Tsurphu Monastery (Tibetan: མཚུར་ཕུ་དགོན་པ or Tölung Tsurphu is a gompa which serves as the traditional seat of the Karmapa, the head of the Karma Kagyu lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. It is located in Gurum in Doilungdêqên District, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, 70 kilometres from Lhasa; the monastery is about 4,300 metres above sea level. It was built in the middle of the valley facing south with high mountains surrounding the complex. Tsurphu is a 300-square-meter complex with walls up to 4 meters thick; the gompa, the traditional seat of the Karmapa lamas, is about 28 kilometres up the Dowo Lung Valley on the north side of the river. The original walls of the main building were up to 4 meters thick and 300 meters on each side; the monks' residences were on the eastern side. Tsurphu was founded by Düsum Khyenpa, 1st Karmapa Lama in 1159, after he visited the site and laid the foundation for an establishment of a seat there by making offerings to the local protectors, the dharmapalas and territorial divinities.
In 1189 he founded his main seat there. The monastery grew to hold 1000 monks; the complex was destroyed in 1966 during the Cultural Revolution. Rangjung Rigpe Dorje, 16th Karmapa, began to rebuild it in 1980. Following the recognition of Ogyen Trinley Dorje as the 17th Karmapa by the Tai Situpa, the Dalai Lama and China's governmental offices, he was enthroned at Tsurphu and resided there until he escaped from Tibet to India in 2000. A Yelpa Kagyu monastery, Jang Tana, in Nangchen, Kham, is considered a branch monastery of Tsurpu, it was founded by Yelpa Yeshe Tsek in 1068. Variant names for the monastery include: Tsurphu, 楚布寺, mtshur mdo bo lung dgon, 祖普寺, Okmin Tsurpu,'og min mtshur phu. Berzin, Alexander. "A Brief History of Tsurpu Monastery". Retrieved 2016-07-15. Dowman, Keith; the Power-places of Central Tibet: The Pilgrim's Guide. 1988. Routledge & Kegan Paul. London. ISBN 0-7102-1370-0 Martin, Michele. Music in the Sky: The Life, Art & Teachings of the 17th Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje. 2003. Snow Lion Publications.
Reprint: New Age Books, New Delhi, 2004. ISBN 81-7822-193-4. Tsurphu Monastery Website Tsurphu Appliques
The Wylie transliteration system is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of Turrell V. Wylie, who described the scheme in an article, A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription, published in 1959, it has subsequently become a standard transliteration scheme in Tibetan studies in the United States. Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation. Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies.
It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words. The Wylie scheme transliterates the Tibetan characters as follows: In Tibetan script, consonant clusters within a syllable may be represented through the use of prefixed or suffixed letters or by letters superscripted or subscripted to the root letter; the Wylie system does not distinguish these as in practice no ambiguity is possible under the rules of Tibetan spelling. The exception is the sequence gy -, which may be written either with a subfix y. In the Wylie system, these are distinguished by inserting a period between a prefix g and initial y. E.g. གྱང "wall" is gyang, while གཡང་ "chasm" is g.yang. The four vowel marks are transliterated: When a syllable has no explicit vowel marking, the letter a is used to represent the default vowel "a". Many previous systems of Tibetan transliteration included internal capitalisation schemes—essentially, capitalising the root letter rather than the first letter of a word, when the first letter is a prefix consonant.
Tibetan dictionaries are organized by root letter, prefixes are silent, so knowing the root letter gives a better idea of pronunciation. However, these schemes were applied inconsistently, only when the word would be capitalised according to the norms of Latin text. On the grounds that internal capitalisation was overly cumbersome, of limited usefulness in determining pronunciation, superfluous to a reader able to use a Tibetan dictionary, Wylie specified that if a word was to be capitalised, the first letter should be capital, in conformity with Western capitalisation practices, thus a particular Tibetan Buddhist sect is capitalised not bKa' brgyud. Wylie's original scheme is not capable of transliterating all Tibetan-script texts. In particular, it has no correspondences for most Tibetan punctuation symbols, lacks the ability to represent non-Tibetan words written in Tibetan script. Accordingly, various scholars have adopted incomplete conventions as needed; the Tibetan and Himalayan Library at the University of Virginia developed a standard, Extended Wylie Tibetan System or EWTS, that addresses these deficiencies systematically.
