A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Rogers is located in Northwest Arkansas, United States, one of the fastest growing metro areas in the country. Rogers was the location of the first Walmart store, whose corporate headquarters is located in neighboring Bentonville. Rogers is a city in the Ozarks in Benton County. Daisy Outdoor Products, known for its air rifles, has both its headquarters and its Airgun Museum in Rogers; as of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 55,964. In 2017 the estimated population was 66,430. Rogers is part of the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, one of the fastest growing in the nation; the Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers Metropolitan Area, more known as Northwest Arkansas, is ranked 109th in terms of population in the United States, with 465,776 inhabitants as of the 2010 U. S. Census. Rogers was named after Captain Charles Warrington Rogers, vice-president and general manager of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway known as the Frisco; the town was established in 1881, the year.
The community was incorporated on June 6, 1881. In June 2007, BusinessWeek magazine ranked Rogers as 18th in its list of the 25 best affordable suburbs in the American South, and in 2010, CNN Money ranked Rogers #10 on their list of 100 Best Places to Live. The first retail business owned by the Stroud family was a store in Pea Ridge, co-owned by Allen Bryant Stroud and his son Harlan Lafayette Stroud; that business was established prior to 1879 and Allen Stroud served as postmaster at Pea Ridge for a time. In 1884, H. L. Stroud sold his interest in the Stroud store in Pea Ridge and purchased a dry goods store at the corner of First and Walnut Streets in Rogers which he named Stroud's Mercantile. In 1887 he brought in his brother Evan Giesen. In 1891 H. L. Stroud moved his business into a storefront on the north side of the 100 block of Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to prosper, in 1899 H. L. built the brick building at 114–116 West Walnut Street. Stroud's continued to be the leading retail business in Rogers up into the 1960s, when in 1962 Sam Walton opened the first location of what would become the retail giant Walmart just seven blocks away.
Walton's new store combined with the nationwide movement of retail centers from aged downtowns to malls and shopping centers eroded Stroud's customer base, leading the locally beloved retailer to permanently close in 1993 after 109 years in business. In 1912 the city council formed a commission of local businessmen to facilitate the paving of downtown Rogers. Despite the constant complaints of dusty and muddy streets, the enthusiastic support of prominent citizens such as Coin Harvey, bickering over the cost and method of paving delayed the start of the project until July 1924; the downtown area was paved with concrete and overlaid with bricks in rows, changing to a basket weave pattern at the intersections of streets. The work was completed in December 1924, the brick pavement remains today, with renovations done to the streets in 2010. Rogers is located at 36°19′46″N 94°8′29″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.6 square miles, of which 33.5 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by warm, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rogers has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of 2010 Rogers had a population of 55,964. The racial and ethnic composition of the population was 62.0% non-Hispanic white, 1.3% non-Hispanic black, 1.0% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.3% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanics of some other race, 3.0% from two or more races and 31.5% Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 38,829 people, 14,005 households, 10,209 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,158.0 people per square mile. There were 14,836 housing units at an average density of 442.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90.75% White, 0.47% Black or African American, 1.05% Native American, 1.43% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 9.43% from other races, 1.80% from two or more races. 19.29% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 14,005 households out of which 39.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.4% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.1% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 29.4% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,474, the median income for a family was $45,876. Males had a median income of $30,911 versus $22,020 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,761. About 9.4% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.6% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.
In addition to the Rogers Commercial Historic District, Rogers has numerous properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places, with the oldest being the Pea Ridge National Military Park. Ro
Central Time Zone
The North American Central Time Zone is a time zone in parts of Canada, the United States, Central America, some Caribbean Islands, part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Central Standard Time is six hours behind Coordinated Universal Time. During summer most of the zone uses daylight saving time, changes to Central Daylight Time, five hours behind UTC; the province of Manitoba is the only province or territory in Canada that observes Central Time in all areas. The following Canadian provinces and territories observe Central Time in the areas noted, while their other areas observe Eastern Time: Nunavut: western areas Ontario: a portion of the northwest bordering southeastern Manitoba, in and around Kenora. Most of the province of Saskatchewan is on Central Standard Time year-round, never adjusting for Daylight Saving Time. Major exceptions include Lloydminster, a city situated on the boundary between Alberta and Saskatchewan; the city charter stipulates that it shall observe Mountain Time and DST, putting the community on the same time as all of Alberta, including the major cities of Calgary and Edmonton.
As a result, during the summer, clocks in the entire province match those in Alberta, but during the winter, clocks in most of the province match those in Manitoba. Nine states are contained in the Central Time Zone: Alabama Arkansas Illinois Iowa Louisiana Minnesota Mississippi Missouri WisconsinNote: Although all of Alabama is on Central Time, Phenix City and the nearby community of Smiths Station unofficially observe Eastern Time, as these areas are part of the metropolitan area of the larger city of Columbus, Georgia in the Eastern Time Zone. Lanett and Valley observe Eastern Time because they were textile mill towns and the original home office of their mills was in West Point, Georgia. Six states are split between the Central Time Zone and the Mountain Time Zone: Kansas – all, except for Sherman, Wallace and Hamilton counties Nebraska – eastern two thirds North Dakota – all, except for southwest regions and south part of McKenzie County, plus the majority of Dunn County and far western Sioux County Oklahoma – all, except for Kenton South Dakota – eastern half Texas – all, except for El Paso and Hudspeth countiesFive states are split between the Central Time Zone and the Eastern Time Zone: Florida – Florida Panhandle below Alabama border and the Dry Tortugas National Park in Monroe County west of the Florida Keys Indiana – northwest and southwest regions Kentucky – western half Michigan – Gogebic, Iron and Menominee counties Tennessee – West Tennessee and Middle Tennessee Most of Mexico—roughly the eastern three-fourths—lies in the Central Time Zone, except for six northwestern states and one southeastern state.
The federal entities of Mexico that observe Central Time: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala and Nicaragua all use Central Standard Time year-round. The Galápagos Islands in Ecuador uses Central Standard Time all year-round. Both Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island in Chile uses Central Standard Time during the Southern Hemisphere winter and Central Daylight Time during the Southern Hemisphere summer. Daylight saving time is in effect in much of the Central time zone between mid-March and early November; the modified time is called "Central Daylight Time" and is UTC−05:00. In Canada, Saskatchewan does not observe a time change. One reason for Saskatchewan's lack of a time change is that, the entire province is closer to the Mountain Time Zone's meridian; the province elected to move onto "permanent" daylight saving by being part of the Central Time Zone. The only exception is the region surrounding the Saskatchewan side of the biprovincial city of Lloydminster, which has chosen to use Mountain Time with DST, synchronizing its clocks with those of Alberta.
In those areas of the Canadian and American time zones that observe DST, beginning in 2007, the local time changes at 02:00 local standard time to 03:00 local daylight time on the second Sunday in March and returns at 02:00 local daylight time to 01:00 local standard time on the first Sunday in November. Mexico decided not to go along with this change and observes their horario de verano from the first Sunday in April to the last Sunday in October. In December 2009, the Mexican Congress allowed ten border cities, eight of which are in states that observe Central Time, to adopt the U. S. daylight time schedule effective in 2010. Effects of time zones on North American broadcasting World time zone map Hismaime zones C conversion The official U. S. time for the GmTCentral Time Zone Cities in CST Official times across Canada
Bella Vista, Arkansas
Bella Vista is a city in Benton County, United States. First established in 1917 as a summer resort destination, Bella Vista has evolved and redesigned itself over the succeeding years. Bella Vista became a retirement community in 1965, after much contention and a 2006 vote of its property owners, became an incorporated city. Following its official incorporation on January 1, 2007, the new city government took over the police department, fire department, trash removal and other city functions, while the Property Owners Association retained control of the many amenities available to homeowners and their guests. Amenities include numerous parks, clubhouses with workout areas, swimming pools, six 18 hole golf courses, one nine-hole golf course, seven lakes with fishing and boat docks, a marina, swimming beach, putt putt golf courses and tennis courts, dog park, softball field, extensive hiking and biking trails throughout its beautiful Ozark hills; the city of Bella Vista is located on the Springfield Plateau of the Ozark Mountains.
Oak/hickory forests, along with valleys and steep rises, characterize the city's topography. Bella Vista is located north of Bentonville and Rogers and is the northernmost Arkansas city in the Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area; the city has been experiencing a population and building boom in recent years, as indicated by a 60% growth in population between the 2000 and 2010 censuses. Bella Vista is located in northern Benton County at 36°28'8" North, 94°16'7" West, its northern border is the Missouri state line. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 45.9 square miles, of which 44.2 square miles is land and 1.6 square miles is water, consisting of the several lakes within the city. As of the census of 2000, there were 16,582 people, 7,818 households, 6,004 families residing in the community, which at the time was recorded as a census-designated place; the population density was 252.8 inhabitants per square mile. There are 8,854 housing units at an average density of 135.0 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the CDP was 97.87% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 0.69% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, 0.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.01% of the population. There were 7,818 households out of which 13.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.4% are married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.2% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.10 and the average family size was 2.38. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 12.3% under the age of 18, 3.0% from 18 to 24, 16.4% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 41.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 61 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.9 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $44,090, the median income for a family was $48,233.
Males had a median income of $34,547 versus $24,690 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $25,406. About 1.5% of families and 2.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.7% of those under the age of 18 and 1.0% of those 65 and older. Bella Vista's Declarations and Protective Covenants is the "rule book" that governs the POA; the Property Owners Association must follow this "rule book" composed of various articles. There are Class A and Class B members of the POA. Class B refers to Cooper Communities, the land developer, who gets 10 votes per lot owned and Class A refers to lot private lot purchasers who receive one vote per lot owned. Cooper Communities now owns too few lots to sway the vote. Both Class A and class B members must approve a vote; the POA is governed by a nine-member Board of Directors. They set the direction and long-term objectives for the POA guided by Bella Vista's declarations and protective covenants; the day-to-day activity of the POA is directed by its general manager, with division heads and site managers responsible for the various departments and facilities.
The residents voted in 2006 to incorporate as an official city effective January 1, 2007. The POA still remains intact to service the recreational amenities and provide water, but the City of Bella Vista now has responsibility for police, streets, community development, other services. Bella Vista has seven lakes; these lakes are not "public" in that only members of the community or their guests are permitted to use them. Lake Ann, Lake Windsor, Lake Loch Lomond are the largest all-sports lakes in the town. Lake Avalon, Lake Norwood, Lake Rayburn are fishing lakes with "no-wake" restrictions. Current POA boat permits are required, as are Arkansas fishing licenses, when fishing Bella Vista lakes. No personal water crafts are allowed on any of the Bella Vista lakes, only 20 miles east of Bella Vista is Beaver Lake, a 31,700 acre US Army Corps of Engineers Lake, Jet Skis are welcome there. Lake Ann is a water sport lake with 112.5 acres of surface area. Because it is 53.5 feet deep with no power limit, water skiing is allowed on Lake Ann.
Lake Windsor is the second largest of the lakes, covering 220 acres with a maximum depth of 79.5 feet. Lake Windsor is an unlimited power lake, water skiing is allowed. Loch Lomond is the largest of all the lakes in the city, it is 80 feet deep
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Geographic Names Information System
The Geographic Names Information System is a database that contains name and locative information about more than two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its territories. It is a type of gazetteer. GNIS was developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the United States Board on Geographic Names to promote the standardization of feature names; the database is part of a system that includes bibliographic references. The names of books and historic maps that confirm the feature or place name are cited. Variant names, alternatives to official federal names for a feature, are recorded; each feature receives a permanent, unique feature record identifier, sometimes called the GNIS identifier. The database never removes an entry, "except in cases of obvious duplication." The GNIS accepts proposals for new or changed names for U. S. geographical features. The general public can make proposals at the GNIS web site and can review the justifications and supporters of the proposals.
The Bureau of the Census defines Census Designated Places as a subset of locations in the National Geographic Names Database. U. S. Postal Service Publication 28 gives standards for addressing mail. In this publication, the postal service defines two-letter state abbreviations, street identifiers such as boulevard and street, secondary identifiers such as suite. Canadian Geographical Names Data Base, a similar, but non-public-domain, database for locations within Canada only GEOnet Names Server, a similar database for locations outside the United States United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, National Mapping Division, Digital Gazeteer: Users Manual. Least Heat Moon, Blue Highways: A Journey Into America. ISBN 0-316-35329-9 Jouris, All Over The Map, ISBN 0-89815-649-1 Report: "Countries, Areas of Special Sovereignty, Their Principal Administrative Divisions," Federal Information Processing Standards, FIPS 10-4.
Standard was withdrawn in September 2008, See Federal Register Notice: Vol. 73, No. 170, page 51276 Report: "Principles and Procedures: Domestic Geographic Names," U. S. Board on Geographic Names, 1997. U. S. Postal Service Publication 28. U. S. Board on Geographic Names website Geographic Names Information System Proposals from the general public Meeting minutes