U.S. Route 63 in Arkansas
U. S. Route 63 is a north-south U. S. highway that begins in Ruston, LA. In the US state of Arkansas the highway enters the state from Louisiana concurrent with US 167 in Junction City; the highway zigzags through the state serving the major cities of Pine Bluff, West Memphis and Jonesboro. The highway exits the state at Mammoth Spring traveling into Missouri. US 63 shares many overlaps with other highways in Arkansas; this includes I-40 and I-55. Once the freeway section was extended further south to I-55 at Turrell, US 63 from there to Jonesboro became I-555. U. S. 63 enters into Arkansas from Louisiana concurrent with US 167 in Junction City. Just a few miles into the state, the two highways run on the eastern edge of El Dorado as an expressway. US 167 splits here. US 63 bypasses the town of Warren, crossing US 270. US 63 passes through the rural Cleveland County enters into Jefferson County. In Jefferson County, US 63 serves the city of Pine Bluff. US 63 bypasses the city, running on the last 3 miles of I-530.
In Pine Bluff, the highway overlaps with US 65 and US 79. US 63 runs northeast with US 79 until Stuttgart. Just north of Hazen, US 63 overlaps with I-40 to West Memphis. In West Memphis, US 63 runs north with I-55. U. S. 63 runs with I-55 until Turrell, where it leaves the interstate and runs concurrent with I-555 until Jonesboro, until I-555 terminates. US 49 overlaps the two roadways for two miles in central Jonesboro. US 63/I-555 serves as a by-pass for southern Jonesboro. In Hoxie, US 63 intersects with US 67. Northwest of here near Portia the highway overlaps with US 412. In Imboden US 62 joins. In Hardy, US 63 leaves the two highways. In Mammoth Spring, US 63 crosses into Missouri. Portions of U. S. 63 in northern Arkansas have their origins in the work of the Ozark Trails Association, which established a network of roads in northern Arkansas and southern Missouri beginning in the 1910s. A portion of roadway was mapped out in Arkansas between Mammoth Spring and Memphis and built c. 1918-22. This roadway was designated Highway A-7, was designated U.
S. 63. Some of the original infrastructure of this early construction has survived the 1927 Mississippi flood and the realignment of U. S. 63 in 1967. Northwest of Tyronza, Old U. S. 63 runs for about 1-1/4 miles of original concrete pavement. Four bridges built in the 1920s (three before the 1927 flood and one after, are on the National Register. Interstate 555 U. S. Route 63 National Register of Historic Places in Poinsett County, Arkansas
Lawrence County, Arkansas
Lawrence County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,415; the county seat is Walnut Ridge. Lawrence County is Arkansas's second county, formed on January 15, 1815, named for Captain James Lawrence who fought in the War of 1812, it is dry county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 592 square miles, of which 588 square miles is land and 4.7 square miles is water. Randolph County Greene County Craighead County Jackson County Independence County Sharp County As of the 2000 census, there were 17,774 people, 7,108 households, 5,011 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 8,085 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.78% White, 0.44% Black or African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.05% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, 1.02% from two or more races. 0.68% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,108 households out of which 30.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.70% were married couples living together, 9.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.50% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.00% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, 17.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 93.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,139, the median income for a family was $32,163. Males had a median income of $26,288 versus $18,518 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,785. About 13.90% of families and 18.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.50% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over.
Public education is available from four school districts: Hillcrest School District Hoxie School District Lawrence County School District Sloan–Hendrix School District Black Rock Hoxie Walnut Ridge Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Lawrence County are listed below. List of lakes in Lawrence County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Lawrence County, Arkansas
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Black River (Arkansas–Missouri)
The Black River is a tributary of the White River, about 300 miles long, in southeastern Missouri and northeastern Arkansas in the United States. Via the White River, it is part of the Mississippi River watershed. Black River Technical College is named for the river; the river was so named on account of the black tint of its water. The Black River rises in Missouri as three streams: The East Fork Black River rises in Iron County and flows southwardly, through Johnson's Shut-Ins State Park where the Taum Sauk pumped storage plant Upper Reservoir dam breach caused severe damage to the park. A dam on the East Fork forms the Taum Sauk Lower Reservoir which holds water, pumped to the Upper Reservoir; the Middle Fork Black River is formed by a confluence of creeks in the Mark Twain National Forest in northern Reynolds County and flows southeastwardly. The West Fork Black River is formed by a confluence of creeks in the Mark Twain National Forest in western Reynolds County and flows eastwardly, past the town of Centerville.
The headwaters forks converge near Lesterville, the Black River flows southwardly through Reynolds and Butler Counties in Missouri. In its lowermost course the river is used to define the boundary between Independence and Jackson Counties, it flows past the towns of Mill Spring and Poplar Bluff in Missouri. It joins the White River at Arkansas. A U. S. Army Corps of Engineers dam in Wayne County, causes the river to form Clearwater Lake. In Arkansas, the Black River is joined by the Little Black River, the Current River, the Spring River and the Strawberry River. List of Arkansas rivers List of Missouri rivers U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Clearwater Lake website at the Library of Congress Web Archives
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Batesville is the county seat and largest city of Independence County, United States, 80 miles northeast of Little Rock, the state capital. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city was 10,268; the city serves as a regional manufacturing and distribution hub for the Ozark Mountain region and Northeast Arkansas. This small town in the foothills of the Ozarks offers a diverse view from Ramsey Hill at the Southside to the vast Plains in the East. Batesville is the second oldest municipality after the town of Georgetown — and the oldest city — in the state of Arkansas, it was named for the first territorial delegate from Arkansas to the Congress of the United States, James Woodson Bates, who settled in the town. The town has gone by the names of Napoleon and Poke Bayou. In early days, Batesville was an important port on the White River and served as an entry point to the interior of northern Arkansas. Batesville played a large role in the settling of the Ozark Mountains region and served as the central land office for northern Arkansas.
The first known settlement of the Batesville area was in 1810 near the mouth of Polk Bayou, by 1819 the town had a ferry across the White River and about a dozen houses. The town was laid out in early 1821, on March 3, 1822 a bill of assurance was recorded and executed and the town's plat was laid out. Batesville became the county seat in 1821. In January 1822, Judge Richard Searcy opened the town's first state circuit court; the town's first post office was established in 1822, in 1830 became the home of a county court. On 25 September 1836, shortly after Arkansas was granted its statehood, Governor Conway incorporated Batesville Academy, the state's first academy. In the past, the area in and around the city had extensive quarries of manganese ore, phosphate rock, sandstone and marble. Batesville has only one high school within the city limits, Batesville High School. Batesville is the home of Lyon College, a private liberal arts college affiliated with the Presbyterian Church, noted for the annual Arkansas Scottish Festival each spring.
In addition, the city is home to the University of Arkansas Community College at Batesville, NASCAR driver Mark Martin. It contains three National Register Historic Districts and many properties separately listed on the National Register of Historic Places, it was listed in Norman Crampton's 1992 book The 100 Best Small Towns in America, ranking at #75. Batesville is located at 35°46′25″N 91°38′29″W. Batesville lies on the White River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 11.11 square miles, of which 10.98 square miles is land and 0.13 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 10,243 people, 3,777 households, 2,383 families residing in the city; the population density was 907.3 people per square mile. There were 4,146 housing units at an average density of 398.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.2% White, 4.3% Black or African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.5% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 1.40% from other races, 2.00% from two or more races.
4.6% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race. There were 3,777 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. 33.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.92. The age distribution was 22.0% under the age of 18, 12.0% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 18.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,133, the median income for a family was $42,634. Males had a median income of $31,068 versus $20,506 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,753. About 11.1% of families and 14.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.1% of those under age 18 and 16.6% of those age 65 or over.
Batesville Public Schools are part of Arkansas. The district has one early learning center, one junior high school, one high school and four magnet schools. Students attend Batesville High School. U. S. Highway 167 Arkansas Highway 25 Arkansas Highway 69 Arkansas Highway 69 Business Arkansas Highway 106 Arkansas Highway 233 Arkansas Highway 394 The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Batesville has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. City of Batesville, the official website of the City of Batesville MyBatesville.org, the official page of the Batesville Area Chamber of Commerce GuardOnline.com, the online edition of the Batesville Daily Guard newspaper Batesville Preservation Association, a local organization dedicated to preservation and restoration of the area's historic buildings Old Independence Regional Museum Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture entry: Batesville Ozark Weather & Radar
Powhatan Historic State Park
Powhatan Historic State Park is a 9.1-acre Arkansas state park in Lawrence County, Arkansas in the United States. The park contains the 1888 Powhatan courthouse which served as the home of county government from 1869-1968. Today the structure displays items of cultural and historical significance and hosts the park's Visitor Center; the park includes four additional historical buildings and the Arkansas History Commission's Northeast Arkansas Regional Archives. A tour of the historic structures is available. Powhatan served as an important stop for traffic on the Black River until the installation of the Kansas City-Memphis Railwayline two miles north in 1883 decreased the need for river transportation; the community was the economic hub of Lawrence County before its first platting in 1849. Situated on the Black River, the community took advantage of river traffic both along the river and as a ferry point for crossing the river; the Military Road passed nearby in the 1830s, the local economy flourished.
The Civil War shut down commerce on the river after the Union acquired Arkansas. Skirmishes throughout the region caused havoc for residents, but a slow recovery began to take place following the war. County government was relocated to Powhatan from Clover Bend, a decision helping Powhatan recover. Following the natural contours of the land, the Kansas City-Memphis Railway crossed the Black River two moles north of Powhatan through the town of Black Rock causing the decline of commercial traffic to Powhatan; the Lawrence County judiciary chose to split in 1887, allowing court to be held in Walnut Ridge and Powhatan. US Route 63 was rerouted to bypass Powhatan in the 1950s with the building of the new bridge spanning the Black River, all county government moved to Walnut Ridge in 1968. Known as the Powhatan Log House, this is a single-pen log structure with a gable roof, with a second pen added to the rear at a date. Although its construction date is uncertain, it is believed to date to c. 1850, to be the oldest extant example of residential architecture in Lawrence County.
The courthouse is set on a rise overlooking the Black River. It is a two-story brick building, set on a stone foundation. Brick pilasters rise two stories at its corners, between its window bays, it square tower is decorated with bracketed cornices at the top of each stage, is topped by a pyramidal roof. It was built in 1888, is one of the government buildings from that period remaining in northeastern Arkansas; the jail, located a short walk from the courthouse, is a small single-story limestone and concrete structure with a hip roof that has a cupola-like raised central section to provide ventilation. The jail was built in 1873, is the only structure in Powhatan to survive from the period of the first courthouse; the building was used as a cannery from 1935-1937 by the county's Home Demonstration Clubs, has since been restored. The schoolhouse is a single-story wood frame structure, with a side gable roof and a projecting front-gable section, which houses vestibule area for the two-room schoolhouse.
The classroom has a sliding wall partition. It was built c. 1888, replacing an earlier log structure. This is a single-story brick building, standing at a major street corner in Powhatan, it has a simple three-bay front with segmented-arch openings for a central door. It was built in the 1880s, is the only surviving commercial building of historic Powhatan, it first served as home to the city's first telephone exchange. Powhatan Historic State Park does not have recreational facilities on site. Arkansas portal National Register of Historic Places listings in Lawrence County, Arkansas Jacksonport State Park, a similar historic state park in the region Powhatan Historic State Park - official site