Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior. It has been defined both as "the Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a system that regulates and ensures that individuals or a community adhere to the will of the state. State-enforced laws can be made by a collective legislature or by a single legislator, resulting in statutes, by the executive through decrees and regulations, or established by judges through precedent in common law jurisdictions. Private individuals can create binding contracts, including arbitration agreements that may elect to accept alternative arbitration to the normal court process; the formation of laws themselves may be influenced by a constitution, written or tacit, the rights encoded therein. The law shapes politics, economics and society in various ways and serves as a mediator of relations between people. A general distinction can be made between civil law jurisdictions, in which a legislature or other central body codifies and consolidates their laws, common law systems, where judge-made precedent is accepted as binding law.
Religious laws played a significant role in settling of secular matters, is still used in some religious communities. Islamic Sharia law is the world's most used religious law, is used as the primary legal system in some countries, such as Iran and Saudi Arabia; the adjudication of the law is divided into two main areas. Criminal law deals with conduct, considered harmful to social order and in which the guilty party may be imprisoned or fined. Civil law deals with the resolution of lawsuits between individuals and/or organizations. Law provides a source of scholarly inquiry into legal history, economic analysis and sociology. Law raises important and complex issues concerning equality and justice. Numerous definitions of law have been put forward over the centuries; the Third New International Dictionary from Merriam-Webster defines law as: "Law is a binding custom or practice of a community. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas published by Scribner's in 1973 defined the concept of law accordingly as: "A legal system is the most explicit, institutionalized, complex mode of regulating human conduct.
At the same time, it plays only one part in the congeries of rules which influence behavior, for social and moral rules of a less institutionalized kind are of great importance." There have been several attempts to produce "a universally acceptable definition of law". In 1972, one source indicated. McCoubrey and White said that the question "what is law?" has no simple answer. Glanville Williams said that the meaning of the word "law" depends on the context in which that word is used, he said that, for example, "early customary law" and "municipal law" were contexts where the word "law" had two different and irreconcilable meanings. Thurman Arnold said that it is obvious that it is impossible to define the word "law" and that it is equally obvious that the struggle to define that word should not be abandoned, it is possible to take the view that there is no need to define the word "law". The history of law links to the development of civilization. Ancient Egyptian law, dating as far back as 3000 BC, contained a civil code, broken into twelve books.
It was based on the concept of Ma'at, characterised by tradition, rhetorical speech, social equality and impartiality. By the 22nd century BC, the ancient Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu had formulated the first law code, which consisted of casuistic statements. Around 1760 BC, King Hammurabi further developed Babylonian law, by codifying and inscribing it in stone. Hammurabi placed several copies of his law code throughout the kingdom of Babylon as stelae, for the entire public to see; the most intact copy of these stelae was discovered in the 19th century by British Assyriologists, has since been transliterated and translated into various languages, including English, Italian and French. The Old Testament dates back to 1280 BC and takes the form of moral imperatives as recommendations for a good society; the small Greek city-state, ancient Athens, from about the 8th century BC was the first society to be based on broad inclusion of its citizenry, excluding women and the slave class. However, Athens had no legal science or single word for "law", relying instead on the three-way distinction between divine law, human decree and custom.
Yet Ancient Greek law contained major constitutional innovations in the development of democracy. Roman law was influenced by Greek philosophy, but its detailed rules were developed by professional jurists and were sophisticated. Over the centuries between the rise and decline of the Roman Empire, law was adapted to cope with the changing social situations and underwent major codification under Theodosius II and Justinian I. Although codes were replaced by custom and case law during the Dark Ages, Roman law was rediscovered around the 11th century when medieval legal scholars began to research Roman codes and adapt their concepts. Latin legal maxims were compiled for guidance. In medieval England, royal
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan; the seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan; this war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number, overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan.
Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions.
As a consequence and Pakistan developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U. S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day. Since the Partition of British India in 1947, Pakistan and India remained in contention over several issues. Although the Kashmir conflict was the predominant issue dividing the nations, other border disputes existed, most notably over the Rann of Kutch, a barren region in the Indian state of Gujarat; the issue first arose in 1956. Pakistani patrols began patrolling in territory controlled by India in January 1965, followed by attacks by both countries on each other's posts on 8 April 1965. Involving border police from both nations, the disputed area soon witnessed intermittent skirmishes between the countries' armed forces.
