arms. Upper Silesia uses blue respectively. In Prussian times, Lower Silesia used a flag with two stripes of equal width: silver at the top and gold at the bottom, while Upper Silesia flags had a yellow stripe at the top and blue at the bottom.

Lower Silesia uses silver, from the strip on the eagle's chest, the emblem of Prince Henry the Bearded. It has been assumed in the tradition that the coat of arms and colors of Lower Silesia are used as symbols of Silesia as a whole; the Upper Silesian Piasts had an emblem in two variants: without a crown. The crown was added with only the Dukes of Opole and Teschen having the crowned eagle in their coat of arms; the golden eagle in the blue field was inherited by the dukes of such Silesian principalities as: Opole, Strzelce, Kozielsko-Bytom, Racibórz, Teschen and before the purchase by the Polish king the ruler of the Oświęcim. The oldest color image of the coat of arms of Opole has been preserved at the castle in Lauf near Nuremberg, where in 1353 114 coats of arms of princes and cities were carved in stone. For the first time the coat of arms was used by Henry II the Pious in 1224–1240; this coat of arms was featured on seals of subsequent dukes of Lower Silesia: Henryk III, Henryk IV, Bolesław II Rogatka, Henryk V, Bolesław III, Konrad I, Henryk III of Głogów, Bolko I, Henryk I, Bolko II.

The coat of arms was used in the 2nd half of the 14th century, some did not add the cross to the band. It took place in the Duchies of Brzeg; as Silesia was more divided, other eagle colors were adopted. In the Duchy of Świdnica, in the silver field there was a half-red black and red eagle with a headband, in the Duchy of Münsterberg there was a red and black eagle; the traditional coat of arms of the Lower Silesian Piasts can be observed on the coats of arms of: Lower Silesian Voivodship Silesia and Moravia Olomouc Czech Republic LiechtensteinThe eagle of the Upper Silesian Piasts is in the coat of arms of Silesian Voivodeship and the coat of arms of Opole Voivodeship. In the coat of arms of Bohemia, there is a black eagle. In the interwar years, the coat of arms was adopted to the coat of arms of Czechoslovakia. Coat of arms of Moravia Coat of arms of Czechoslovakia Coat of arms of Austria-Hungary Maximilian Gritzner: Landes- und Wappenkunde der Brandenburgisch-Preußischen Monarchie. Geschichte ihrer einzelnen Landestheile, deren Herrscher und Wappen.

Heymann, Berlin 1894

Kevin W. Sharer

Kevin W. Sharer is an American businessman, Chairman/CEO of the biotechnology company Amgen from 2000 to 2012, he served on several large company boards of directors and after Amgen joined the faculty of Harvard Business School. Sharer studied aeronautical engineering at the U. S. Naval Academy and graduated in 1970 with a BSAE. In 1971 he received an MS in aeronautical engineering from the US Naval Postgraduate School, he received his MBA from the University of Pittsburgh's Joseph M. Katz Graduate School of Business in 1983. Sharer served in the navy from 1970 through 1978, he served on two fast-attack nuclear submarines. At the age of 27, he became the new construction engineer officer on the USS Memphis and served as part of the commissioning crew, he left the navy with the rank of lieutenant commander. From 1978 to 1982, Sharer worked at AT&T Long Lines in sales management. Sharer was a consultant at McKinsey & Company, from 1982 to 1984 in the Washington, D. C. office. From 1984 to 1989 Sharer worked at General Electric beginning on the Chairmen’s staff in business development and strategy and as general manager of two small divisions.

He left as a corporate Vice President to join MCI Communications. He was at MCI from 1989 to 1992 with responsibility for sales and marketing and as GM of the business markets division. Sharer joined the biotech firm Amgen in 1992 as president / chief operating officer and board member. From 2000 to 2012 he was Chairman/CEO of Amgen. Amgen grew from $1B in sales to $15B in sales during Sharer’s twenty years. All but $800M of the $14B sales growth was organic. Sharer joined the faculty of Harvard Business School in 2012 and has taught a variety of courses in strategy and general management to MBA and executive education students. Sharer has been on the faculty for six years. Sharer provides executive coaching to CEO’s of a variety of large complex organizations across a range of industries and is a strategic adviser in healthcare to the financial firm Blackstone. Chairman of the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America from 2005 to 2007. Chairman of the board of trustees of the Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History from 2000 to 2010.

Board of directors U. S. Naval Academy Foundation since 1998. Retired Board member of Amgen, Chevron, 3M, Northrop Grumman. On board of Allied Minds, a public company with a portfolio of high tech companies. Married to Carol Sharer, two children, three step daughters and many grandchildren. Lives in Vail and San Francisco, California

The Rats (American band)

The Rats were an American garage punk band from Portland, formed by Fred Cole of the garage rock band, The Lollipop Shoppe. Cole played guitar and sang, his wife, "Toody" played bass and sang, Rod Rat played drums, their sound was a raw mix of punk rock with occasional country touches. Their self-titled debut album appeared on Cole's Whizeagle label in 1980. Soon after, Rod Rat left the band, though he guested on the 1981 follow-up Intermittent Signals before his death by suicide.. Sam Henry of the Wipers, played drums on this LP but left to join another Portland band, Napalm Beach. Louis Samora was on the drum throne for the 1983 album In a Desperate Red, still on Whizeagle. Samora left in 1984 to concentrate on The Jackals; the band broke up, but Bill Barker of Profile Studios in Vancouver, British Columbia convinced the band to reunite for a single. It appeared under the band name The Desperate Edge in 1984. Soon after, Cole assembled a country band, Western Front, he and Toody reunited in Dead Moon.

The Rats' records have long been out of sell for high prices on eBay. In 2008, Portland's Mississippi Records reissued the first album on vinyl; the two-part song "The Rat's Revenge" - which appeared on the first volume of Back from the Grave - was performed by a different band under the same name