Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts: squat, bench press, deadlift. As in the sport of Olympic weightlifting, it involves the athlete attempting a maximal weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. Powerlifting evolved from a sport known as "odd lifts", which followed the same three-attempt format but used a wider variety of events, akin to strongman competition. Odd lifts became standardized to the current three. In competition, lifts may be performed equipped or un-equipped. Equipment in this context refers to a supportive bench squat/deadlift suit or briefs. In some federations, knee wraps are permitted in the equipped but not un-equipped division. Weight belts, knee sleeves, wrist wraps and special footwear may be used, but are not considered when distinguishing equipped from un-equipped lifting. Competitions take place across the world. Powerlifting has been a Paralympic sport since 1984 and, under the IPF, is a World Games sport.
Local and international competitions have been sanctioned by other federations operating independently of the IPF. The roots of powerlifting are found in traditions of strength training stretching back as far as ancient Greek and ancient Persian times; the idea of powerlifting originated in Ancient China and Greece, as men lifted stones to prove their strength and manhood. Weightlifting has been an official sport in the Olympic Games since 1896; the modern sport originated in the United States in the 1950s. The weightlifting governing bodies in both countries had recognized various "odd lifts" for competition and record purposes. During the 1950s, Olympic weightlifting declined in the United States, while strength sports gained many new followers. People did not like the Olympic lifts Clean and Press and Clean and Jerk. In 1958, the AAU's National Weightlifting Committee decided to begin recognizing records for odd lifts. A national championship was tentatively scheduled for 1959, but never happened.
The first genuine national "meet" was held in September 1964 under the auspices of the York Barbell Company. York Barbell owner Bob Hoffman had been a longtime adversary of the sport, but his company was now making powerlifting equipment to make up for the sales it had lost on Olympic equipment. In 1964, some powerlifting categories were added to the Tokyo Paralympic Games for men with spinal cord injuries. More categories of lifting were added. In the 2000 Paralympic Games in Sydney, women were invited to participate in powerlifting. Both men and women were allowed to compete in all 10 weight classes of powerlifting. During the late 1950s, Hoffman's influence on Olympic lifting and his predominately Olympic-based magazine Strength and Health were beginning to come under increasing pressure from Joe Weider's organization. In order to combat the growing influence of Weider, Hoffman started another magazine, Muscular Development, which would be focused more on bodybuilding and the fast-growing interest in odd lift competitions.
The magazine's first editor was John Grimek. During the late 1950s and early 1960s, various odd lift events developed into the specific lifts of the bench press and deadlift, they were lifted in that order. Hoffman became more and more influential in the development of this new lifting sport and organized the Weightlifting Tournament of America in 1964 the first USA National championships. In 1965, the first named. During the same period, lifting in Britain had factions. In the late 1950s, because members of the ruling body were only interested in the development of Olympic lifting, a breakaway organization called the Society of Amateur Weightlifters had been formed to cater for the interests of lifters who were not interested in Olympic lifting. Although at that time there were 42 recognized lifts, the "Strength Set" soon became the standard competition lifts, both organizations held Championships on these lifts until 1965. In 1966, the Society of Amateur Weightlifters rejoined BAWLA and, in order to fall into line with the American lifts, the biceps curl was dropped and replaced with the deadlift.
The first British Championship was held in 1966. During the late 1960s and at the beginning of the 1970s, various friendly international contests were held. At the same time, in early November of each year and to commemorate Hoffman's birthday, a prestigious lifting contest was held. In 1971, it was decided to make this event the "World Weightlifting Championships"; the event was held on the morning of 6 November 1971, in Pennsylvania. There was no such thing as teams and thus the event consisted of a large group of American lifters, four British lifters, one lifter from the West Indies. All of the referees were American. Weights were in pounds. Lifting order was "rising bar", the first lift was the bench press. There was no such thing as a bench shirt or squat suit, various interpretations were held regarding the use and length of knee wraps and weightlifting belts; the IPF rules system had world records been established. Because of the lack of formalized rules, some disputes occurred. There was 100 kg class, or 125 kg class.
At the first World Championships, one of the American super-heavyweights, Jim Williams, benched 660 lbs on his second attempt, locked out 680 lbs on a third attempt. Some other notable lifts were Lar
West Farleigh is a village and civil parish four miles southwest of Maidstone in the county of Kent. The parish has a population of 450, is bounded by the civil parishes of East Farleigh, Hunton and over the River Medway by Wateringbury and Barming; the village boasts three pubs. Adjacent to the church is the village cricket ground; the village is twinned with the northern German village near Bremerhaven. The sports club runs a football section involving. An annual tour, once between the club's footballers and that of Ringstedt has been an ongoing, ever-flourishing event since 1988; the cricket section of the sports club runs two senior teams on Saturdays, playing in the Kent County Village League. The village produces its own monthly newsletter "Life-Line", an events' website "The Farleighs"; the primary school, that had one classroom, closed in 1968. One of its two teachers at the time, was Miss Whittle, the daughter of Sir Frank Whittle, inventor of the jet engine; the village's post office and only stores closed in 1986.
The parish church of'All Saints' dates back to the 11th century. A more detailed early history of West Farleigh can be gained from the British History website
Dr Jamal Zahalka is an Israeli Arab politician. He served as a member of the Knesset for Balad between 2003 and 2019, was leader of the party between 2007 and 2019. Zahalka was born in Kafr Qara; as a teenager, he participated in PLO activities in the town. He attended a Jewish high school in nearby Haifa. While in the middle of 12th grade, he was arrested over his PLO activities, as at the time the PLO was an outlawed organization, he was subsequently imprisoned for two years. He completed his matriculation in prison. After his release from prison, he studied pharmacy at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, he earned a BA, MA and PhD. His doctoral thesis was on the physiological properties of hashish, he worked as a pharmacist prior to his entry into politics. Zahalka was active in Arab and left-wing groups, in the communist Maki party. For a time, he studied in East Germany, returned to Israel in 1989, he joined the Balad party, having met its founder Azmi Bishara at university in 1977. He was elected to the Knesset on Balad's list in 2003, was re-elected in 2006.
After Bishara fled the country, Zahalka became party leader in 2007. He was subsequently re-elected in 2009, 2013 and 2015, he left the Knesset. Zahalka is married with three children. Zahalka describes Israel's political discourse about the Palestinians as revolving around the ideas of separation and transfer, he argues that an apartheid system is in place, with the West Bank and Gaza Strip separated into "cantons," and Palestinians required to carry permits to travel between them. List of Arab members of the Knesset Jamal Zahalka on the Knesset website
The Turks in Tunisia known as Turco-Tunisians and Tunisian Turks, are ethnic Turks who constitute one of the minority groups in Tunisia. In 1534, with about 10,000 Turkish soldiers, the Ottoman Empire took control and settled in the region when Tunisia's inhabitants called for help due to fears that the Spanish would invade the country. Thus, during the Ottoman rule, the Turkish community dominated the political life of the region for centuries. In addition, some Turks intermarried with the local population and their male offspring were called "Kouloughlis"; the terms "Turks" and "Kouloughlis" have traditionally been used to distinguish between those of full and partial Turkish ancestry. In northern Cap Bon, the town of Hammam Ghezèze is populated with descendants of Oghuz Turks. Families of Turkish origin live near the coastal cities, such as Tunis, Mahdia and the islands, although there are many living within central Tunisia as well. In 2012 the Tunisian government introduced the Turkish language in all Tunisian secondary schools.
The Ottoman Turks brought with them the teaching of the Hanafi School of Islam during the Ottoman rule of Tunisia, which still survives among the Turkish-descended families today. Traditionally, Turco-Tunisian mosques have octagonal minarets. Examples of Ottoman-Turkish mosques include: The Turks in Tunisia were traditionally a privileged élite in Tunisia who held positions in the military and the bureaucracy. However, by the nineteenth century, marriages with the local population linked the ruling families to indigenous notables. At this time, many Turks turned to commerce and the crafts in the Souq el-Trouk, where a considerable number of merchants of Turkish ancestry emerged; the Turks entered the corps of artisans. The Ben Romdhan family, of Turkish origin, claim much of the notable Tunisian families of Mahdia such as the Hamza, Gazdagli, Snène families. Other prominent Tunisian families of Turkish origin include the Bayrams, Belkhodjas, El Materis, Osmans and the Slims. Ahmed Abdelkefi, economist Hassan Hosni Abdelwaheb, historian Mahmoud Aslan, writer Saloua Tarzi Ben Attia, politician Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki, founder of the Husainid Dynasty Mohamed Salah Baratli, resistant of the French occupation, opponent of President Bourguiba, human rights activist Ahmed Bayram, religious cleric M'hammed Bayram, religious cleric Mohamed Bayram V, intellectual Mohamed Taieb Bayram, religious cleric Ahmed Belkhodja, religious cleric Asma Belkhodja, pioneer of the Tunisian feminist movement M'hammed Belkhodja, politician Ali Bach Hamba and politician Mohamed Bach Hamba, writer Mahmoud Ben Mahmoud, filmmaker Yasemin Besson, wife of Éric Besson Lotfi Bouchnak, musician Hassen Bouhajeb, doctor Mahmoud Bourguiba, journalist Ahmed Chérif, doctor Béchir Dinguizli, doctor Mustapha Dinguizli, politician Ali Douagi and cultural icon Abderrahman Dziri, medical researcher Mustafa Elkatipzade, Fenerbahçe football manager Nazli Fadhel, pioneer of the Tunisian feminist movement Sadok Ghileb, politician Fadhila Khetmi, theatre director Afef Jnifen and actress Mohamed Lahbib, pioneer of theater and television in Tunisia Mahmoud El Materi and politician Moncef El Materi, former soldier and businessman Sakher El Materi, businessman Tahar El Materi, businessman Habib Osman, photographer Mustapha Osman, artist Chafia Rochdi and actress Hichem Rostom, actor Mourad Salem, artist Rachid Sfar, former prime minister Mongi Slim, nationalist leader and Minister Mustapha Kamel Tarzi, diplomat Najiya Thamir and radio producer Hedi Turki, painter Yahia Turki, painter Zoubeir Turki, painter Abdeljelil Zaouch, Minister of Justice Sadok Zmerli, professor Kouloughlis History of Ottoman-era Tunisia Tunisia-Turkey relations Turkish minorities in the former Ottoman Empire Turks in the Arab world Turks in Algeria Turks in Libya
Paul Dowling Robinson was a comic strip artist best known for his long-run Etta Kett comic strip. Born in Kenton, Robinson was the son of an iron moulder, the Robinson family were farmers in Buck, Ohio, by 1910; when Paul Robinson signed his draft card on September 12, 1918, he was living at 1219 West Jefferson in Sandusky and working as a demurrage railway clerk in the local Big Four freight offices. On June 21, 1919, the Sandusky Register reported that Robinson had left Sandusky two months earlier to begin his new career as an artist at the Bray Productions animation studios in New York, he began doing panels and strips for the Central Press Association, continuing with King Features Syndicate after Central Press was purchased by King Features in 1930. In the mid-1920s, Robinson took over the Samson and Delia strip from Tim Early and the screenwriter and short story author H. C. Witwer. Another Robinson feature of the 1920s was his single-panel series Just Among Us Girls. In 1932, Robinson found success with Etta Kett.
The strip about teenager Etta Kett began as a way to teach etiquette to teens, hence its name. Robinson drew The Love-Byrds, about the cheerful couple Peggy and Howard Byrd, as a topper strip above Etta Kett. Etta Kett's poses, facial features and hair style are all similar to Peggy Byrd. Etta Kett ran in more than 50 American newspapers for 50 years, starting December 1925 and continuing until November 24, 1974. In 1957, Harvey Kurtzman lampooned the strip in his satirical Trump magazine. Robinson lived at 14 Hillbury New Road in New Jersey, he was 76 years old when he died Saturday, September 21, 1974, at Mountainside Hospital in Glen Ridge, New Jersey. Lambiek: Paul D. Robinson
Thomas Scott Memorial Orange Hall is a building in Winnipeg's Exchange District. The building is 50 feet by 90 feet, featured a full basement, third floor dance hall and lodge meeting rooms on the second floor. Built for $21,000 in 1902, it was designed by local architect James McDiarmid for the Orange Order; the Orange Order had expanded such that a large hall was needed. The building was named for Thomas Scott, executed by Louis Riel during the Red River Rebellion. In 1943 a fire destroyed the original interior. Repairs and alterations totalled $19,584.22 and were completed in September 1943. After the fire, the dance hall was relocated to the first floor, while rest and cloakrooms were built in the basement; the third floor saw the addition of a two-room caretaker's suite. Beginning in the 1980s, the building was occupied by the Winnipeg Irish Association, hall was sold in 1994