In June 1965, British Prime Minister Harold Wilson persuaded both countries to end hostilities and set up a tribunal to resolve the dispute. The verdict, which came in 1968, saw Pakistan awarded 350 square miles of the Rann of Kutch, as against its original claim of 3,500 square miles. After its success in the Rann of Kutch, under the leadership of General Ayub Khan, believed the Indian Army would be unable to defend itself against a quick military campaign in the disputed territory of Kashmir as the Indian military had suffered a loss to China in 1962 in the Sino-Indian War. Pakistan believed that the population of Kashmir was discontented with Indian rule and that a resistance movement could be ignited by a few infiltrating saboteurs. Pakistan attempted to ignite the resistance movement by means of a covert infiltration, codenamed Operation Gibraltar; the Pakistani infiltrators were soon discovered, their presence reported by local Kashmiris, the operation ended unsuccessfully. On 5 August 1965 between 26,000 and 33,000 Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control dressed as Kashmiri locals headed for various areas within Kashmir.
Indian forces, tipped off by the local populace, crossed the cease fire line on 15 August. The Indian Army met with considerable success, capturing three important mountain positions after a prolonged artillery barrage. By the end of August, both sides had relative progress. On 1 September 1965, Pakistan launched a counterattack, called Operation Grand Slam, with the objective to capture the vital town of Akhnoor in Jammu, which would sever communications and cut off supply routes to Indian troops. Ayub Khan calculated that "Hindu morale would not stand more than a couple of hard blows at the right time and place" although by this time Operation Gibraltar had failed and India had captured the Haji Pir Pass. At 3:30 hours, on 1 September 1965, the entire Chhamb area came under massive artillery bombardment. Pakistan had launched operation Grand Slam and India's Army Headquarter was taken by surprise. Attacking with an overwhelming ratio of troops and technically superior tanks, Pakistan made gains against Indian forces, who were caught unprepared and suffered heav
No. 7 Squadron IAF
No. 7 Squadron, Indian Air Force operates as a CAS and air superiority unit. Based at Gwalior AFB, No.7 Squadron along with No. 1 Squadron IAF, No. 9 Squadron IAF, forms a part of No. 40 Wing IAF, Central Air Command. No. 7 Squadron Sqn has as its emblem two unfolded wings adorning a Farsha and the symbolic number 7 attached to the shaft. Below this crest, on a scroll were the letters Shatrunjay; this logo was approved by President on 26 September 1960, has adorned aircraft that No. 7 Squadron has flown since. No. 7 Squadron was raised on 1 December 1942 at Vizag equipped with Vultee Vengeance dive bombers. Sqn Ldr HN Chaudhary was the first Commanding Officer and the personnel were drawn from No. 104 General Reconnaissance and 353 Squadron of RAF plus No. 3 and No. 6 Coast Defence Flight, under Air Headquarters formation, order 268 on 19 November 1942. However the squadron operated Westland Wapitis until it could be armed with the Vultees; the first missions flown by No. 7 Sqn was in Waziristan in the North West Frontier Province in what is now Pakistan in December 1943.
The squadron has since flown with distinction in a number of conflicts, including 1965, 1971 conflicts, 1999 Kargil War. The Squadron was to see extensive action during Second World War. In its first tour of duty between March and September 1944, No. 7 flew a six aircraft detachment against Japanese targets during the Battle of Imphal against Kenji on Chindwin, against Japanese supply lines and army convoys along the Tiddim road. In December 1944, No. 7 Sqn converted to the Hurricane Mk. IIc. By March 1945, the unit was back in the Burma Front, flying from Imphal, from Magwe Airfield, it would move to Samungli in June 1945. In November 1945, the Squadron moved to Gwalior. XIVs, which it flew from December 1945 till July 1947, when the squadron converted to the Tempest Mk. II. For his contributions during World War II the CO, Squadron Leader P. C. Lal, would win the DFC. At the time of the partition No. 7 was based at Risalpur, having converted to the Tempest in June 1947. No.7 Squadron was one of the units allocated to India after the division of the Assets between the two new nations of India and Pakistan.
