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Poznań

Poznań is a city on the Warta River in west-central Poland, in the Greater Poland region and is the fifth-largest city in Poland. It is best known for its renaissance Old Ostrów Tumski Cathedral. Today, Poznań is an important cultural and business centre and one of Poland's most populous regions with many regional customs such as Saint John's Fair, traditional Saint Martin's croissants and a local dialect. Poznań is among the largest cities in Poland; the city's population is 538,633, while the continuous conurbation with Poznań County and several other communities is inhabited by 1.1 million people. The Larger Poznań Metropolitan Area is inhabited by 1.3–1.4 million people and extends to such satellite towns as Nowy Tomyśl, Gniezno and Września, making it the fourth largest metropolitan area in Poland. It is the historical capital of the Greater Poland region and is the administrative capital of the province called Greater Poland Voivodeship. Poznań is a centre of trade, education and tourism.

It is an important academic site, with about 130,000 students and the Adam Mickiewicz University, the third largest Polish university. Poznań is the seat of the oldest Polish diocese, now being one of the most populous archdioceses in the country; the city hosts the Poznań International Fair – the biggest industrial fair in Poland and one of the largest fairs in Europe. The city's most renowned landmarks include Poznań Town Hall, the National Museum, Grand Theatre, Fara Church, Poznań Cathedral and the Imperial Castle. Poznań is classified as a Gamma - global city by World Cities Research Network, it has topped rankings as a city with high quality of education and a high standard of living. It ranks in safety and healthcare quality; the city of Poznań has many times, won the prize awarded by "Superbrands" for a high quality city brand. In 2012, the Poznań's Art and Business Center "Stary Browar" won a competition organised by National Geographic Traveler and was given the first prize as one of the seven "New Polish Wonders".

The official patron saints of Poznań are Saint Peter and Paul of Tarsus, the patrons of the cathedral. Martin of Tours – the patron of the main street Święty Marcin is regarded as one of the patron saints of the city; the name Poznań comes from a personal name and would mean "Poznan's town". It is possible that the name comes directly from the verb poznać, which means "to get to know" or "to recognize," so it may mean "known town"; the earliest surviving references to the city are found in the chronicles of Thietmar of Merseburg, written between 1012 and 1018: episcopus Posnaniensis and ab urbe Posnani. The city's name appears in documents in the Latin nominative case as Posnania in 1236 and Poznania in 1247; the phrase in Poznan appears in 1146 and 1244. The city's full official name is Stołeczne Miasto Poznań, in reference to its role as a centre of political power in the early Polish state. Poznań is known as Posen in German, was called Haupt- und Residenzstadt Posen between 20 August 1910 and 28 November 1918.

The Latin names of the city are Civitas Posnaniensis. Its Yiddish name is Poyzn. In Polish, the city name has masculine grammatical gender. For centuries before the Christianization of Poland, Poznań was an important cultural and political centre of the Polan tribe. Mieszko I, the first recorded ruler of the Polans, of the early Polish state which they dominated, built one of his main stable headquarters in Poznań. Mieszko's baptism of 966, seen as a defining moment in the Christianization of the Polish state, may have taken place in Poznań. Following the baptism, construction began of the first in Poland. Poznań was the main seat of the first missionary bishop sent to Poland, Bishop Jordan; the Congress of Gniezno in 1000 led to the country's first permanent archbishopric being established in Gniezno, although Poznań continued to have independent bishops of its own. Poznań's cathedral was the place of burial of the early Piast monarchs, of Przemysł I and King Przemysł II; the pagan reaction that followed Mieszko II's death in 1034 left the region weak, in 1038, Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia sacked and destroyed both Poznań and Gniezno.

Poland was reunited under Casimir I the Restorer in 1039, but the capital was moved to Kraków, unaffected by the troubles. In 1138, by the testament of Bolesław III, Poland was divided into separate duchies under the late king's sons, Poznań and its surroundings became the domain of Mieszko III the Old, the first of the Dukes of Greater Poland; this period of fragmentation lasted until 1320. Duchies changed hands. In about 1249, Duke Przemysł I began constructing what would become the Royal Castle on a hill on the left bank of the Warta. In 1253 Przemysł issued a charter to Thomas of Guben for the founding of a town under Magdeburg law, between the castle and the river. Thomas

Coup d'état

A coup d'état known as a coup, ousting or an overthrow, is the forcible expulsion/removal of power of an existing government by non-democratic means. A coup d'état is considered successful when the usurpers seize and hold power for at least seven days; the phrase coup d'état comes from French meaning a "stroke of state" or "blow against the state". In French, the word État, denoting a sovereign political entity, is capitalized. Although the concept of a coup d'état has featured in politics since antiquity, the phrase is of recent coinage; the phrase did not appear within an English text before the 19th century except when used in translation of a French source, there being no simple phrase in English to convey the contextualized idea of a "knockout blow to the existing administration within a state". One early use within text translated from French was in 1785 in a printed translation of a letter from a French merchant, commenting on an arbitrary decree or "arrêt" issued by the French king restricting the import of British wool.

