Power Mac G5
The Power Mac G5 is a series of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 2003 to 2006 as part of the Power Mac series. When introduced, it was the most powerful computer in Apple's Macintosh lineup, was marketed by the company as the world's first 64-bit desktop computer, it was the first desktop computer from Apple to use an anodized aluminum alloy enclosure, one of only three computers in Apple’s lineup to utilize the PowerPC 970 CPU, the others being the iMac G5 and the Xserve G5. Three generations of Power Mac G5 were released before it was discontinued as part of Apple's transition to Intel processors, making way for its replacement, the Mac Pro; the Mac Pro retained the G5's enclosure design for seven more years, making it among the longest-lived designs in Apple's history. Launched as part of Steve Jobs' keynote presentation at the Worldwide Developers Conference in June 2003, the Power Mac G5 was introduced with three models, sharing the same physical case, but differing in features and performance.
The physical case of the Power Mac G5 was different and unusual compared to any other computer at that time. Although somewhat larger than the G4 tower it replaced, the G5 tower had room inside for only one optical, two hard drives. Steve Jobs stated during his keynote presentation that the Power Mac G5 would reach 3 GHz "within 12 months." This would never come to pass. During the presentation, Apple showed Virginia Tech's Mac OS X computer cluster supercomputer known as System X, consisting of 1100 Power Mac G5s operating as processing nodes; the supercomputer managed to become one of the top 5 supercomputers that year. The computer was soon dismantled and replaced with a new cluster made of an equal number of Xserve G5 rack-mounted servers, which use the G5 chip running at 2.3 GHz. The PowerPC G5 is based upon IBM's dual-core POWER4 microprocessor. At the Power Mac G5's introduction, Apple announced a partnership with IBM in which IBM would continue to produce PowerPC variants of their POWER processors.
According to IBM's Dr. John E. Kelly, "The goal of this partnership is for Apple and IBM to come together so that Apple customers get the best of both worlds, the tremendous creativity from Apple Computers and the tremendous technology from the IBM corporation. IBM invested over $3 billion US dollars in a new lab to produce these large, 300 mm wafers." This lab was a automated facility located in East Fishkill, New York, figured in IBM's larger microelectronics strategy. The original PowerPC 970 had 50 million transistors and was manufactured using IBM CMOS 9S at 130 nm fabrication process. CMOS 9S is the combination of SOI, low-k dielectric insulation, copper interconnect technology, which were invented at IBM research in the mid-1990s. Subsequent revisions of the "G5" processor have included IBM's PowerPC 970FX, the PowerPC 970MP. Apple refers to the dual-core PowerPC 970MP processors as either the "G5 Dual", or Power Mac G5 Quad; the Power Mac G5 line in 2006 consisted of three, dual-core PowerPC G5 configurations, which can communicate through its FSB at half its internal clock speed.
Each processor in the Power Mac G5 has two unidirectional 32-bit pathways: one leading to the processor and the other from the processor. These result in a total bandwidth of up to 20 GB/s; the processor at the heart of the Power Mac G5 has a "superscalar, superpipelined" execution core that can handle up to 216 in-flight instructions, uses a 128-bit, 162-instruction SIMD unit. All modern 32-bit x86 processors since the Pentium Pro have the Physical Address Extension feature, which permits them to use a 36-bit physical memory address to address a maximum of 236 bytes of physical memory, while the PowerPC 970 processor is capable of addressing 242 bytes of physical memory and 264 bytes of virtual memory. Due to its 64-bit processor, the final revision of the Power Mac G5 can hold 16 GB of Dual-Channel DDR2 PC4200 RAM using eight memory slots, with support for ECC memory. DP designates a dual-processor machine, SP designates a single-processor machine, DC designates a dual-core-processor machine.