It uses Latin punctuation to represent the missing characters. Several software systems, including TISE, now use this standard to allow one to type unrestricted Tibetan script on a Latin keyboard. Since the Wylie system is not intuitive for use by linguists unfamiliar with Tibetan, a new transliteration system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet has been proposed to replace Wylie in articles on Tibetan historical phonology. Tibetan pinyin THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Tise - extended Wylie input method for Tibetan script Tibetan script Standard Tibetan Uchen script Wylie, Turrell. A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, p. 261-267 The Wylie Translation Table, at Nitartha International Staatsbibliothek Berlin – A standard system of Tibetan transcription THDL Extended Wylie Transliteration Scheme Tibetan transliteration: convert between Wylie or EWTS and Unicode Test Tibetan display Utility for converting Extended Wylie plain text to Unicode Tibetan
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Inner Asia. It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people as well as some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Qiang and Lhoba peoples and is now inhabited by considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui people. Tibet is the highest region on Earth, with an average elevation of 5,000 metres; the highest elevation in Tibet is Mount Everest, Earth's highest mountain, rising 8,848 m above sea level. The Tibetan Empire emerged in the 7th century, but with the fall of the empire the region soon divided into a variety of territories; the bulk of western and central Tibet was at least nominally unified under a series of Tibetan governments in Lhasa, Shigatse, or nearby locations. Thus Tibet remained a suzerainty of the Mongol and Chinese rulers in Nanjing and Beijing, with reasonable autonomy given to the Tibetan leaders; the eastern regions of Kham and Amdo maintained a more decentralized indigenous political structure, being divided among a number of small principalities and tribal groups, while often falling more directly under Chinese rule after the Battle of Chamdo.
The current borders of Tibet were established in the 18th century. Following the Xinhai Revolution against the Qing dynasty in 1912, Qing soldiers were disarmed and escorted out of Tibet Area; the region subsequently declared its independence in 1913 without recognition by the subsequent Chinese Republican government. Lhasa took control of the western part of Xikang, China; the region maintained its autonomy until 1951 when, following the Battle of Chamdo, Tibet became incorporated into the People's Republic of China, the previous Tibetan government was abolished in 1959 after a failed uprising. Today, China governs western and central Tibet as the Tibet Autonomous Region while the eastern areas are now ethnic autonomous prefectures within Sichuan and other neighbouring provinces. There are tensions regarding dissident groups that are active in exile. Tibetan activists in Tibet have been arrested or tortured; the economy of Tibet is dominated by subsistence agriculture, though tourism has become a growing industry in recent decades.
The dominant religion in Tibet is Tibetan Buddhism. Tibetan Buddhism is a primary influence on the art and festivals of the region. Tibetan architecture reflects Indian influences. Staple foods in Tibet are roasted barley, yak meat, butter tea; the Tibetan name for their land, Bod བོད་, means "Tibet" or "Tibetan Plateau", although it meant the central region around Lhasa, now known in Tibetan as Ü. The Standard Tibetan pronunciation of Bod, is transcribed Bhö in Tournadre Phonetic Transcription, Bö in the THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription and Poi in Tibetan pinyin; some scholars believe the first written reference to Bod "Tibet" was the ancient Bautai people recorded in the Egyptian Greek works Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and Geographia, itself from the Sanskrit form Bhauṭṭa of the Indian geographical tradition. The modern Standard Chinese exonym for the ethnic Tibetan region is Zangqu, which derives by metonymy from the Tsang region around Shigatse plus the addition of a Chinese suffix, 区 qū, which means "area, region, ward".
