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In a motor vehicle, the powertrain or powerplant comprises the main components that generate power and deliver that power to the road surface, water, or air. This includes the engine, drive shafts and the final drive. Hybrid powertrains include one or more electric traction motors that operate to drive the vehicle wheels. All-electric vehicles eliminate the engine altogether, relying on electric motors for propulsion. A motor vehicle's driveline or drivetrain consists of the parts of the powertrain excluding the engine, it is the portion of a vehicle, after the prime mover, that changes depending on whether a vehicle is front-wheel, rear-wheel, or four-wheel drive, or less-common six-wheel or eight-wheel drive. In a wider sense, the powertrain includes all of the components used to transform stored energy into kinetic energy for propulsion purposes; this includes the utilization of multiple power-sources and non–wheel-based vehicles. The most recent developments in powertrain are driven by the electrification of it in multiple components.

Electrical energy needs to be provided this leads to larger batteries. Electric motors can be found as part of other elements, e.g. the axle. In hybrid powertrains the torque generated by the combustion engine and the electric motor have to be brought together and distributed to the wheels; the control of this process can be quite involved but the rewards are improved acceleration and much lower emissions. Powertrain development for diesel engines involves the following: exhaust gas recirculation, advanced combustion. Spark ignition engine development include: fuel injection, including the gasoline direct injection variant, as well as improving volumetric efficiency by using multi-valves per cylinder, variable valve timing, variable length intake manifolds, turbocharging. Changes include new fuel qualities to allow new combustion concepts. So-called "combined combustion systems" or "diesotto" cycles are based on synthetic fuels. BEVs, FCEVs and PHEV powertrains are expected to reach cost parity with ICE powertrains in 2025.

The manufacturing of powertrain components and systems is important to industry, including the automotive and other vehicle sectors. Competitiveness drives companies to engineer and produce powertrain systems that over time are more economical to manufacture, higher in product quality and reliability, higher in performance, more fuel efficient, less polluting, longer in life expectancy. In turn these requirements have led to designs involving higher internal pressures, greater instantaneous forces, increased complexity of design and mechanical operation; the resulting designs in turn impose more severe requirements on parts shape and dimension. Quality control over these parameters is achieved through metrology technology applied to all of the steps in powertrain manufacturing processes. In automotive manufacturing, the frame plus the "running gear" makes the chassis. A body, not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. Commercial vehicle manufacturers may have "chassis only" and "cowl and chassis" versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies.

These include buses, motor homes, fire engines, etc. The frame plus the body makes a glider; the final drive is the last in the set of components. In a road vehicle, it incorporates the differential. In a railway vehicle, it sometimes incorporates the reversing gear. Examples include the Self-Changing Gears RF 28 and RF 11 used in the British Rail Class 03 and British Rail Class 04 diesel shunting locomotives. Car safety Electric vehicle Electric vehicle conversion Giubo Gear train Hybrid vehicle drivetrain New powertrain technologies conference, 27 and 28- March-2007. Http:// Honda F1 Race Car Frame. Drivetrain Quiz HIL Test Bench Technical Paper: A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model Learn what a final drive ratio is and how it affects your car

Antonie Strassmann

Antonie Strassmann was a German stage actress and aviator. She emigrated to the United States and worked as an aviation consultant prior to World War II. Strassmann was born in Berlin, Germany, in 1901 to Paul and Hedwig Strassmann, Christians of Jewish descent. At the age of 16 she decided to become an actress, although her parents did not approve, stating that acting was an "undignified" career. In the 1920s she performed on stage both in Germany and overseas, including the role of Puck in A Midsummer Night's Dream, in productions of Die Fledermaus and Moreto's opera Donna Diana. In 1920, Strassmann won the role of Judith in the play Judith und Holofernes, performing opposite Paul Wegener in the city of Magdeburg; the following year, she was offered a contract with the State Theatre of Stuttgart. In 1928, Strassmann toured Eastern Europe with them for two years. However, from 1930 the Great Depression was having an effect on the entertainment industry, Strassmann retired from acting due to a lack of work.

Strassmann was an accomplished athlete, excelling in running, swimming and cycling. Strassmann first experienced flight on hot air balloon trips with her brother and cousin in 1925, on flying trips with a friend in 1926. In September 1927, Strassman began flying lessons at the Boornemann school in Staaken, earning her pilot license in 1928, moved on to learn aerobatic flying at Würzburg. However, she realised that earning an income from aviation would be difficult as women were barred from working as commercial pilots, money from exhibition flying was insufficient for a stable income. Instead, in 1930, she made a proposal to the German Foreign Office to organise and manage a year-long touring exhibition of model and full-sized German aircraft in the United States, her aims were to advertise German business and encourage positive German-U. S. Relations, she developed agreements with the Model Airplane League of America and the Gimbel Company, planned an itinerary to visit 12 cities. The proposal was accepted and the exhibition began in spring 1930.