2003 June: Initial release at speeds of SP 1.6, SP 1.8, DP 2.0 GHz. 2003 November: DP 1.8 replaces SP 1.8 GHz. The 2.5 GHz model is notable. 2004 October: A new SP 1.8 reintroduced, with a slower, 600 MHz FSB, PCI bus, based upon the iMac G5's architecture. Apple's official name for this machine is "Power Mac G5". 2005 April: CPU speed increased: DP 2.5 GHz → DP 2.7 GHz, DP 2.0 GHz → DP 2.3 GHz, DP 1.8 GHz → DP 2 GHz. Newly introduced features were the 16x dual-layer SuperDrives across the line and increased storage, up to 800 GB for the higher-end models; the 1.8 GHz SP was not modified. 2005 June–July: The SP 1.8 model was discontinued in the United States and Europe. 2005 October: Shift to dual-core processors: DP 2.0 GHz → DC 2.0 GHz, DP 2.3 GHz → DC 2.3 GHz, DP 2.7 GHz → DP DC 2.5 GHz, all with DDR2 memory, PCI Express expansion
Power Macintosh 8600
The Power Macintosh 8600 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from February 1997 to February 1998. It was introduced alongside the Power Macintosh 7300 and 9600 with a 200 MHz PowerPC 604e processor, comes in a new case design that replaces the widely-disliked Quadra 800-based form factor of its predecessor, the Power Macintosh 8500. Like the 7300 and 9600, the 8600 featured the new PowerPC 604e and 604ev CPU, an enhanced version of the PowerPC 604 used in the predecessor models 8500 and 9500, it used the same new case as the 9600, but was somewhat less expandable at a lower price, a distinction, carried over from the previous generation. It includes advanced Audio-Video ports including RCA audio in and out, S-Video in and out and composite video in and out; the 8600 was plagued with supply problems from the beginning, only in June 1997, four months after its introduction, was the computer available. The 300 MHz model was delayed after its introduction, but not as as the original model had been.
In August 1997, the original model was replaced with two faster ones, at 250 and 300 MHz, the 8600 was discontinued in February 1998, a few months after the introduction of its replacement, the Power Macintosh G3 Mini Tower. Introduced February 17, 1997: Power Macintosh 8600/200: Includes System 7.5.5. Introduced August 5, 1997: Power Macintosh 8600/250: Includes Mac OS 7.6.1. Power Macintosh 8600/300: Includes Mac OS 7.6.1. Power Macintosh 8600 at Low End Mac Power Macintosh 8600/200, 8600/250 and 8600/300 at EveryMac.com
The Power Macintosh Power Mac, is a family of personal computers that were designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. as part of its Macintosh brand from March 1994 until August 2006. Described by MacWorld Magazine as "The most important technical evolution of the Macintosh since the Mac II debuted in 1987," the Power Macintosh was Apple's first computer to use a PowerPC processor. Software written for the Motorola 68030 and 68040 processors that were used in Macintoshes up to that point would not run on the PowerPC natively, so a Mac 68k emulator was included with System 7.1.2. While the emulator provided good compatibility with existing Macintosh software, performance was about one-third slower than comparable Macintosh Quadra machines; the Power Macintosh replaced the Quadra in Apple's lineup, were sold in the same enclosures. Over the next twelve years, the Power Macintosh evolved through a succession of enclosure designs, a rename to "Power Mac", five major generations of PowerPC chips, a great deal of press coverage, design accolades, controversy about performance claims.
The Power Mac was discontinued as part of Apple's transition to Intel processors, making way for its replacement, the Mac Pro. The first Power Macintosh models were released in March 1994, but the development of Power Macintosh technology dates back to mid-1988. Jean-Louis Gassée, president of Apple's product division, started the "Jaguar" project with the goal of creating a computer that would not only be the fastest desktop computer on the market, but would accept commands by talking to the computer; this was envisioned to be a new computer line altogether, not a Macintosh, the Jaguar team was kept independent of the Macintosh team. This separation included operating system development, with the newly-conceived "Pink" being the platform for the new computer. Jaguar was not intended to be a high-volume, mainstream system. Gassée's preference, as it was with the upcoming Macintosh IIfx, was to create a product that would compete in the high-end workstation market not an area of strength for Apple.