Tibetan people and culture, regardless of where they are from, are referred to as Zang although the geographical term Xīzàng is limited to the Tibet Autonomous Region. The term Xīzàng was coined during the Qing dynasty in the reign of the Jiaqing Emperor through the addition of a prefix meaning "west" to Zang; the best-known medieval Chinese name for Tibet is Tubo. This name first appears in Chinese characters as 土番 in the 7th century and as 吐蕃 in the 10th-century. In the Middle Chinese spoken during that period, as reconstructed by William H. Baxter, 土番 was pronounced thux-phjon and 吐蕃 was pronounced thux-pjon. Other pre-modern Chinese names for Tibet include Wusiguo, Wusizang and Tanggute. American Tibetologist Elliot Sperling has argued in favor of a recent tendency by some authors writing in Chinese to revive the term Tubote for modern use in place of Xizang, on the grounds that Tubote more includes the entire Tibetan plateau rather than the Tibet Autonomous Region; the English word Tibet or Thibet dates back to the 18th century.
Historical linguists agree that "Tibet" names in European languages are loanwords from Semitic Ṭībat orTūbātt, itself deriving from Turkic Töbäd, literally: "The Heights". Linguists classify the Tibetan language as a Tibeto-Burman language of the Sino-Tibetan language family although the boundaries between'Tibetan' and certain other Himalayan languages can be unclear. According to
Thubten Zopa Rinpoche
Thubten Zopa Rinpoche is a Nepali lama from Khumbu, the entryway to Mount Everest. Early in life, he was recognized as the reincarnation of the Lawudo Lama Kunzang Yeshe, from the same region, he took his monastic vows at Dungkar Monastery in Tibet where he travelled in 1957. There he "took getsul ordination in 1958, continuing his studies in Domo Geshe's monastery in Phagri, Tibet." He had to flee Tibet due to the Chinese army's severe treatment of monks after the 1959 Tibetan uprising. Thubten Zopa learned English at the Young Lamas Home School. Lama Zopa has received teachings from many high lamas, he "continued his studies in Sera Jhe monastery..." and "...became the disciple of Geshe Rabten Rinpoche and Lama Thubten Yeshe."Lama Zopa met Choekyi Gyaltsen, 10th Panchen Lama, in Nepal in 1986 and in Tibet. Lama Zopa is most noteworthy as the co-founder, with Lama Yeshe, of Kopan Monastery and the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition. In 1972 he along with Lama Yeshe founded Tushita Meditation Centre near McLeod Ganj at village Dharamkot in Himachal Pradesh.
Since the 1984 death of Lama Yeshe, Lama Zopa has served as the FPMT's spiritual director. FPMT states that, "under Rinpoche’s guidance, FPMT plans to build two large statues of the future Buddha, Maitreya, in Bodhgaya and Kushinagar in India. Free transcripts of some of his teachings are available from the Lama Yeshe Wisdom Archive. There is an extensive biography of him in the book The Lawudo Lama by Jamyang Wangmo. Lama Zopa supports — in accordance with the dying wish of Lama Yeshe — the Maitreya Project, a planned 152 metres high Maitreya statue in Kushinagar, North India. If built, it will be one of the largest Buddha statues in the world, only one meter shorter than the Spring Temple Buddha in Henan, China. Lama Zopa Rinpoche holds the Gelugpa lineage and has received teachings from many of the great Gelugpa masters, his Root Guru is HH Trijang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso since he was a young boy studying in Buxa, India. Lama Zopa Rinpoche is considered as the heart son of the 14th Dalai Lama and diligently works to establish all of His Holiness's wishes.
Geshe Lhundrup Rigsel Lama Zopa Rinpoche's biography Information on Lama Zopa Rinpoche on the FPMT website Many of Rinpoche's books and online teachings at LYWA Lama Zopa Rinpoche meditation on emptiness on YouTube
Spiti Valley is a cold desert mountain valley located high in the Himalayas in the north-eastern part of the northern Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. The name "Spiti" means "The Middle Land", i.e. the land between India. Local population follow Vajrayana Buddhism similar to that found in the nearby Tibet and Ladakh regions; the valley and surrounding region is one of the least populated regions in India and is the gateway to the northernmost reaches of the nation. Along the northern route from Manali, Himachal Pradesh or Keylong via the Rohtang Pass or Kunzum Pass the valley lies in the North Eastern section of the Indian state Himachal Pradesh, forms part of the Lahaul and Spiti district; the sub-divisional headquarters is Kaza, Himachal Pradesh, situated along the Spiti River at an elevation of about 12,500 feet above mean sea level. Lahaul and Spiti district is surrounded by high mountain ranges; the Rohtang Pass, at 13,054 feet, separates Spiti from the Kullu Valley. Lahul and Spiti are cut off from each other at 15,059 feet.