After partition, the unit was operational within two months of Independence. The units first post-independence operations was in November 1947. In response to the tribal invasion of the Kashmir kingdom and subsequent accession by Maharaja Hari Singh, India flew in troops and stationed fighters at Srinagar. Tempests of 7 Squadron flew from Ambala in support of Indian Ground troops in the decisive Battle of Shelatang, offensive missions against Uri and Rawalkot; the first fatality suffered was on 1 December 1947, when Fg Offr UA D'Cruz was shot down in his Harvard and taken prisoner. He was awarded the Kirti Chakra for his resilience in captivity. For his role in the initial days of operations, the CO Sqn Ldr Noronha was awarded the Maha Vir Chakra. Flt Lt BS Dogra received the Vir Chakra for his sorties during the Battle of Shalateng; the Squadron redeployed at Palam on a permanent basis in February 1948. Missions over J&K from the Advanced Landing Ground at Amritsar; these missions were flown in the Poonch area and against Skardu airfield, as well as the Tithwal area.
Wg Cdr Ranjan Dutt along with some pilots of 7 Sqn flew to attack the bridge at Domel. The squadron would suffer two fatalities, Fg Offr Balwant Singh and Fg Offr DG Baptiste to ground fire. In August 1948, the squadron set up base in Srinagar and provided support to the army operations near the Zoji La pass. Gilgit airfield was bombed by Tempests on 4 November 1948. For its role, No. 7 Sqn would win five Vir Chakras. In January 1949, the Squadron moved to Palam where it became the first unit in the IAF to operate the Vampire, which had arrived in November 1948. At that time the squadron was the first unit in the whole of Asia to operate Jet aircraft; the unit now operated one flight with the second flight with Tempests. After converting back to Spitfires in 1949, No. 7 converted to operating only the Vampires in 1951. During this time, No. 7 Sqn came to form the first aerobatics team. The Vampires were phased out in January 1958. Although put on high alert during the Sino-Indian war in 1962, the unit did not see any action in this conflict due to the government's decision to limit the air force's role to supply and evacuation.
At the onset of the war, the squadron was based at Halwara AFS. On a high alert, the unit flew its first offensive sorties on the morning of 6 September, against targets of opportunity. Through the day, the unit would fly twelve missions supporting the Indian Army over the IB; the first fatality suffered was on the evening of the 6th, when a four ship formation was intercepted by PAF Sabres over Taran Taran. In the ensuing battle, Sqn Sqn Ldr AK Rawlley's aircraft exploded. On the same evening, Halwara Airfield was raided by a three ship formation from PAF No. 5 Sqn. At the time of the raid, No. 7 had two aircraft, Fg Offr PS Pingale and Fg Offr AR Ghandhi, flying on CAP over the airfield. Both were bounced by the Sabres. In the battle that followed, Pingale was shot down. Gandhi, was able to shoot down his adversary before his aircraft fell to the cannon shells of the two remaining Sabres. At about this time, Hunters from No. 27 Sqn returning from a sortie were directed to join the battle, which shot down one of the attackers.
The remaining sabre, was claimed tha
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Indian Airlines Indian, was a major Indian airline based in Delhi and focused on domestic routes, along with several international services to neighbouring countries in Asia. It was state-owned, after merger of eight pre-Independence domestic airlines and was administered by the Ministry of Civil Aviation. Indian was one of the two flag carriers of India, the other being Air India. On 7 December 2005, the airline was rebranded as Indian for advertising purposes as a part of a program to revamp its image in preparation for an initial public offering; the airline operated with Air India, India's national overseas carrier. Alliance Air was a owned subsidiary of Indian. In 2007, the Government of India announced; as part of the merger process, a new company called the National Aviation Company of India Limited was established, into which both Air India and Indian would be merged. Once the merger was completed, the airline - called Air India - would continue to be headquartered in Mumbai and would have a fleet of over 130 aircraft.
