Prayer is an invocation or act that seeks to activate a rapport with an object of worship through deliberate communication. In the narrow sense, the term refers to an act of supplication or intercession directed towards a deity, or a deified ancestor. More prayer can have the purpose of thanksgiving or praise, in comparative religion is associated with more abstract forms of meditation and with charms or spells. Prayer can take a variety of forms: it can be part of a set liturgy or ritual, it can be performed alone or in groups. Prayer may take the form of a hymn, formal creedal statement, or a spontaneous utterance in the praying person; the act of prayer is attested in written sources as early as 5000 years ago. Today, most major religions involve prayer in another. Scientific studies regarding the use of prayer have concentrated on its effect on the healing of sick or injured people; the efficacy of prayer in faith healing has been evaluated in numerous studies, with contradictory results. The English term prayer is from Medieval Latin precaria "petition, prayer".
The Vulgate Latin is oratio, which translates Greek προσευχή in turn the Septuagint translation of Biblical Hebrew תְּפִלָּה tĕphillah. Various spiritual traditions offer a wide variety of devotional acts. There are morning and evening prayers, graces said over meals, reverent physical gestures; some Christians fold their hands. Some Native Americans regard dancing as a form of prayer; some Sufis whirl. Hindus chant mantras. Jewish prayer may involve bowing. Muslims practice salat in their prayers. Quakers keep silent; some pray according to standardized rituals and liturgies, while others prefer extemporaneous prayers. Still others combine the two. Friedrich Heiler is cited in Christian circles for his systematic Typology of Prayer which lists six types of prayer: primitive, Greek cultural, philosophical and prophetic; some forms of prayer require a prior ritualistic form of cleansing or purification such as in ghusl and wudhu. Prayer may be done and individually, or it may be done corporately in the presence of fellow believers.
Prayer can be incorporated into a daily "thought life", in which one is in constant communication with a god. Some people pray throughout all, happening during the day and seek guidance as the day progresses; this is regarded as a requirement in several Christian denominations, although enforcement is not possible nor desirable. There can be many different answers to prayer, just as there are many ways to interpret an answer to a question, if there in fact comes an answer; some may experience physical, or mental epiphanies. If indeed an answer comes, the time and place it comes is considered random; some outward acts that sometimes accompany prayer are: anointing with oil. One less noticeable act related to prayer is fasting. A variety of body postures may be assumed with specific meaning associated with them: standing. Prayers may be recited from memory, read from a book of prayers, or composed spontaneously as they are prayed, they may be chanted, or sung. They may be with musical accompaniment or not.
There may be a time of outward silence. There are prayers to fit specific occasions, such as the blessing of a meal, the birth or death of a loved one, other significant events in the life of a believer, or days of the year that have special religious significance. Details corresponding to specific traditions are outlined below. Anthropologically, the concept of prayer is related to that of surrender and supplication; the traditional posture of prayer in medieval Europe is kneeling or supine with clasped hands, in antiquity more with raised hands. The early Christian prayer posture was standing, looking up to heaven, with outspread arms and bare head; this is the pagan prayer posture. Certain Cretan and Cypriote figures of the Late Bronze Age, with arms raised, have been interpreted as worshippers, their posture is similar to the "flight" posture, a crouching posture with raised hands, observed in schizophrenic patients and related to the universal "hands up" gesture of surrender. The kneeling posture with clasped hands appears to have been introduced only with the beginning high medieval period adopted from a gesture of feudal homage.
Although prayer in its literal sense is not used in animism, communication with the spirit world is vital to the animist way of life. This is accomplished through a shaman who, through a trance, gains access to the spirit world and shows the spirits' thoughts to the people. Other ways to receive messages from the spirits include using astrology or contemplating fortune tellers and healers; some of the oldest extant literature, such as the Sumerian temple hymns of Enheduanna are liturgy addressed to deities and thus technically "prayer". The Egyptian Pyramid Texts of about the same period contain spells or incantations
The following is a list of characters from Kimba the White Lion. Leo / Kimba Voiced by: Yoshiko Ota, Takashi Toyama, Megumi Hayashibara, Shinnosuke Furumoto, Masane Tsukayama, Taeko Kawata Voiced by: Billie Lou Watt, Enzo Caputo, Yvonne Murray, Brad Swaile, Dan Green A white Transvaal lion and the protagonist of the story who, in the original manga, is followed from birth to death, he believes that there would be peace between humans if each understood the other. In the 1997 movie, the lion leads Dr. Moustache and his assistant to Mt. Moon, he sacrifices himself by falling on Dr. Moustache's kris so that Dr. Moustache will have food and shelter from the cold. In the 2009 TV movie, Leo has poor hunting skills and is acrophobic, always leaping straight up instead of across gaps. In his attack on the facility, he overwhelms his dislike of heights. Panja / Caesar Voiced by: Asao Koike, Isao Sasaki, Saburō Tokitō Voiced by: Ray Owens A white Transvaal lion, Leo's father, Emperor of the Jungle, he is killed by Ham Egg while trying to rescue his queen.
