Pre-Code Hollywood was the brief era in the American film industry between the widespread adoption of sound in pictures in 1929 and the enforcement of the Motion Picture Production Code censorship guidelines, popularly known as the "Hays Code", in mid-1934. Although the Code was adopted in 1930, oversight was poor, it did not become rigorously enforced until July 1, 1934, with the establishment of the Production Code Administration. Before that date, movie content was restricted more by local laws, negotiations between the Studio Relations Committee and the major studios, popular opinion, than by strict adherence to the Hays Code, ignored by Hollywood filmmakers; as a result, some films in the late 1920s and early 1930s depicted or implied sexual innuendo and sexual relationships between white and black people, mild profanity, illegal drug use, prostitution, abortion, intense violence, homosexuality. Nefarious characters were seen to profit from their deeds, in some cases without significant repercussions.
For example, gangsters in films like The Public Enemy, Little Caesar, Scarface were seen by many as heroic rather than evil. Strong female characters were ubiquitous in such pre-Code films as Female, Baby Face, Red-Headed Woman. Along with featuring stronger female characters, films examined female subject matters that would not be revisited until decades in US films. Many of Hollywood's biggest stars such as Clark Gable, Barbara Stanwyck, Joan Blondell, Edward G. Robinson got their start in the era. Other stars who excelled during this period, like Ruth Chatterton and Warren William, would wind up forgotten by the general public within a generation. Beginning in late 1933 and escalating throughout the first half of 1934, American Roman Catholics launched a campaign against what they deemed the immorality of American cinema. This, plus a potential government takeover of film censorship and social research seeming to indicate that movies which were seen to be immoral could promote bad behavior, was enough pressure to force the studios to capitulate to greater oversight.
In 1922, after some risqué films and a series of off-screen scandals involving Hollywood stars, the studios enlisted Presbyterian elder William H. "Will" Hays, a figure of unblemished rectitude. Hays nicknamed the motion picture "Czar", was paid the then-lavish sum of $100,000 a year. Hays, Postmaster General under Warren G. Harding and former head of the Republican National Committee, served for 25 years as president of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, where he "defended the industry from attacks, recited soothing nostrums, negotiated treaties to cease hostilities." Hollywood mimicked the decision Major League Baseball had made in hiring judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis as League Commissioner the previous year to quell questions about the integrity of baseball in wake of the 1919 World Series gambling scandal. Hays introduced a set of recommendations dubbed "The Formula" in 1924, which the studios were advised to heed, asked filmmakers to describe to his office the plots of pictures they were planning.
The Supreme Court had decided unanimously in 1915 in Mutual Film Corporation v. Industrial Commission of Ohio that free speech did not extend to motion pictures, while there had been token attempts to clean up the movies before, such as when the studios formed the National Association of the Motion Picture Industry in 1916, little had come of the efforts. In 1929, Roman Catholic layman Martin Quigley, editor of the prominent trade paper Motion Picture Herald, Father Daniel A. Lord, a Jesuit priest, created a code of standards and submitted it to the studios. Lord's concerns centered on the effects sound film had on children, whom he considered susceptible to the medium's allure. Several studio heads, including Irving Thalberg of Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, met with Lord and Quigley in February 1930. After some revisions, they agreed to the stipulations of the Code. One of the main motivating factors in adopting the Code was to avoid direct government intervention, it was the responsibility of the Studio Relations Committee, headed by Colonel Jason S. Joy, to supervise film production and advise the studios when changes or cuts were required.
The Code was divided into two parts. The first was a set of "general principles" that concerned morality; the second was a set of "particular applications", an exacting list of items that could not be depicted. Some restrictions, such as the ban on homosexuality or the use of specific curse words, were never directly mentioned but were assumed to be understood without clear demarcation. Miscegenation, the mixing of the races, was forbidden; the Code stated that the notion of an "adults-only policy" would be a dubious, ineffective strategy that would be difficult to enforce. However, it did allow that "maturer minds may understand and accept without harm subject matter in plots which does younger people positive harm." If children were supervised and the events implied elliptically, the code allowed what Brandeis University cultural historian Thomas Doherty called "the possibility of a cinematically inspired thought crime." The Code sought not only to determine what could be portrayed on screen, but to promote traditional values.
Sexual relations outside of marriage could not be portrayed as attractive and beautiful, presented in a way that might arouse passion or be made to seem right and permissible. All criminal action had to b
Cover Girl, Shawn Colvin's third full-length album, was released in 1994 on Columbia Records. Colvin is a singer-songwriter who records her own material, however, as the title alludes to, all of the tracks on the album are covers of recorded songs; the album received a Grammy nomination for Best Contemporary Folk Album. Shawn Colvin – guitar, vocals Jim Keltner – drums Steve Addabbo – guitar Kenny Aronoff – drums, percussion Benmont Tench – Hammond organ Larry Campbell – fiddle, pedal steel Mary Chapin Carpenter – vocals Milt Grayson – background vocals David Kahne – bass, keyboards Curtis King – background vocals Larry Klein – bass Andy Kravitz – drums Steuart Smith – guitar, mandolin, keyboards Fonzi Thornton – background vocals Frank Vilardi – drums, percussion Ken White – background vocals Leland Sklar – bass Frank Floyd – background vocals Tom "T-Bone" Wolk – bass, accordion
City College of Calamba is a public school in Laguna established in 2006 coinciding with the country's national hero, Jose Rizal's 145th birth anniversary. The institution was founded to provide high-quality education to underprivileged, it is subsidized by the city government and offers free tuition. City College of Calamba has degree programs in the fields of accountancy, computer science and secondary education; the school has received recognition in the Licensure Examination for Teachers, being one of the top performing schools in the area. Since 2006, The school has been committed to helping the youth of Calamba to achieve their full potential and become future nation-builders through instruction that values academic excellence, social responsibility and nationalism; the City College of Calamba envisions itself as an accredited premiere academic institution in the region, providing quality learning opportunities to financially challenged but deserving students, in order to produce competent, conscientious and compassionate global professionals.
