Prairie School is a late 19th- and early 20th-century architectural style, most common in the Midwestern United States. The style is marked by horizontal lines, flat or hipped roofs with broad overhanging eaves, windows grouped in horizontal bands, integration with the landscape, solid construction and discipline in the use of ornament. Horizontal lines were thought to evoke and relate to the wide, treeless expanses of America's native prairie landscape; the Prairie School was an attempt at developing an indigenous North American style of architecture in symphony with the ideals and design aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts Movement, with which it shared an embrace of handcrafting and craftsman guilds as an antidote to the dehumanizing effects of mass production. The term Prairie School was not used by practitioners of the style. Architect Marion Mahony, for example, preferred the phrase The Chicago Group, its term was coined by H. Allen Brooks, one of the first architectural historians to write extensively about the movement and its work.
The Prairie School developed in symphony with the ideals and design aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts Movement begun in the late 19th century in England by John Ruskin, William Morris, others. Along with the kindred American Craftsman movement it shared an embrace of handcrafting and craftsman guilds as a reaction against the new assembly line mass production manufacturing techniques, felt to create inferior products and dehumanize workers; the Prairie School was an attempt at developing an indigenous North American style of architecture that did not share design elements and aesthetic vocabulary with earlier styles of European classical architecture. Many talented and ambitious young architects had been attracted by building opportunities stemming from the Great Chicago Fire of 1871; the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 was supposed to be a heralding of the city of Chicago's rebirth. But many of the young Midwestern architects of what would become the Prairie School were offended by the Greek and Roman classicism of nearly every building erected for the fair.
In reaction, they sought to create new work in and around Chicago that would display a uniquely modern and authentically American style, which came to be called Prairie. The designation Prairie is due to the dominant horizontality of the majority of Prairie style buildings, which echoes the wide, treeless expanses of the mid-Western United States; the most famous proponent of the style, Frank Lloyd Wright, promoted an idea of "organic architecture", the primary tenet of, that a structure should look as if it grew from the site. In the words of Wright, buildings that appeared as if they were "married to the ground." Wright felt that a horizontal orientation was a distinctly American design motif, in that the younger country had much more open, undeveloped land than found in most older and urbanized European nations. The Prairie School is associated with a generation of architects employed or influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright or Louis Sullivan, though not including Sullivan himself. While the style originated in Chicago, some Prairie School architects spread its influence well beyond the Midwest.
A partial list of Prairie School architects includes: Prairie School houses are characterized by open floor plans, horizontal lines, indigenous materials. These were related to the American Arts and Crafts movement and its emphasis on hand craftsmanship and function. Both were alternatives to the then-dominant Classical Revival Style of Greek forms with occasional Roman influences; some firms, such as Purcell & Elmslie, which accepted the honest presence of machine worked surfaces, consciously rejected the term "Arts and Crafts" for their work. The Prairie School was heavily influenced by the Idealistic Romantics who believed better homes would create better people, the Transcendentalist philosophy of Ralph Waldo Emerson. In turn, Prairie School architects influenced subsequent architectural idioms the less is more ethos of Minimalists and form following function in Bauhaus, itself a mixture of De Stijl grid-based design and Constructist emphasis on the structure itself and its building materials.
Architectural historians have debated the reasons why the Prairie School went out of favor by the mid-1920s. In her autobiography, Prairie School architect Marion Mahony suggests: The enthusiastic and able young men as proved in their work were doubtless as influential in the office as were these early ones but Wright's early concentration on publicity and his claims that everybody was his disciple had a deadening influence on the Chicago group and only after a quarter of a century do we find creative architecture conspicuously evident in the United States. An example of BYE Prairie School architecture is the aptly named "The Prairie School", a private day school in Racine, designed by Taliesin Associates, located adjacent to Wright's Wingspread Conference Center. Mahony's and Griffin's work in Australia and India, notably the collection of homes at Castlecrag, New South Wales, are fine examples of how the Prairie School spread far from its Chicago roots. Isabel Roberts' Veterans' Memorial Library in St. Cloud, Florida, is another.
The House at 8 Berkley Drive at Lockport, New York was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009. The Oak Circle Historic District is a historic district in Wilmette, United States, it consists of fifteen single-family homes representative of the Prairie School and Craftsman styles of architecture constructed between 1917 and 1929. The Oak Circle Historic District was added to
Martin Israel was a British pathologist, Anglican priest, spiritual director and the author of numerous books on Christian life and teaching. Martin Spencer Israel was born in South Africa, to a liberal Jewish family, he learnt about Christianity from the family’s black African servants and was impressed by the image of Jesus on the cross which somehow convinced him that his life’s work would, in some way, be about reconciliation. As a child he was a loner with a natural tendency towards introversion and mystical experience. An outstanding scholar, he was educated first at Parktown Boys' High School, Johannesburg went on to study Medicine at the University of Witwatersrand, where he was awarded a first class honours degree. In 1951 he travelled to England to do postgraduate research, becoming first a doctor at Hammersmith Hospital, a pathology registrar at the Royal Hospital, Wolverhampton. After doing compulsory National Service in the Royal Army Medical Corps, he became Lecturer in Pathology at the Royal College of Surgeons, being promoted to Senior Lecturer in 1968.
He went on to become the co-author of a standard textbook in Pathology. However, he was shy and suffered for many years from depression which he overcame with the help of psychotherapy, he was drawn to various mystical traditions and the works of people like Carl Jung, Teilhard de Chardin and Martin Buber, discovering that he possessed considerable psychic sensitivity and had the gift of healing. He entered the Anglican ministry in 1974 becoming the priest at Holy Trinity church, in 1983 - a post he held until 1996. In life he suffered from Parkinson's disease. In his capacity as an Anglican priest he was a lecturer, personal counsellor and organiser of religious retreats, he exercised a healing ministry, conducted exorcisms and was president of both the Guild of Health and the Churches’ Fellowship for Psychical and Spiritual Studies. He claimed to have regular contact with spirits of the dead and believed in the possibility of reincarnation, he became known as the author of many books dealing with spiritual issues from a mystical Christian perspective.
The Pain That Heals. Learning to Love. Precarious Living: The Path to Life’’. Summons to Life. Happiness That Lasts. Doubt: The Way of Growth. Exorcism. Angels: Messengers of Grace. Dark Victory. Life Eternal. Night Thoughts; the Quest of Wholeness. Creation: The Consummation of the World; the Spirit of Counsel. Gethsemane: The transfiguring love - Lent Book. Coming in Glory. Healing As Sacrament. Smouldering Fire: The work of the Holy Spirit. Living Alone: Inward Journey to Fellowship. Approach to Spirituality Internet archive of Martin Israel website with ebooks available for free download
The Supremes: Greatest Hits and Rare Classics is a 1991 compilation album by The Supremes, released on the Motown label. The compilation features one solo song by Jean Terrell "I Had To Fall In Love", released in 1978 on A&M Records, two solo tracks by Scherrie Payne, "When I Looked At Your Face" and "Another Life From Now". Three tracks "Everybody's Got the Right to Love" "Floy Joy" and "Automatically Sunshine" appear in alternate versions. A cassette version was released with a different track listing and only 19 tracks. "Up the Ladder to the Roof" – 3:15 taken from the album'Right On' "Nathan Jones" – 3:02 taken from the album'Touch' "I Guess I'll Miss the Man" – 2:37 taken from the album'Produced And Arranged by Jimmy Webb' "Stoned Love" – 2:57 taken from the album'New ways, But Love Stays' "Everybody's Got the Right to Love" – 2:40 taken from the album'Right On' "Floy Joy" – 2:46 alternate version "Bad Weather" – 3:16 non-album single "Automatically Sunshine" – 3:04 alternate version "Paradise" – 4:20 taken from the album'Produced And Arranged by Jimmy Webb' "Tossin' and Turnin'" – 3:00 taken from the album'Produced And Arranged by Jimmy Webb' "Il Voce de Silenzio" – 3:40 taken from the album'Produced And Arranged by Jimmy Webb' "Love Train" – 3:21 non-album track.
"I Had to Fall in Love" – 3:24 "He's My Man" – 3:02 taken from the album'The Supremes' "Color My World Blue" – 2:34 taken from the album'The Supremes' "You Turn Me Around" – 2:34 taken from the album'The Supremes' "The Sha-La Bandit" – 3:17 non-album track. "This Is Why I Believe in You" – 3:10 taken from the album'The Supremes' "I'm Gonna Let My Heart Do the Walking" – 3:10 taken from the album'High Energy' "You're My Driving Wheel" – 3:24 taken from the album'Mary, Scherrie & Susaye' "When I Looked at Your Face" – 4:12 "Another Life from Now" – 5:46 taken from the album'Partners' Side 1: "Up the Ladder to the Roof" "Everybody's Got the Right to Love" "Stoned Love" "Nathan Jones" "Touch" "Floy Joy" "Automatically Sunshine" "I Guess I'll Miss the Man" "Bad Weather" "I Had to Fall in Love"Side 2: "It's All Been Said Before" "He's My Man" "Where Do I Go From Here" "I'm Gonna Let My Heart Do the Walking" "High Energy" "You're My Driving Wheel" "Let Yourself Go" "Fly" "When I Looked At Your Face" Mary Wilson: vocals Cindy Birdsong: vocals Jean Terrell: vocals Scherrie Payne: vocals Lynda Laurence: vocals Susaye Greene: vocals