The decision to use RISC architecture was representative of a shift in the computer industry in 1987 and 1988, where RISC-based systems from Sun Microsystems, Hewlett-Packard and IBM were outpacing the performance offered by systems based on Motorola's 68020 and 68030 processors and Intel's 80386 and 80486 CPUs. Apple invested considerable time and effort in an attempt to create their own RISC CPU in a project code-named "Aquarius" to a point where a Cray-1 supercomputer was purchased to assist with designing the chip; the company lacked the financial and manufacturing resources to produce a working product and the project was cancelled in 1989. By early 1990, Apple was in contact with a number of RISC vendors to find a suitable hardware partner; the team that had created the IIfx independently started experimenting with creating a new Macintosh product that would combine a Motorola 68030 processor with an AMD Am29000 RISC chip. Apple had released a product built on the 29k called "Macintosh Display Card 8•24 GC", a so-called "Macintosh Toolbox accelerator" NuBus card that provided faster drawing routines than those included on the Macintosh ROM.
The team's experiments resulted in a 68020 emulator implemented in RISC, but the 29k project was dropped in mid-1990 due to financial infeasibility. Apple had looked at processors such as those from MIPS Technologies and Acorn Computers, as well as the Intel i860. Negotiations with Sun included the condition that Sun would use the Macintosh interface for its SPARC workstation computers in exchange for Apple using Sun's SPARC processors in Macintosh workstations. Negotiations with MIPS to use the R4000 processor included the condition that the Macintosh interface would be available as an alternative to Advanced Computing Environment; this deal fell through due to Microsoft being a major partner in the ACE Consortium, as well as concerns about manufacturing capability. The Intel i860 was eliminated from consideration due to its high complexity. Apple did not consider IBM's POWER1 processor as an option, believing that IBM would not be willing to license it to third parties. In mid-1990, Apple chose the Motorola 88110, an as yet unfinished chip that combined the 88100 CPU and 88200 FPU into a single package.:7 For the rest of the year, Apple's engineers developed a 68k emulator that would work with this future chip.
This project became known as "RLC", short form "RISC LC", a play on the name of Apple's upcoming Macintosh LC computer. By January 1991, the engineering team had produced a prototype of a Macintosh LC with its 68020 CPU being swapped out for an 88100 and a 68020 emulator; this prototype was able to use an unmodified Macintosh Toolbox ROM and could boot into System 7. A few months a second prototype was created, utilizing a Macintosh IIsi case with the now-completed Motorola 88100 chip.:10-11Jaguar wasn't intended to be a high-volume mainstream system. Instead, mass-market RISC systems would follow sometime later. After Gassée left Apple in early 1990, the goal of the Jaguar project was refocused to be a mainstream Macintosh system instead of a new platform; the Jaguar project was folded into the Macintosh team in early 1991.:10 While the Jaguar project itself never came to fruition, Taligent never resulted in a functional operating system, many of the elements developed by the Jaguar hardware and software teams were brought to market in mid-1993 with the Cen
Power Macintosh 7600
The Power Macintosh 7600 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from April 1996 to November 1997. It is an upgraded version of the Power Macintosh 7500, with a PowerPC 604 CPU. Three models were available with 132 MHz and 200 MHz processors. Like the 7500, it includes advanced Audio-Video ports including RCA audio in and out, S-Video in, composite video in and standard Apple video ports; the 7600 features the easy-access "outrigger" desktop case first introduced with the Power Macintosh 7500. It was replaced by the Power Macintosh 7300, one of the few times that Apple updated a computer but gave it a lower model number - the reason is that the 7300 was a joint replacement for the 7600 and the Power Macintosh 7200. Introduced April 22, 1996: Power Macintosh 7600/120Introduced August 3, 1996: Power Macintosh 7600/132Introduced February 2, 1997: Power Macintosh 7600/200: Sold in Japan only. Power Mac 7600 at lowendmac.com 7600/120, 7600/132 and 7600/200 at everymac.com
Power Macintosh G3
The Power Macintosh G3 is a series of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from November 1997 to August 1999. It represented Apple's first step towards eliminating redundancy and complexity in the product line by replacing eight Power Macintosh models with three: Desktop and Mini Tower models for professional and home use, an All-In-One model for education; the introduction of the Desktop and Mini Tower models coincided with Apple starting to sell build-to-order Macs directly from its web site in an online store, unusual for the time as Dell was the only major computer manufacturer doing this. Apple's move to build-to-order sales of the Power Macintosh G3 coincided with the acquisition of Power Computing Corporation, providing telephone sales of Macintosh clones for more than two years; the Power Macintosh G3 is named for its third-generation PowerPC chip, introduced a fast and large Level 2 backside CPU cache, running at half processor speed. As a result, these machines benchmarked faster than Intel PCs of similar CPU clock speed at launch, which prompted Apple to create the "Snail" and "Toasted Bunnies" television commercials.