The airline was set up under the Air Corporations Act, 1953 with an initial capital of 32 million and started operations on 1 August 1953. It was established after legislation came into force to nationalise the entire airline industry in India. Two new national airlines were to be formed along the same lines as happened in the United Kingdom with British Overseas Airways Corporation and British European Airways. Air India took over international routes and Indian Airlines Corporation took over the domestic and regional routes. Eight pre-Independence domestic airlines, Deccan Airways, Airways India, Bharat Airways, Himalayan Aviation, Kalinga Airlines, Indian National Airways and Air Services of India and the Domestic wing of Air India, were merged to form the new domestic national carrier Indian Airlines Corporation. International operations of Air India Ltd. was taken over by the newly formed Air India International. Indian Airlines Corporation inherited a fleet of 99 aircraft including 74 Douglas DC-3 Dakotas, 12 Vickers Vikings, 3 Douglas DC-4s and various smaller types from the seven airlines that made it up.
Vickers Viscounts were introduced in 1957 with Fokker F27 Friendships being delivered from 1961. The 1960s saw Hawker Siddeley HS 748s, manufactured in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, join the fleet; the jet age began for IAC with the introduction of the pure-jet Sud Aviation Caravelle airliner in 1964, followed by Boeing 737-200s in the early 1970s. April 1976 saw the first three Airbus A300 wide-body jets being introduced; the regional airline, established in 1981, was reintegrated. By 1990, Airbus A320-200s were introduced; the economic liberalisation process initiated by the Government of India in the early 1990s ended Indian Airlines' dominance of India's domestic air transport industry. The Indian Government liberalised the private sector in mid 80's and with the emergence of new competitors, Indian Airlines faced tough competition from Jet Airways, Air Sahara, East-West Airlines, Skyline NEPC, ModiLuft, yet till 2005, Indian Airlines was the second largest airline in India after Jet Airways while Air Sahara controlled 17% of the Indian aviation industry.
During that time few other domestic carriers like East-West Airlines, Skyline NEPC and ModiLuft discontinued their flight operations. During 1993 another Government established regional feeder airline called Vayudoot was merged with Indian Airlines but still operated as a standalone division until 1997 after which its entire flight operations were transferred to Indian Airlines and its employees absorbed into Indian Airlines and Air India. Since 2003 with the entry of several low-cost airlines in India, such as Air Deccan, SpiceJet, IndiGo, GoAir and others like Kingfisher Airlines along with its low cost arm Kingfisher Red continued to give competition in its market, forcing Indian to cut down air-fares. However, as of 2006, Indian Airlines was still a profit making airline. Indian Airlines Limited was owned by the Government of India through a holding company and has 19,300 employees as of March 2007, its annual turn-over, together with that of its subsidiary Alliance Air, was well over 40 billions.
Together with its subsidiary, Alliance Air, Indian Airlines carried a total of over 7.5 million passengers annually. On 26 February 2011, Indian airlines ceased operating under its own brand and codes with the merger with Air India being complete. Indian had codeshare agreements with the following airlines: Alliance Air GMG Airlines Gulf Air Uzbekistan Airways Indian operated an all-Airbus fleet consisting of the A320 family; the aircraft livery used while the company was called Indian Airlines was one of the longest in continuous use in the airline industry. The logo and the livery were designed by National Institute of Design Ahmedabad, its aircraft were white, with the belly painted in light metallic grey. Above the windows, "Indian Airlines" was written in English on the starboard side and in Hindi on port side; the tail was bright orange, with its logo in white. In most of the aircraft, the logo was painted on the engines over its bare metal colour; when the company was under the title of Indian Airlines, to celebrate its 50th year of service the airline put the slogan "50 years of flying" in gold on many of their aircraft.
After the name change to Indian, the company's aircraft sported a new look inspired by the Sun Temple at Konark in Odisha. The tail of their aircraft had a partial blue whe
Marshal of the Indian Air Force Arjan Singh, DFC was an Indian Air Force marshal who served as Chief of the Air Staff from 1964 to 1969. For his distinguished service in commanding the IAF during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, he was awarded the Padma Vibhushan and in 1966 became the first IAF officer to be promoted to air chief marshal. After retiring from the IAF, he served as a diplomat and advisor to the Indian government, he was Lieutenant Governor of Delhi from 1989 to 1990. In 2002, he became the first and only officer of the Indian Air Force to be promoted to five-star rank as Marshal of the Indian Air Force, equal to the army rank of Field Marshal. Singh was born on 15 April 1919 in Lyallpur, a town in the erstwhile Punjab Province of British India, into a Aulakh Jat family; the British had built a network of canals across the Punjab in the latter half of the 19th century and early 20th century, had encouraged farmers to settle there and cultivate the land. Singh's family had been among those that had settled there after being allotted agricultural land by the administration.