A road connects the two divisions, but is cut off in winter and spring due to heavy snow. The valley is cut off from the north up to eight months of the year by heavy snowfalls and thick icing conditions. A southern route to India proper is periodically closed for brief periods in the winter storms of November through June, but road access is restored a few days after storms end via Shimla and the Sutlej in the Kinnaur district. Spiti valley is a research and cultural centre for Buddhists. Highlights include Key Monastery and Tabo Monastery, one of the oldest monasteries in the world and a favourite of the Dalai Lama, it was the location of the scenery and cinematography in the Indian films Paap and Milarepa, a biographical adventure tale about one of Buddhism's most famous Tibetan saints. The Buddhist monastery in the valley served as the locus of the set and some of the monks appeared in the film; the Pin Valley of Spiti is home to the few surviving Buchen Lamas of the Nyingmapa sect of Buddhism.
The small town of Manali was the beginning of an ancient trade route to Ladakh and, from there, over the Karakoram Pass on to Yarkand and Khotan in the Tarim Basin. Spiti is summer home to hundreds of semi-nomadic Gaddi sheep and goat herders who come to this valley for grazing their animals from the surrounding villages and sometimes as far as 250 km, they enter the valley during summer as the snow melts and leave just a few days before first snowfall of the season. Spiti valley is accessible throughout year via Kinnaur from Shimla route on a difficult 412-kilometre-long road. Tourists from outside India need inner line permits to enter Spiti through Kinnaur. Spiti's border start at Samdo, quite near to India–China border. In summer it can be reached via Manali through Kunzum Pass. Manali is 201 km away from Kaza headquarters of the Spiti subdivision. Although road joining Manali to Spiti is treacherous and in bad condition as compared to Shimla to Spiti. Due to high elevation one is to feel altitude sickness in Spiti.
Shimla to Spiti route must be preferred for the travelers coming from different parts as it gives them enough time to get acclimatized to the High Altitude and thus less prone to altitude sickness. A strategic 8.8 km tunnel in Rohtang gives all-weather access to Spiti and reduce the travel distance by 48 kilometers. The Spiti River originates from Kunzum range and Tegpo and Kabzian streams are its tributaries. Water draining the famous Pin valley area are a part of the Spiti river system, its position across the main Himalayan range deprives it from the benefit of the South-West monsoons that causes widespread rain in most parts of India from June to September. The river attains peak discharge in late summers due to glacier melting. After flowing through Spiti valley, the Spiti River meets Satluj at Namgia in Kinnaur district traversing a length of about 150 km. from the North-West beyond that it flows in South-West direction in the Pradesh. Huge mountain rise to high ele-vations on either sides of the Spiti River and its numerous tributaries.
The mountains are barren and devoid of a vegetative cover. The main settlements along the Spiti River and its tributaries are Dhankar Gompa. Kaza Chandra Tal Lake Kye Monastery Hikim Village Komic Village Langza Village Lhalung Monastery Tabo Caves Tabo Monastery Kunzum Pass Rohtang Pass Ciliberto, Jonathan.. "Six Weeks in the Spiti Valley". Circle B Press. 2013. Atlanta. ISBN 978-0-9659336-6-7 Francke, A. H.. Antiquities of Indian Tibet. Two Volumes. Calcutta. 1972 reprint: S. Chand, New Delhi. Kapadia, Harish.. Spiti: Adventures in the Trans-Himalaya. 2nd Edition. Indus Publishing Company, New Delhi. ISBN 81-7387-093-4. Banach, Benti..'A Village Called Self-Awareness and times in Spiti Valley'. Vajra Publications, Kathmandu. Spiti Valley - An enchanting land for the wanderer in you
Kathmandu is the capital city and largest city of Nepal with a population of around 1 million. Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is understood; the City of Temples stands at an elevation of 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is termed as "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of Newar culture, a cosmopolitan urban civilisation in the Himalayan foothills; the city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces and gardens of the Nepalese aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008. Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art and economy, it has a multiethnic population within a Buddhist majority. It is the home of the Newars. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu.
Tourism is an important part of the economy. The city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, home to seven world heritage sites: the Durbar Squares of Hanuman Dhoka and Bhaktapur. There are seven casinos in the city. Historic areas of Kathmandu were damaged by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Some of the buildings have been restored and some are in the process of reconstruction. NCP’s Bidya Sundar Shakya is the Mayor of Kathmandu Metropolitan city and Hari Prabha Khadgi of Nepali Congress is the deputy mayor. Indigenous Newari term for Kathmandu valley is Yei; the Pahari name Kathmandu comes from Kasthamandap temple. In Sanskrit, Kastha means "Wood" and Maṇḍapa means "Pavilion"; this public pavilion known as Maru Satta: in the Newar language, was rebuilt in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The three-story structure was made of wood and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legend, all the timber used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree.
The structure collapsed during a major earthquake on 25 April 2015. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, refer to Kathmandu as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap Mahānagar in Nepal Mandala. Mahānagar means "great city"; the city is called "Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap" in a vow. Thus, Kathmandu is known as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap. During medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kāntipur; this name is derived from two Sanskrit words -- pur. "Kānti" is a word that stands for "beauty" and is associated with light and "pur" means place. Thus, giving it a meaning as "City of light". Among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeṃ Deśa, Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Deśa and Khwopa Deśa. "Yen" is the shorter form of Yambu, which referred to the northern half of Kathmandu. Archaeological excavations in parts of Kathmandu have found evidence of ancient civilisations; the oldest of these findings is a statue, found in Maligaon, dated at 185 AD. The excavation of Dhando Chaitya uncovered a brick with an inscription in Brahmi script.
Archaeologists believe. Stone inscriptions are a ubiquitous element at heritage sites and are key sources for the history of Nepal; the earliest Western reference to Kathmandu appears in an account of Jesuit Fathers Johann Grueber and Albert d'Orville. In 1661, they passed through Nepal on their way from Tibet to India, reported that they reached "Cadmendu", the capital of Nepal kingdom; the ancient history of Kathmandu is described in its traditional legends. According to Swayambhu Purana, present-day Kathmandu was once a huge and deep lake named "Nagdaha", as it was full of snakes; the lake was cut drained by Bodhisatwa Manjusri with his sword, the water was evacuated out from there. He established a city called Manjupattan, made Dharmakar the ruler of the valley land. After some time, a demon named Banasur closed the outlet, the valley again turned into a lake. Lord Krishna came to Nepal, killed Banasur, again drained out the water, he made Bhuktaman the king of Nepal. Kotirudra Samhita of Shiva Purana, Chapter 11, shloka 18 refers to the place as Nayapala city, famous for its Pashupati Shivalinga.
The name Nepal originates from this city Nayapala. Few historical record exists of the period before medieval Licchavis rulers. According to Gopalraj Vansawali, a genealogy of Nepali monarchy, the rulers of Kathmandu Valley before the Licchavis were Gopalas, Aabhirs and Somavanshi; the Kirata dynasty was established by Yalamber. During the Kirata era, a settlement called. In some of the Sino-Tibetan languages, Kathmandu is still called Yambu. Another smaller settlement called Yengal was present in the southern half of old Kathmandu, near Manjupattan. During the reign of the seventh Kirata ruler, Buddhist monks entered Kathmandu valley and established a forest monastery at Sankhu; the Licchavis from the Indo-Gangetic plain migrated north and defeated the Kiratas, establis