His skin is under his care. Leo uses his hide as an attraction for a festival in episode 24, he was Specklerex's rival, Bubu's most hated archenemy, as the one-eyed lion always tried to defile the shrine. He appears in certain episodes in flashbacks, his head is seen on the full moon in Episode 22 when he gives Leo the strength to find the medicine to save Pop Wooly. In the 2009 movie, he dies protecting his family from hunters. Eliza / Snowene Voiced by: Noriko Shindo, Nanako Matsushima Voiced by: Billie Lou Watt Leo's mother, used as bait by Ham Egg and Kutter. While on the ship, she urges him to escape due to the tropical storm, she plays a important role in the 2009 TV movie, in parts like quelling an argument between Leo and Kenichi, partaking an assault on the cloning facility. Leona Voiced by: Sumi Shimamoto Leo's older sister whose task is to guard a small shrine and its chapel, which has many skins of white lions. In the 1989 remake, she was Leo's aunt, shares the same white color as he, something of a foster mother to Lyre, served as the High Priestess of a small abbey.
As High Priestess, its Leona's job to ensure that everyone in the abbey heeds her orders and her terms when one of the abbesses attempted to knock her out with a tranquilizer gun. Lyre / Kitty Voiced by: Keiko Matsuo, Haruko Kitahama, Sakiko Tamagawa, Chieko Baisho Voiced by: Sonia Owens, Kelly Sheridan, Veronica Taylor A lioness who would be Leo's mate and bear him a son and daughter, she is the niece of the old marozi Specklerex and lives with him after her parents are slain by hunters. She notices things, she is always there when Leo needs advice, a "better nature" to calm him down in anger, a shoulder to cry on, or a warrior at his side. In the 1989 remake, she served as a disciple and foster daughter of High Priestess Leona, as her order was to find a type of flower known as a'starflower'. In the movie, Lyre falls victim to the speckled fever and dies. Lune Voiced by: Kyoko Satomi, Mifuyu Hiragi Voiced by: Jose Alvarez, Tara Sands Leo and Lyre's son, he resembles Leo. He prefers to help his father out in dangerous quests.
He and Lukio made their rise to the spotlight in Episode 5, where his struggles begin in fear and end with new-found valiance. He is, according to one of the giraffes in Episode 15, though Leo counters that the cub makes the right choice of friends. Episode 21 shows, he has a strong dislike of Bizo, for a good reason. Lune always strives to do right things and good deeds, as seen in Episode 9. In the tenth episode, he and Lukio befriend. Lukio Voiced by: Eiko Masuyama, Hekiru Shiina Voiced by: Elizabeth Williams Leo and Lyre's daughter, she resembles Lyre. Episode 6 of the anime is when she gives her all to protect a herd of gorillas from an army of mandrills long enough for Leo to give her a hand. In the tenth episode and Lune befriend an African wild dog named Rick. Tommy / Bucky Voiced by: Hajime Akashi, Sukekiyo Kameyama, Naoki Tatsuta Voiced by: Ray Owens, Michael Sinterniklaas A Thomson's gazelle that always gets into mischief, he always seen wearing a straw hat, which Leo had used to appoint him Secretary of the Jungle Economy.
Peg of Old Drury is a 1935 British historical film directed by Herbert Wilcox and starring Anna Neagle, Cedric Hardwicke and Margaretta Scott. The film is a biopic of eighteenth-century Irish actress Peg Woffington, it was based on the play Masks and Faces by Tom Taylor. It contains passages of eighteenth century Shakespearian performance, from The Merchant of Venice, Richard III and As You Like It; the film was voted the third best British movie of 1936. Wilcox said the film "was enormously successful both here and in the States, artistically as well as at the box office." Anna Neagle... Peg Woffington Cedric Hardwicke... David Garrick Margaretta Scott... Kitty Clive Maire O'Neill... Mrs. Woffington – Peg's Mother Arthur Sinclair... Mr. Woffington – Peg's Father Dorothy Robinson... Mrs. Margaret Dalloway Polly Emery... Martha the Maid Aubrey Fitzgerald... Digby Jack Hawkins... Michael O'Taffe Robert Atkins... Dr. Samuel Johnson Hay Petrie... John Rich George Barrett... Tom – Stage Doorkeeper Stuart Robertson...
Singer Leslie French... Alexander Pope Tom Heslewood... William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham Christopher Steele... Oliver Goldsmith Eliot Makeham... Dr. Bowdler Sara Allgood... Irish Woman on Boat The New York Times wrote, "with superb acting, photography, effective and unusual, yet not bizarre, direction, gentleness and good taste itself, Peg of Old Drury is one of the finest cinema production to come out of England, or of anywhere else, for that matter". Much of the film's power derives from the screenplay by actor Malleson in his first screenwriting assignment." Graham Greene, writing for The Spectator, gave a more mixed review suggesting that there is "no historical truth to be found anywhere in the deft, neat tale". Greene remarked on the attractiveness of Neagle and found that the film was "very pretty", but concluded that "prettiness is a quality one wants, if at all, in small quantities". Peg of Old Drury on IMDb