They had joined the armed forces, in keeping with community traditions, Singh was the fourth generation of his family to join the British Indian armed forces. Singh's father was a Lance Daffadar in the Hodson's Horse at the time of his birth, retired as a full Risaldar in the Cavalry, serving for a time as ADC to a Division Commander, his grandfather Risaldar Major Hukam Singh served in the Guides Cavalry between 1883 and 1917, great-grandfather, Naib Risaldar Sultana Singh, was among the first two generations of the Guides Cavalry enlisted in 1854. Thus, after three generations of men serving in the lower and middle ranks of the army, Singh was to become the first member of his family to become a commissioned officer. In 1948, Singh married Teji Singh, a lady of his own community and similar family background, in a match arranged by their families, they were married for 63 years before her death in April 2011. In 1949, their first daughter Amrita was born. Three years her brother Arvind Singh was born and the youngest Asha, followed another three years later.
A niece is actress Mandira Bedi. Singh was educated at Montgomery, British India and entered the RAF College Cranwell in 1938 and was commissioned as a pilot officer in December 1939. In 1943, he became the commander of No. 1 Squadron. Singh led No. 1 Squadron, Indian Air Force into combat during the Arakan Campaign in 1944. He was awarded the Distinguished Flying Cross in June 1944: Acting Squadron Leader Arjan Singh, Indian Air Force, No. 1 Squadron This officer has completed many operational missions involving flights over difficult country in bad weather. He has displayed outstanding leadership, great skill and courage, qualities which have been reflected in the high morale and efficiency of the squadron which has won much success. Singh faced a court-martial in February 1945 when he tried to raise the morale of a trainee pilot by conducting a low level air pass over a house in Kerala. In his defence, he insisted; that year, he commanded the Indian Air Force Exhibition Flight. As part of the celebrations for Independence Day on 15 August 1947, Singh, by a wing commander and acting group captain, led the first fly-past of RIAF aircraft over the Red Fort in Delhi.
Singh was Chief of the Air Staff, from 1 August 1964 to 15 July 1969, was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1965. When appointed as Chief of the Air Staff of the Indian Air Force, he was just about 45, he has been the only Chief of the Air Staff to have headed the Air Force for five years as opposed to the regular tenure of two and a half to three years. Singh became the first Chief of the Air Staff of the Indian Air Force to be upgraded to the rank of Air Chief Marshal from the rank of Air Marshal in honour of his Air Force’s contribution in the 1965 war, he retired in 1969 at the age of 50. In 1971, after his retirement, Singh was appointed as the Indian Ambassador to Switzerland and Vatican serving concurrently, he was appointed as the High Commissioner to Kenya from 1974 to 1977. Subsequently, he served as a member of the National Commission for Minorities and The Government of India from 1975 to 1981, he was the Lt. Governor of Delhi from December 1989 to December 1990 and was made Marshal of the Air Force in January, 2002.
Singh's health declined in his final years, he made references to growing old and the passing away of many of his friends. In July 2015 aged 96 and using a wheelchair due to a temporary indisposition, he was among the many dignitaries to lay a wreath at the base of the coffin carrying the mortal remains of former President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam at Palam Airport, he paid his last respects to President Kalam at Palam Airport on 28 July. He remained active at 98, continuing to take tea and to play golf twice a week at the Delhi Golf Club. Singh suffered a cardiac arrest at his New Delhi residence in the early morning of 16 September 2017 and was rushed to the Army Hospital and Referral, in New Delhi, where his condition was stated to be critical, he died at 7:47 p.m. that evening. After his passing, his body was returned to his home at 7A Kautilya Marg in New Delhi, where numerous visitors and dignitaries offered their respects, including President Ram Nath Kovind, Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman and the three service chief
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer