Power Macintosh 9500
The Power Macintosh 9500 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from May 1995 to February 1997. It is powered by a PowerPC 604 processor, a second-generation PowerPC chip, faster than the PowerPC 601 chip used in the Power Macintosh 8100; the 180MP and 200 MHz models, introduced August 1996, use the enhanced PowerPC 604e processor. MacWorld Magazine gave the 9500 a positive review, concluding that it is "not the second-generation Power Mac for the rest of us — it's too pricey.... But it is an excellent foundation for a high-end graphics workstation — for color publishing or media production, its speed and expandability should made it popular in the scientific and technical markets." Their benchmarks showed that the 9500 overcame the Quadra 950's performance deficit when running older Mac software in the Mac 68k emulator, posting speeds twice as fast as the Quadra 900. The 9500 was replaced by the Power Macintosh 9600; the 9500 includes several technological firsts for Apple.
The CPU is connected via a daughterboard, so can be swapped easily. Available were single-processor cards ranging from 120 to 200 MHz, a dual processor card with two 180 MHz CPUs; this is the first Macintosh to use the PCI standard, with six PCI slots available -- one of which must be used for a graphics card. Infoworld's Anita Epler noted that "Because most multimedia developers don't use the onboard video found on previous Mac models, Apple wisely economized by leaving it out. Users can purchase their own PCI graphics card or opt for Apple's 64-bit accelerated PCI video board with 2 MB of VRAM as an optional accessory."The 9500 is the first computer from Apple to support 168-pin DIMM memory modules, the 512KB of on-board 128-bit-wide cache utilizes copy-back instead of write-through, offering faster speeds than prior Macintosh models, as well as the ability to install single modules. The logic board has a total of 12 memory slots; when it was introduced, 64 MB DIMMs were the largest available on the market, making for a maximum memory limit of 768 MB.
Companies like Advantage Memory were selling DIMMs of this size for $3,900 USD each. 128 MB DIMMs were introduced in 1995, offering a theoretical limit of 1.5 GB memory, though System 7.5.2 is unable to use more than 1 GB of memory. Some other firsts for a Macintosh include a regular 10BASE-T ethernet port alongside the AAUI port, as well as support for the new SCSI-2 Fast standard, a 4X CD-ROM; the basic design of the logic board, called "Tsunami", was used by various Macintosh clone makers as a reference design and a modified version was used in the non-Macintosh Apple Network Server series. Utilizing a third-party G4 CPU upgrade and the XPostFacto installation utility it is possible to run up to Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" on a 9500, making it the oldest model capable of running Mac OS X. Included as standard with all models are 16 MB RAM, 1 GB HDD, AppleCD 600i 4x CD-ROM. Introduced May 1, 1995: Power Macintosh 9500/120 Power Macintosh 9500/132: 132 MHz CPU, 2 GB HDD. Introduced October 2, 1995: Power Macintosh 9515/132: Same as the 9500/132, sold in Europe and Asia.
Introduced April 22, 1996: Power Macintosh 9500/150: 150 MHz CPU, 16 or 32 MB RAM, 2 GB HDD. Introduced August 5, 1996: Power Macintosh 9500/180MP: Two 180 MHz PowerPC 604e CPUs, 16 or 32 MB RAM, 2 GB HDD, AppleCD 1200i 8x CD-ROM. Power Macintosh 9500/200:, 16 or 32 MB RAM, 2 GB HDD, AppleCD 1200i 8x CD-ROM. Low End Mac's Power Macintosh 9500 page
A DIMM or dual in-line memory module comprises a series of dynamic random-access memory integrated circuits. These modules are mounted on a printed circuit board and designed for use in personal computers and servers. DIMMs began to replace SIMMs as the predominant type of memory module as Intel P5-based Pentium processors began to gain market share. While the contacts on SIMMs on both sides are redundant, DIMMs have separate electrical contacts on each side of the module. Another difference is that standard SIMMs have a 32-bit data path, while standard DIMMs have a 64-bit data path. Since Intel's Pentium, many processors have a 64-bit bus width, requiring SIMMs installed in matched pairs in order to populate the data bus; the processor would access the two SIMMs in parallel. DIMMs were introduced to eliminate this disadvantage. Variants of DIMM slots support DDR, DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4 RAM. Common types of DIMMs include the following: 70 to 200 pins 72-pin SO-DIMM, used for FPM DRAM and EDO DRAM 100-pin DIMM, used for printer SDRAM 144-pin SO-DIMM, used for SDR SDRAM 168-pin DIMM, used for SDR SDRAM 172-pin MicroDIMM, used for DDR SDRAM 184-pin DIMM, used for DDR SDRAM 200-pin SO-DIMM, used for DDR SDRAM and DDR2 SDRAM 200-pin DIMM, used for FPM/EDO DRAM in some Sun workstations and servers.201 to 300 pins 204-pin SO-DIMM, used for DDR3 SDRAM 214-pin MicroDIMM, used for DDR2 SDRAM 240-pin DIMM, used for DDR2 SDRAM, DDR3 SDRAM and FB-DIMM DRAM 244-pin MiniDIMM, used for DDR2 SDRAM 260-pin SO-DIMM, used for DDR4 SDRAM 260-pin SO-DIMM, with different notch position than on DDR4 SO-DIMMs, used for UniDIMMs that can carry either DDR3 or DDR4 SDRAM 278-pin DIMM, used for HP high density SDRAM.
288-pin DIMM, used for DDR4 SDRAM On the bottom edge of 168-pin DIMMs there are two notches, the location of each notch determines a particular feature of the module. The first notch is the DRAM key position, which represents RFU, unbuffered DIMM types; the second notch is the voltage key position, which represents 5.0 V, 3.3 V, RFU DIMM types. DDR, DDR2, DDR3 and DDR4 all have different pin counts, different notch positions; as of August, 2014, DDR4 SDRAM is a modern emerging type of dynamic random access memory with a high-bandwidth interface, has been in use since 2013. It is the higher-speed successor to DDR, DDR2 and DDR3. DDR4 SDRAM is neither forward nor backward compatible with any earlier type of random access memory because of different signalling voltages, timings, as well as other differing factors between the technologies and their implementation. A DIMM's capacity and other operational parameters may be identified with serial presence detect, an additional chip which contains information about the module type and timing for the memory controller to be configured correctly.
The SPD EEPROM connects to the System Management Bus and may contain thermal sensors. ECC DIMMs are those that have extra data bits which can be used by the system memory controller to detect and correct errors. There are numerous ECC schemes, but the most common is Single Error Correct, Double Error Detect which uses an extra byte per 64-bit word. ECC modules carry a multiple of 9 instead of a multiple of 8 chips. Sometimes memory modules are designed with two or more independent sets of DRAM chips connected to the same address and data buses. Ranks that share the same slot, only one rank may be accessed at any given time; the other ranks on the module are deactivated for the duration of the operation by having their corresponding CS signals deactivated. DIMMs are being manufactured with up to four ranks per module. Consumer DIMM vendors have begun to distinguish between single and dual ranked DIMMs. After a memory word is fetched, the memory is inaccessible for an extended period of time while the sense amplifiers are charged for access of the next cell.
By interleaving the memory, sequential memory accesses can be performed more because sense amplifiers have 3 cycles of idle time for recharging, between accesses. DIMMs are referred to as "single-sided" or "double-sided" to describe whether the DRAM chips are located on one or both sides of the module's printed circuit board. However, these terms may cause confusion, as the physical layout of the chips does not relate to how they are logically organized or accessed. JEDEC decided that the terms "dual-sided", "double-sided", or "dual-banked" were not correct when applied to registered DIMMs. Most DIMMs are built" × 8" memory chips with nine chips per side. In the case of "×4" registered DIMMs, the data width per side is 36 bits. In this case, the two-sided module is single-ranked. For "×8" registered DIMMs, each side is 72 bits wide, so the memory controller only addresses one side at a time; the above example applies to ECC memory that stores 72 bits instead of the more common 64. There would be one extra chip per group of eight, not counted.
For various technologies, there are certain bus and device clock frequencies that are standa
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Its recommended unit symbol is MB; the unit prefix mega is a multiplier of 1000000 in the International System of Units. Therefore, one megabyte is one million bytes of information; this definition has been incorporated into the International System of Quantities. However, in the computer and information technology fields, several other definitions are used that arose for historical reasons of convenience. A common usage has been to designate one megabyte as 1048576bytes, a measurement that conveniently expresses the binary multiples inherent in digital computer memory architectures. However, most standards bodies have deprecated this usage in favor of a set of binary prefixes, in which this quantity is designated by the unit mebibyte. Less common is a convention that used the megabyte to mean 1000×1024 bytes; the megabyte is used to measure either 10002 bytes or 10242 bytes. The interpretation of using base 1024 originated as a compromise technical jargon for the byte multiples that needed to be expressed by the powers of 2 but lacked a convenient name.
As 1024 approximates 1000 corresponding to the SI prefix kilo-, it was a convenient term to denote the binary multiple. In 1998 the International Electrotechnical Commission proposed standards for binary prefixes requiring the use of megabyte to denote 10002 bytes and mebibyte to denote 10242 bytes. By the end of 2009, the IEC Standard had been adopted by the IEEE, EU, ISO and NIST; the term megabyte continues to be used with different meanings: Base 10 1 MB = 1000000 bytes is the definition recommended by the International System of Units and the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC. This definition is used in networking contexts and most storage media hard drives, flash-based storage, DVDs, is consistent with the other uses of the SI prefix in computing, such as CPU clock speeds or measures of performance; the Mac OS X 10.6 file manager is a notable example of this usage in software. Since Snow Leopard, file sizes are reported in decimal units. In this convention, one thousand megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is one billion bytes.
Base 2 1 MB = 1048576 bytes is the definition used by Microsoft Windows in reference to computer memory, such as RAM. This definition is synonymous with the unambiguous binary prefix mebibyte. In this convention, one thousand and twenty-four megabytes is equal to one gigabyte, where 1 GB is 10243 bytes. Mixed 1 MB = 1024000 bytes is the definition used to describe the formatted capacity of the 1.44 MB 3.5-inch HD floppy disk, which has a capacity of 1474560bytes. Semiconductor memory doubles in size for each address lane added to an integrated circuit package, which favors counts that are powers of two; the capacity of a disk drive is the product of the sector size, number of sectors per track, number of tracks per side, the number of disk platters in the drive. Changes in any of these factors would not double the size. Sector sizes were set as powers of two for convenience in processing, it was a natural extension to give the capacity of a disk drive in multiples of the sector size, giving a mix of decimal and binary multiples when expressing total disk capacity.
Depending on compression methods and file format, a megabyte of data can be: a 1 megapixel bitmap image with 256 colors stored without any compression. A 4 megapixel JPEG image with normal compression. 1 minute of 128 kbit/s MP3 compressed music. 6 seconds of uncompressed CD audio. A typical English book volume in plain text format; the human genome consists of DNA representing 800 MB of data. The parts that differentiate one person from another can be compressed to 4 MB. Timeline of binary prefixes Gigabyte § Consumer confusion Historical Notes About The Cost Of Hard Drive Storage Space the megabyte International Electrotechnical Commission definitions IEC prefixes and symbols for binary multiples
Integrated Micro Solutions
Integrated Micro Solutions San Jose, California iXMicro, a held company, was a graphics chipsets and video card manufacturer. Christopher Knight was a vice president of graphics marketing for IXMICRO; the company ceased operations in 2000. The Twin Turbo 128 PCI series came standard on the Power Macintosh 9600 and was a high-performance upgrade for the Power Macintosh 8600. TwinTurbo 128M8 PCI card was a default videocard for the Motorola StarMax 5000/300; this videocard was used in the Umax Pulsar 2500. Ix3D Dual Monitor was a dual-monitor videocard for clones. Ix3D Game Rocket was a 3D accelerator based on the 3dfx Voodoo Banshee chipset. Ix3D Road Rocket was a 2D/3D Cardbus video accelerator for the Apple Macintosh PowerBook G3 series, with 4 MB SGRAM and support for an extended desktop at 1280x1040. Ix3D Pro Rez was a 128-bit 2D and 3D graphics accelerator with 8 MB of SGRAM, it supports resolutions up to refresh rates as high as 100 Hz. TwinTurbo 128P8 was a PCI video card for the PC x86 market with standard 15-pin VGA connector.
IXMICRO offered ixTV or Turbo TV video capture devices. Lightning II ATM 155/25 PCI cards. Macintosh clone #9 Imagine 128 Series 2 vs. IXMicro's Twin Turbo M8 Old IXMICRO website at web.archive.org Enthusiast support page www.integratedmicro.com at webarchive
Power Macintosh 7200
The Power Macintosh 7200 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from August 1995 to February 1997. The 90 MHz model was sold in Japan as the Power Macintosh 7215, the 120 MHz model with bundled server software as the Apple Workgroup Server 7250; when sold as the 8200, it used the 8100's mini-tower form factor. The 7200 was introduced alongside the Power Macintosh 7500 and 8500 at the 1995 MacWorld Expo in Boston. Apple referred to these machines collectively as the "Power Surge" line, communicating that this second generation of PowerPC machines offered a significant speed improvement over their predecessors. Introduced as a successor to the Power Macintosh 7100, the 7200 represents the low end of this generation of Power Macintosh, which replaced NuBus with PCI, it shares the 7500's "Outrigger" case. At launch, the 7200 was available with processor speeds of 75 and 90 MHz, with the slower model being replaced by a 120 MHz CPU in February 1996; the 120MHz model was available in a "PC compatible" variant, which came with a PCI card that allowed the computer to run Microsoft Windows and other PC operating systems.
The card featured a 100 MHz Pentium processor. The Power Macintosh 7300 replaced the 7200 in February 1997. Unlike other Power Macintosh machines of the time, the CPU is soldered to the motherboard instead of on a daughterboard; this presented a challenge for users. At the time of its introduction, Apple promised an inexpensive logic board upgrade to the 7500, but due to high demand for the 7500, this never materialized; when the upgrade was made available, it was to the follow-on model, the Power Macintosh 7600, came in the form of a complete logic board replacement. The base price upgraded the system to a 120 MHz CPU, but did not include L2 cache; the 7200's CPU was considered otherwise impossible to upgrade until, over three years after the 7200 was discontinued, Sonnet produced an G3 upgrade card for the PCI slots. Introduced August 8, 1995: Power Macintosh 7200/75 Power Macintosh 7200/90Introduced January 11, 1996: Power Macintosh 7215/90Introduced February 26, 1996: Workgroup Server 7250/120Introduced April 22, 1996: Power Macintosh 7200/120 Power Macintosh 7200/120 PC Compatible Power Macintosh 8200/100 Power Macintosh 8200/120 Power Macintosh 7200 at Low End Mac Official Power Macintosh 7200/120 page 7200/120 Official Power Macintosh 7200/120 page 7200/120 PC
Central processing unit
A central processing unit called a central processor or main processor, is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logic and input/output operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a processor, more to its processing unit and control unit, distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry; the form and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains unchanged. Principal components of a CPU include the arithmetic logic unit that performs arithmetic and logic operations, processor registers that supply operands to the ALU and store the results of ALU operations and a control unit that orchestrates the fetching and execution of instructions by directing the coordinated operations of the ALU, registers and other components.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, meaning they are contained on a single integrated circuit chip. An IC that contains a CPU may contain memory, peripheral interfaces, other components of a computer; some computers employ a multi-core processor, a single chip containing two or more CPUs called "cores". Array processors or vector processors have multiple processors that operate in parallel, with no unit considered central. There exists the concept of virtual CPUs which are an abstraction of dynamical aggregated computational resources. Early computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired to perform different tasks, which caused these machines to be called "fixed-program computers". Since the term "CPU" is defined as a device for software execution, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer; the idea of a stored-program computer had been present in the design of J. Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly's ENIAC, but was omitted so that it could be finished sooner.
On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was made, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC. It was the outline of a stored-program computer that would be completed in August 1949. EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions of various types; the programs written for EDVAC were to be stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, the considerable time and effort required to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task. With von Neumann's design, the program that EDVAC ran could be changed by changing the contents of the memory. EDVAC, was not the first stored-program computer. Early CPUs were custom designs used as part of a sometimes distinctive computer. However, this method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has given way to the development of multi-purpose processors produced in large quantities; this standardization began in the era of discrete transistor mainframes and minicomputers and has accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit.
The IC has allowed complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured to tolerances on the order of nanometers. Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in electronic devices ranging from automobiles to cellphones, sometimes in toys. While von Neumann is most credited with the design of the stored-program computer because of his design of EDVAC, the design became known as the von Neumann architecture, others before him, such as Konrad Zuse, had suggested and implemented similar ideas; the so-called Harvard architecture of the Harvard Mark I, completed before EDVAC used a stored-program design using punched paper tape rather than electronic memory. The key difference between the von Neumann and Harvard architectures is that the latter separates the storage and treatment of CPU instructions and data, while the former uses the same memory space for both.
Most modern CPUs are von Neumann in design, but CPUs with the Harvard architecture are seen as well in embedded applications. Relays and vacuum tubes were used as switching elements; the overall speed of a system is dependent on the speed of the switches. Tube computers like EDVAC tended to average eight hours between failures, whereas relay computers like the Harvard Mark I failed rarely. In the end, tube-based CPUs became dominant because the significant speed advantages afforded outweighed the reliability problems. Most of these early synchronous CPUs ran at low clock rates compared to modern microelectronic designs. Clock signal frequencies ranging from 100 kHz to 4 MHz were common at this time, limited by the speed of the switching de
Power Macintosh 7600
The Power Macintosh 7600 is a personal computer designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from April 1996 to November 1997. It is an upgraded version of the Power Macintosh 7500, with a PowerPC 604 CPU. Three models were available with 132 MHz and 200 MHz processors. Like the 7500, it includes advanced Audio-Video ports including RCA audio in and out, S-Video in, composite video in and standard Apple video ports; the 7600 features the easy-access "outrigger" desktop case first introduced with the Power Macintosh 7500. It was replaced by the Power Macintosh 7300, one of the few times that Apple updated a computer but gave it a lower model number - the reason is that the 7300 was a joint replacement for the 7600 and the Power Macintosh 7200. Introduced April 22, 1996: Power Macintosh 7600/120Introduced August 3, 1996: Power Macintosh 7600/132Introduced February 2, 1997: Power Macintosh 7600/200: Sold in Japan only. Power Mac 7600 at lowendmac.com 7600/120, 7600/132 and 7600/200 at everymac.com