What may be its first published use within a text composed in English is an editor's note in the London Morning Chronicle, 7 January 1802, reporting the arrest by Napoleon in France, of Moreau, Masséna, Bernadotte: There was a report in circulation yesterday of a sort of coup d'état having taken place in France, in consequence of some formidable conspiracy against the existing government. In post-Revolutionary France, the phrase came to be used to describe the various murders by Napoleon's hated secret police, the Gens d'Armes d'Elite, who murdered the Duke of Enghien:...the actors in torture, the distributors of the poisoning draughts, the secret executioners of those unfortunate individuals or families, whom Bonaparte's measures of safety require to remove. In what revolutionary tyrants call grand coups d'état, as butchering, or poisoning, or drowning, en masse, they are employed. Clayton Thyne and Jonathan Powell's dataset of coups defines attempted coups as "illegal and overt attempts by the military or other elites within the state apparatus to unseat the sitting executive."

They arrive at this definition by combining common definitions in the existing literature, removing specificities and ambiguities that exist in many definitions. In looser usage, as in "intelligence coup" or "boardroom coup", the term refers to gaining a sudden advantage on a rival. Since an unsuccessful coup d'état in 1920, the Swiss-German word Putsch denotes the politico-military actions of an unsuccessful minority reactionary coup. Other recent and notable unsuccessful minority reactionary coups that are referred to as Putsches are the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch and Küstrin Putsch, the 1961 Algiers Putsch and the 1991 August Putsch. Putsch was used as disinformation by Hitler and other Nazi party members to falsely claim that he had to suppress a reactionary coup during the Night of the Long Knives. Germans still use the term Röhm-Putsch to describe the murders, the term given to it by the Nazi regime, despite its unproven implication that the murders were necessary to prevent a coup. Thus, German authors use quotation marks or write about the sogenannter Röhm-Putsch for emphasis.

Pronunciamiento is a term of Spanish origin for a special type of coup d'état. The coup d'état was more common in Spain and South America, while the pronunciamiento was more common in Central America and Mexico; the pronunciamiento is the formal explanation for deposing the regnant government, justifying the installation of the new government, effected with the golpe de estado. A "barracks revolt" or cuartelazo is a term for military revolt, from the Spanish term cuartel. Specific military garrisons are the sparking factor for a larger military revolt against the government. One author makes a distinction between a pronunciamiento. In a coup, it is the military, paramilitary, or opposing political faction that deposes the current government and assumes power. According to Clayton Thyne and Jonathan Powell's coup dataset, there were 457 coup attempts from 1950 to 2010, of which 227 were successful and 230 were unsuccessful, they find. Asia and the Middle East have experienced 13.1% and 15.8% of total global coups, respectively.

Europe has experienced by far the fewest coup attempts: 2.6%." Most coup attempts occurred in the mid-1960s, but there were large numbers of coup attempts in the mid-1970s and the early 1990s. Numbers of successful coups have decreased over time. Coups occurring in the post-Cold War period have been more to result in democratic systems. Coups that occur during civil wars shorten the war's duration. Research suggests that protests spur coups, as they help elites within the state apparatus to coordinate coups. A 2016 study categorizes coups into four possible outcomes: Failed coup No regime change, such as when a leader is illegally shuffled out of power without changing the identity of the group in power or the rules for governing Replacement of incumbent dictatorship with another Ouster of the

Order of the Federal Republic

The Order of the Federal Republic is one of two orders of merit, established by the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1963. It is senior to the Order of the Niger; the highest honours where the Grand Commander in the Order of the Federal Republic and Grand Commander in the Order of the Niger are awarded to the President and Vice-President respectively. The Presiding Judge in the Supreme Court and the Chairman of the Senate are qualitate and ex officio Commander in the Order of the Niger; the Nigerians have followed the British example in the structure of the Order. There are post-nominal letters for the members of the Order of the Niger. There is a Military Division; the ribbon of the latter division has a small red line in the middle. The order has four grades: Grand Commander of the Order of the Federal Republic Commander of the Order of the Federal Republic Officer of the Order of the Federal Republic Member of the Order of the Federal Republic Shehu Shagari Obafemi Awolowo Nnamdi Azikiwe Olusegun Obasanjo Ibrahim Babangida Goodluck Jonathan Muhammadu Buhari Queen Elizabeth II Nelson Mandela Moshood Abiola Umaru Musa Yar'Adua Atiku Abubakar Aliko Dangote Idris Legbo Kutigi Goodluck Jonathan Yemi Osinbajo Aminu Tambuwal Clement Isong Daniel Aladesanmi II Muhammed Adoke Alhaji Isa Sali Mrs. Victoria Gowon Yahaya Abubakar Christopher E. Abebe Taiwo Akinkunmi Grace Alele-Williams Senator Dr. Victor Umeh S. A. Ajayi Alhaji Buhari Bala Tijjani Muhammad-Bande Idris Legbo Kutigi Tijjani Muhammad-Bande Shettima Mustapha Ernest Chukwuka Anene Ndukwe Ayo Oritsejafor Wole Olanipekun Lere Paimo Kashim Zannah Olu Jacobs Osita Iheme Muktar A. Gadanya Tony Elumelu Genevieve Nnaji Omotola Ekeinde High Chief Gabriel Emmanuel Umoden Otunba Lanre Ipinmisho Kofoworola Ademola Lere Paimo Slyvanus Okpala "Nigeria - Order of the Federal Republic".

Queen & Commonwealth >Orders. The Royal Collection. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013. "At last, designer of Nigerian flag, bags national award"