Strassmann and her friend, pilot Koenig-von Warthausen, delivered lectures on German aviation and performed aerobatic flights, participated in air shows, visited aviation companies and gave interviews to the press. At the National Air Races in Chicago in 1930, she was invited to test 28 types of airplanes; the German Foreign Office declared the tour an absolute success, on her return to Germany Strassmann was considered a major expert on the field of aviation, invited to educate German industrialists and politicians, including Ernst Heinkel, Claude Dornier, Hugo Junkers, Hugo Eckener. In May 1932 Strassmann became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean aboard an aircraft, travelling on a Dornier Do X flying boat. In autumn 1932, Strassmann piloted her last big flight, she left Germany on board a Zeppelin, with a dismantled Klemm sports plane in the cargo hold, travelled to Pernambuco in Brazil. From there, she completed a marketing tour through South America for the Klemm sports aircraft company, with stops and flight performances in Recife, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Buenos Aires.

In 1932, Strassmann emigrated to the United States, stating that she loved the stimulation and opportunities of the country. She studied business administration in New York and began to work as a business consultant for German aviation companies such as Junkers, Bavarian Aircraft Company, Stinnes, Focke-Wulf and Lufthansa, negotiating sales contracts on their behalf with U. S. companies such as Bendix, Glenn L. Martin, General Tire and Goodyear. With the outbreak of World War II, Strassmann's work as an aviation consultant ended, she moved to Westchester County, New York, worked for the American Red Cross as a driver and a first-aid instructor. She took a job with the Delahanty Institute training new workers in interpreting blueprints and operating metalworking equipment. In 1943 an old friend offered her a management position running a sales office for the hearing aid division of Zenith Radio Corporation in New York City. Strassmann died of cancer in January 1952 in New York City. Strassmann was married to a German curtain manufacturer, Willy Joseph, from January 1923 until their divorce in 1925.

She was involved with a former Crown Prince, Wilhelm von Hohenzollern, for a year, had a relationship with the Austrian actor Rudolf Forster followed by the exhibition pilot Ernst Udet. In the 1930s Strassmann had a relationship with Robert L. Hague, senior vice president of Standard Oil Company, until his death in 1939

Virpur (Rajkot)

Virpur is a town in Rajkot district of Gujarat, India. Virpur is the birthplace of saint Jalaram and had a temple dedicated to him here, popular among pilgrims, it was named after a Koli king Viro Bariyo. Virparanath and Jalaram Bapa are saints associated with this town and many of its religious sites. Religious sites in Virpur include: Jalaram Mandir Samadhi of Jalaram Bapa – the resting place of Jalaram Bapa. Virparanath Mandir – Saint Virparanath Mandir is located close to Jalaram Bapa Mandir. Many pilgrims who visit Jalaram Bapa visit this shrine. Virpur is named after Virpara Nath. Samadhi of Jetha Bapa – a sacred shrine that stands close to the Jalaram Bapa Mandir. Minaldevi Wav – a step-well where women pray for children. Ramji Mandir, situated in Tower chowk, made by Virpur King Swaninarayan mandir near, Jalaram bapa mandir Veer Hanumanji Mandir old 300 years ago, made by Khakhi Mahatma. Radha Krishna Mandir- towards Ramji mandir to Jalaram mandir Gayatri Mandir - a modern temple located east of Jalaram Bapa Mandir.

Mankeshwar Mahadev - a temple of Lord Shiva near Minaldevi Wav Gala Vada Hanuman Mandir – located east of Gayatri Mandir on Navagam Road. Virbai Maa Mandir at Triveni Sangam – a temple dedicated to Virabhai, wife of Jalaram Bapa, located northwest of town. Khodiyar Mandir - located southwest of Mavtar Vrudhashram in the outskirts of the town. Shree KhodalDham, Kagvad - a massive modern temple of Khodiyar Maa at southwest. Jalaram was a Hindu saint from India, he was born in Virpur, Rajkot district, India, on 4 November 1799, the 7th day Krishna Paksha of Kartik month on the Hindu calendar VS year 1856, one week after the Hindu festival of Diwali. His father was Pradhan Thakkar and his mother was Rajbai Thakkar, who belonged to Lohana, a merchant clan, he was a devotee of the Hindu god Rama. Numerous temples across the world have been built in his name; the main shrine of Jalaram Bapa is located at Virpur. The shrine is the housing complex where Jalaram lived during his lifetime; the shrine houses the belongings of Jalaram and the deities of Rama, Sita and Hanuman worshipped by him.

It has on display the Jholi and Danda said to be given to him by God, however the main attraction is the portrait of Jalaram Bapa. There is a black and white photo of Jalaram Bapa, taken one year before his death. Millions of followers visit Virpur on the anniversary of Jalaram Bapa's birth, celebrated as Jalaram Jayanti. on the seventh day of the bright fortnight in the Hindu calendar month on Kartika. There are many guest houses in Virpur to accommodate pilgrims. Money is not accepted at the Jalaram Bapa temple; some Dharamshalas serve food without taking a donation. Virpur's economy is supported by tourism for pilgrims and visitors; the nearest towns are Gondal and Dhoraji. The nearest airport is Rajkot Airport

Marlon Rojas

Marlon Rojas is a Trinidadian footballer, a player/coach at Bermudian side Somerset Eagles. Rojas came to the United States to play college soccer, first with St. John's University, the University of Tampa, with whom he won the NCAA Division II Championship in 2001. Upon graduating college, Rojas went back to Trinidad to play for Joe Public, before signing with Real Salt Lake prior to team's inaugural season in 2005, he only lasted with the team until June. Rojas played a season with the Atlanta Silverbacks of the USL First Division in 2006Rojas joined the Bermuda Hogges of the USL Second Division in 2009, in doing so became the first non-Bermudian player in club history. In summer 2010 Rojas was named player/coach of Bermudian side Somerset Eagles. Rojas has played for the Trinidad and Tobago national team on various youth levels and has been a member of the squad during World Cup 2006 qualifiers, he has 23 caps. Marlon Rojas at

The Kindness of Strangers (Heroes)

"The Kindness of Strangers" is the fourth episode of the second season of the NBC science fiction drama series Heroes. It aired on October 15, 2007; this episode marks the first appearance of Monica Dawson, played by Dana Davis, who joins the main cast. Nathan Petrelli visits his sons at school, telling them their grandmother was in the hospital; when he visits his mother with Matt Parkman, she confesses to being the one that pushed Kaito Nakamura off the building. Matt, reads her thoughts and advises Nathan that her confession is false, he shows Nathan the defaced photographs of Angela and Kaito and Nathan provides Matt with a copy of the complete photograph. The photo shows Daniel Linderman, both of Nathan's parents, Mohinder Suresh's boss Bob, Charles Deveaux, Kaito Nakamura, two unidentified men, three unidentified women and a man Matt identifies as his father, Maury. Nathan has a nightmarish vision of himself with horrible burns over his body. Maya and Alejandro are traveling by car with Derek.

He mentions that he is from New Jersey, but he got the car in California. The conversation is cut short, it is a disoriented Sylar. Maya explains to Sylar that she and her brother are journeying to New York to find Chandra Suresh, but Alejandro is wary of his presence. However, at a stop in Mexico, Derek sees a newspaper identifying the twins as murderers and tries to plan with Sylar to turn them in to the police. Sylar asks if the picture is of them. Alejandro tells Maya to deny it. On the verge of tears, Maya nearly kills Sylar but her brother stops her powers from activating. Realizing that the twins both have abilities, Sylar agrees to help them get to New York; as they speed off, Derek is seen dead by a pay phone in a pool of his own blood, killed by Sylar. Micah Sanders awakens to a splash of water from his cousin Damon. Damon asks his grandmother and sister Monica for $65 to watch WWE WrestleMania 22 on Pay-Per-View, though both refuse. Micah uses his technopathy to "hot-wire" the television to put on the wrestling match, which earns his cousin's respect.

Monica Dawson is trying to enter a management training program for the burger restaurant where she works. Subconsciously during work, she recreates a perfect tomato rose, more complex than the one she saw on the cooking show her grandmother was watching; as she thinks of a way to get her life back on track, the manager calls her back, informing her that she did not get the promotion. On closing duty the next day, she stops a robbery at her restaurant with a 619 that she saw on the pay-per-view by Rey Mysterio that Damon was watching. Claire Bennet goes on another date with West against her father's wishes, where they share another kiss over the Hollywood sign. After convincing Claire to open up to him and jump from the sign, West catches her as she falls to prove that he'll be there to catch her should she need him physically or emotionally. In order to cover up her relationship, she tells her father that she has joined the school's cheerleading team. Noah Bennet is concerned about Claire seeing a love interest, since he worries that such relations would endanger the family and his own life, as seen in the eighth of Isaac's paintings.

He meets with The Haitian, who proposes they go on a trip to Odessa, Ukraine to find the rest of Isaac Mendez's paintings. Noah tries to think of an excuse for his absence. Matt Parkman asks Molly to locate his father from the photograph. In a fit of screaming, Molly throws the picture down and says that Matt's father is the "nightmare man" that kept finding her. Mohinder and Matt argue about getting Molly involved. After pinpointing his location, she is caught in a struggle and she calls out "Matt" in a plea for help, she lapses into a state of shock. Matt tries to revive her, only to hear Molly in his mind, screaming for help. In the 18-49 demographic, "The Kindness of Strangers" earned a 5.2/12 ratings share. This episode was watched by 11.41 million viewers. Sean O'Neal of The A. V. Club gave the episode a B+. Robert Canning of IGN scored the episode 7 out of 10 A geographical error occurs in dialogue due to a production oversight: Monica Dawson, a native of New Orleans, mistakenly refers to St. Bernard Parish as a county.

The Kindness of Strangers on IMDb Beaming Beeman - Season 2, Episode 4 - Director's blog on the filming of this episode

Tropical Storm Helene (2000)

Tropical Storm Helene was a long-lived tropical cyclone that oscillated for ten days between a tropical wave and a 70 mph tropical storm. It was the twelfth tropical cyclone and eighth tropical storm of the 2000 Atlantic hurricane season, forming on September 15 east of the Windward Islands. After degenerating into a tropical wave, the system produced flooding and mudslides in Puerto Rico, it reformed into a tropical depression on September 19 south of Cuba, crossed the western portion of the island the next day while on the verge of dissipation. However, it intensified into a tropical storm in the Gulf of Mexico, reaching its peak intensity while approaching the northern Gulf Coast; the storm weakened before moving ashore near Fort Walton Beach, Florida on September 22. It produced heavy rainfall along the Florida Panhandle; the rains caused the Sopchoppy River to reach a record crest. Gusty winds left about 5,000 people without power. In South Carolina, Helene spawned a tornado that injured six others.

The rainfall extended northeastward into Delaware. Overall damage in the United States was estimated at $16 million. Helene emerged from North Carolina as a tropical storm, re-intensified to near-hurricane strength before being absorbed by a cold front on September 25. A tropical wave moved off the African coast on September 10. Shortly thereafter, it lost most of its atmospheric convection and showed few signs of development as it moved westward. On September 14, convection reformed near the center of the system, it continued to organize, the next day the National Hurricane Center classified it as Tropical Depression Twelve. At the time, it was located 470 mi east of the Leeward Islands. By this point, the depression had ragged convection. An anticyclone to its north caused the depression to move to the west, upper-level conditions were forecast to be favorable for intensification. However, the circulation moved away from the main area of convection before a Hurricane Hunters flight indicated that the depression degenerated into a tropical wave on September 16.

Although there was not a closed circulation, the flight observed flight-level winds of 65 mph to the north and east of the system. The remnants of the depression continued westward, moving through the Lesser Antilles on September 17. Despite favorable conditions for redevelopment including low wind shear and warm ocean temperatures, the system remained a tropical wave as it moved across the Caribbean Sea. Late on September 19, another reconnaissance plane discovered a closed circulation to the northwest of Grand Cayman. Although there was minimal convection near the center, it organized enough to be re-classified as a tropical depression. Upon redeveloping, the depression was moved west-northwestward around a large anticyclone to the east of Florida, its circulation was broad. Conditions remained favorable for intensification, but instead the depression weakened as it approached Cuba. Around 1200 UTC on September 20, it moved across the western tip of Cuba into the Gulf of Mexico with minimal thunderstorms near the center.

A few hours the NHC noted that "the cyclone on the verge of breaking open into an east-west oriented trough". The agency did not discontinue advisories due to an increase in convection near the center, although no intensification was expected. However, the system's circulation and convection became better organized, early on September 21 the NHC upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Helene. Upon becoming a tropical storm, Helene turned to the north while rounding an anticyclone to its east, it intensified after its upgrade, reached its peak intensity of 70 mph late on September 21. The storm was small with an asymmetric wind field, wind shear displaced the circulation from the deep convection. Increasing wind shear prevented Helene from attaining hurricane status, the storm began weakening on September 22 as it approached the northern Gulf Coast. By 0900 UTC that day, strong wind shear moved the convection away from the center and toward the north and northeast; this prompted NHC forecaster Lixion Avila to remark, "If I did not have a reconnaissance plane in the area, I would not know there was a tropical cyclone by just observing IR satellite imagery."

The storm made landfall near Fort Walton Beach, Florida at 1200 UTC on September 22 after weakening from its peak intensity to winds of 40 mph. After moving ashore, an area of convection redeveloped over Helene's center and the circulation became well-defined on radar imagery; the storm accelerated to the northeast into the Westerlies, about six hours following its landfall, Helene weakened to tropical depression status after crossing into southeastern Alabama. A few hours the NHC issued the last advisory on the system and transferred warnings to the Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. Hurricane forecast models anticipated restrengthening, due to the forecast track north of the Gulf Stream, the NHC predicted intensification as an extratropical cyclone; the agency noted. Despite strong wind shear, convection increased over Helene's center as the storm moved through North Carolina. Stations along the Outer Banks reported sustained winds up to 59 mph. Satellite imagery and buoy data indicated that Helene re-intensified into a tropical storm inland over North Carolina.

The storm emerged from the Virginia coast into an area o