Magazine benchmarks showed the G3/266 CPU outperforming the 350 MHz PowerPC 604ev chip in the Power Macintosh 9600 as well. Two generations of the Power Macintosh G3 were released; the first generation, known colloquially as "Beige" was introduced at a special event on November 10, 1997. The second generation, known as "Blue and White", was introduced at MacWorld San Francisco on January 5, 1999, its replacement, the Power Mac G4, was introduced in August of the same year. Apple sold three beige Power Macintosh G3 models: a horizontally-oriented desktop, a mini tower enclosure, a version with a built-in screen called All-In-One; the All-In-One model was shaped like a human tooth, thus earned the moniker Molar Mac. Equipped with a 233, 266, 300, or 333 MHz PowerPC 750 CPU from Motorola, these machines use a 66.83 MHz system bus and PC66 SDRAM, standard ATA hard disk drives instead of the SCSI drives used in most previous Apple systems. A legacy Fast SCSI internal bus is still included with 10 MB/s speed, along with the proprietary out-of-spec DB-25 external SCSI bus which had a top speed of 5 MB/s.
Each bus could support a maximum of 7 devices. Apple developed a prototype G3-based six-slot full tower to be designated the Power Macintosh 9700. Despite demand from high-end users for more PCI slots in a G3-powered computer, Apple decided not to develop the prototype into a shipping product, leaving the 9600 as the last six-slot Mac Apple would make. Initial units were shipped with Mac OS 8; the G3 supports up to Mac OS X 10.2, although some devices will not work under Mac OS X, such as the floppy drive, the video features of the "Wings" personality card, the 3D graphics acceleration functions of the onboard ATI Rage series video. Support for newer versions is possible with the use of third party software solutions such as XPostFacto. Mac OS X 10.5 can be run. The Power Macintosh G3 was intended to be a midrange series, between the low-end Performa/LC models and the six-PCI slot Power Macintosh 9600, it is the earliest Old World ROM Macintosh model able to boot into Mac OS X, one of only two Old World ROM models able to boot into Mac OS X, the other model being the early PowerBook G3.
The Desktop model inherited its enclosure directly from the Power Macintosh 7300. The 233 and 266 MHz desktop models shipped with 4 GB hard drives, the 300 MHz with a 6 GB drive, all at 5400 RPM; this model, sometimes referred to as an Outrigger Macintosh due to its ease of access, was the last horizontally-oriented desktop model offered by Apple until the introduction of the Mac mini in 2005. The Desktop model received an update in August 1998, with the 233 MHz model being discontinued. Unlike the Mini Tower model, the Desktop model was not updated with 366 MHz CPUs; the 233 MHz Mini Tower model's enclosure is similar to the Power Macintosh 8600. It shipped with a 4 GB drive, the 266 MHz with a 6 GB drive, the 300 MHz variant shipped with two 4 GB drives in a RAID configuration; as with the Desktop model, the Mini Tower received an update in August 1998, with the CPU updated to 333 MHz and 366 MHz. These models shipped with a 9.1 GB 7200 RPM SCSI drive, attached to a SCSI/PCI card, as well as 100BASE-TX Ethernet, though this was in the form of a PCI card, which occupied another PCI slot.
The Macintosh Server G3/300Mhz shipped with a PCI Ultra Wide SCSI card and the 100Base-T Ethernet PCI card. The 333 and the 366 MHz model had only 6 MiB VRAM; the Macintosh Server G3 is identical to the Mini Tower model, but was sold with additional server software and different specifications. Software included AppleShare IP 5.0, Apple Network Administrator Toolkit, SoftRAID. Introduced March 1998: Good: 233 MHz, 512 KB L2 cache, 64 MB SDRAM, 6 GB IDE HDD. $2,919. Better: 266 MHz, 512 KB L2 cache, 64 MB SDRAM, 4 GB Ultra/Wide SCSI. $3,609. Best: 300 MHz, 1MB L2 cache, 128 MB SDRAM, Two 4 GB Ultra/Wide SCSI. $4,969. Introduced September 1998: 333 MHz, 1 MB L2 cache, 128 MB SDRAM, Two 4 GB Ultra/Wide SCSI. $4,599. The All-In-One model was introduced in April 1998 as a replacement for the Power Macintosh 5400 and 5500, it was available in two basic configurations: a 233 MHz version with a floppy drive and a 4 GB hard drive and a 266 MHz vers
Power Macintosh 4400
The Power Macintosh 4400 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from November 1996 to February 1998. It differs from prior desktop Macintosh models in that it was built with industry-standard components such as an IDE hard drive and an ATX-like power supply; the 4400 was introduced to the market at a time when several Macintosh clones were available on the market at prices lower than Apple's. The "Tanzania" logic board in the 4400 was an Apple design but had only been used in clones up to this point. MacWEEK's review described the case as "Strange in the Apple brood, it is contained in a stock desktop PC case fitted with Apple's distinctive curved nose piece. The back is industrial-looking, while bent sheet metal fills the case's insides, sharp edges and all; the IDE drive sits on end, while two PCI slots reside in a riser card. For the first time, Apple has abandoned automatic switching in the power supply, a small cost savings at the expense of international users' convenience."This was the only Power Macintosh to be designed with the goal of using low-cost manufacturing techniques.
The initial 4400/160 model was only sold to the European market. Some of Apple's online literature referred to the machine as the "Performa 4400", owing to its entry-level position in the market, but no machine sold was labelled as such. An updated 200 MHz 603e model was released in the United States in February 1997 as the Power Macintosh 4400/200, it was available as a "PC Compatible" system with a 166 MHz DOS card containing 16 MB of RAM and a Cyrix 6x86 processor. The Power Macintosh 4400 was sold as the Power Macintosh 7220 in Australia and Asia, where the number 4 is considered unlucky, to prevent confusion with the Power Macintosh 7200. Introduced November 7, 1996: Power Macintosh 4400/160: Sold in Europe. Introduced February 17, 1997: The 200 MHz versions support a maximum RAM capacity of 160 MB, have an updated PCI adapter card has two PCI slots and one Comm II slot, instead of three PCI slots. Power Macintosh 4400/200: Sold worldwide, except the Far East. Power Macintosh 7220/200: Sold in Far East countries, e.g. Japan and Australia.
Introduced April 4, 1997: Power Macintosh 4400/200 PC Compatible: Same as the 4400/200 with the addition of the PC Compatibility card, which enables running MS-DOS and Windows 95. Power Macintosh 7220/200 PC Compatible: Same as the 4400/200 PC Compatible, sold in Far East countries. Lowendmac.com - Power Macintosh 4400 Apple-history.com - Power Macintosh 4400 information
Power Macintosh 6200
The Power Macintosh 6200 is a series of personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from May 1995 to July 1997. The 6200 is the PowerPC-based replacement for the Quadra 630, with the same form factor and price range. In early 1997, the rather different Power Macintosh 6300/160 / Performa 6360 based on the Power Macintosh 6400 was introduced; the whole line was discontinued. In addition to the many Performa variants, it includes model numbers above 6300; the model numbers above 6260 use a PowerPC 603e processor, but are otherwise identical. Some computers with model numbers that indicate they belong to the 6200/6300 family are rather different on the inside; the 6200 and 6300 are related to the Power Macintosh 5200 LC and 5300 LC. For nearly every 6000-series model, there is a 5000-series model with an integrated CRT screen; the 6200 shares the logic board with the Power Macintosh 5200 LC. The internal bus structure consists of three buses: A 64-bit 75 MHz 603 bus connecting the CPU, 256K L2 cache, ROM.
This is the front-side bus. A 32-bit 37.5 MHz 68040 bus connecting the memory, I/O controllers. A custom integrated circuit, bridged this bus to the 603 bus. Capella is similar to a northbridge chip. A 32-bit 16 MHz I/O bus managed by a custom integrated circuit, PrimeTime II, similar to a southbridge chip. On January 27, 1996, the 6300 and 6310 models were introduced, with a new 100 MHz PowerPC 603e CPU. On April 22, 1996, the 6320 and 6300/120 were released; these upgraded the CPU speed to 120 MHz. The 6300/120 was sold as a business model in the Asia market. In all cases the front-side bus speed matched the CPU speed, the 68040 or northbridge bus speed was increased to 40 MHz; the rest of the logic board remained the same. Standard equipment on all 6200/6300 models includes an LC-PDS slot, a 1.4 MB SuperDrive with manual insert, two RS-232/422 serial ports, one external SCSI port, one ADB port, monophonic sound input port, internal stereo speakers, a DB-15 video output port. The internal modem is in a 112-pin expansion slot.
There is an external modem port, but it is covered over by a piece of plastic. If the plastic seal is removed and the internal modem is removed, the external port is usable. All machines shipped with an AppleDesign keyboard, ADB Mouse II, an Apple Multiple Scan 15 Display. Introduced May 1, 1995: Power Macintosh 6200/75: The 6200 was only sold in Asia under this name. Includes a 500 MB hard drive. $2300 USD. Performa 6200CD: Basically identical to the Power Macintosh 6200, but comes with a 1 GB hard drive, a 14.4k modem, a bundled monitor and software. Introduced July 17, 1995: Performa 6216CD: The 6200CD without the monitor. Performa 6218CD: The 6200CD with 16 MB of RAM instead of 8 MB. Performa 6220CD: The 6218CD without the monitor, but with a TV / video in/out card. Performa 6230CD: The 6220CD with a hardware MPEG decoder card. Introduced August 28, 1995: Performa 6205CD: The 6200CD with a 28.8k Global Village TelePort modem instead of a 14.4k one. Performa 6214CD: The 6200CD with a different software bundle.
Introduced October 12, 1995: Performa 6210CD: The 6205CD with a different software bundle. Introduced October 16, 1995: Performa 6300CD: The 6290CD with 16 MB of RAM and a bundled monitor. Sold only in North America. Introduced January 27, 1996: Performa 6290CD: The Power Macintosh 6200 with a 100 MHz 603e processor and 1 1.2 GB hard drive. Only sold in North America. Introduced February 14, 1996: Performa 6310CD: Identical to the 6300CD, but only sold in Asia and Europe. Introduced April 22, 1996: Performa 6320CD: The 6290CD with a 120 MHz 603e processor, with a bundled monitor and a TV/video card. Introduced June 19, 1996: Performa 6260CD: The 6290CD with an 800 MB hard drive. Only sold in Europe and Asia. Introduced June 27, 1996: Power Macintosh 6300/120: The 6290CD with a 120 MHz 603e processor and 16 MB of RAM. Sold only in Asia; the Power Macintosh 6300/160 was introduced in October 1996. It retains the desktop form factor introduced with the 6200, but is built around the "Alchemy" motherboard, first introduced with the Power Macintosh 5400/120.
This board has a 64-bit data path and 64-bit DIMM RAM, PCI slot, Comm Slot II. It includes two GeoPort external serial ports. NuBus cards are not supported. Standard equipment on the 6300/160 and 6360 include a 1.2 GB IDE hard drive, an 8X CD-ROM, full stereo input, one internal speaker, support for increased display resolutions with higher bit depth, notably 800x600 16-bit color at 60 Hz and 1024x768 8-bit color at 60 or 70 Hz. The 6360's power supply unit is increased to 150 watts. While the 6360 was designed from the start to support JEDEC-standard 5-volt, 64-bit, 168-pin, EDO 70ns DIMMs with a 2k refresh rate, the logic board did not support EDO RAM. A user servicing the machine would need to examine the serial numbers on the on-board RAM to see whether EDO is supported; the 6360 has two DIMM slots, which can be populated by one or two chips of varying sizes up to 64 MB. Combined with the on-board 8 MB RAM, this provides a maximum memory of 136 MB; because the board only supports linear memory organization, no performance benefit is provided if two ch