City College of Calamba Facts: • City College of Calamba has been achieving a high passing rate in the previous board examinations for teachers. In the August 2014 LET, the school made it to the list of Top Performing Schools for the Secondary Level with an 87.80 passing percentage, landing in the 6th spot. • In the September 2016 LET, it landed in the 5th spot for Elementary Level and obtained a passing rate of 87.93%. • The school was one of the Top Performing Schools in the September 2017 LET. It was 6th in rank; the CCC offers the following degree programs: Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Bachelor in Secondary Education Bachelor in Elementary Education Bachelor of Science in Accountancy 36th in secondary education
Ordospora colligata is an intracellular parasite belonging to the Microsporidia. It is an obligatory gut parasite with the crustacean Daphnia magna as its only host. So far it has been reported from Asia; the life cycle of O. colligata consists of two different stages, the merogonial stage with immature spores and the sporogonial stage with mature spores. Ordospora colligata is transmitted horizontally from living hosts. Vertical transmission has not been observed; the spores are released with the faeces and float in the water until a new host ingests them while filter feeding. With this direct waterborne transmission the parasite infects other hosts, the prevalence is high and can reach up to 100% in natural populations; when female D. magna are infected with O. colligata, their reproductive success is about 20% lower, the normal lifespan of 60 days is shortened to about 50 days. In comparison with other endoparasites of Daphnia, O. colligata is rather avirulent and does not drive infected host populations to extinction.
The infections are difficult to detect due to the lack of external signs. The complete development of this intracellular parasite takes place in the gut epithelium. Therefore, the host needs to be dissected and its gut epithelium examined under a phase contrast microscope, to confirm infection. A magnification of 200-400x is necessary for visualizing the spores. O. colligata lives in epithelial gut cells in a large parasitophorous vacuole, formed by the host at the time of infection. The host nucleus is shifted to a more lateral position; the vacuoles are filled with mature spores in the centre and immature presporal stages at the periphery. When these epithelium cells with parasitophorous vacuoles are shed in the gut, the parasite spores leave the host together with the faeces. All life cycle stages of the parasite have isolated nuclei and the merogonial and sporogonial stages occur together in the vacuole; the immature presporal stages, which are called merozoites, have a round or ovoid shape and measure 2.8 µm in diameter.
During merogony, small plasmodia with four nuclei are produced and the shape changes to an elongated form with 1.6 µm width. The fact that merogonial and sporogonial stages co-occur suggests the existence of repeated merogonial divisions; the last division of merozoites results in sporonts. In comparison to the merozoites the sporonts have a less dense cytoplasm. Electron-dense secretions create a thick layer on tubular material is produced; the earliest sporonts are elongated oval cells with two nuclei and these sporogonial stages occur pairwise. This pairwise structure leads to the interpretation of two sporoblast mother cells, which have failed to separate during the first division of the sporont. After another nuclear division, each sporoblast mother cell turns into a chain of four sporoblasts. Since the separation of the initial division has failed to complete, the two chains are still connected, leading to chains of eight mature spores; these eight spores are not only externally linked but via cytoplasmic bridges.
Mature spores are pear-shaped, have a pointed anterior pole and contain a vacuole at the posterior end. The size of unfixed spores is 1.33-2.29 x 2.32-3.69 µm. There are three different layers building the spore wall resulting in a thickness of 106-132 nm; the spore wall is thinner at the anterior pole, where the polar filament is attached to an anchoring disc. The polar filament has a diameter of 150 nm and extends into the centre of the spore for a third of the entire spore length turning off laterally in the direction of the spore wall, but ending before it touches the layers of the spore wall. O. colligata has 10 chromosomes, it is estimated to have a total genome size of 3 Mbp. The predicted number of open reading frames is 1820 with a mean gene length of 1041 bp; the gene density is 0.82 genes/kbp. On chromosome 8 in the low-GC region is a protein located, which has a homology to genes of D. pulex and D. magna. These genes code for the protein septin 7, important for the endocytosis-based invasion process of a fungal pathogen.
The O. colligata genome has acquired these genes from its Daphnia host by horizontal gene transfer. It is suggested, that the parasite uses the acquired septin to induce its incorporation in a host cell by mimicking host receptors. However, there is no evidence of the gene retaining its function after the host-to-parasite horizontal gene transfer. O. Colligata, like other Microsporidia, has undergone an extreme reduction in their genome; the reduction has happened before the origin of the present species and with that before their adaption to vertebrate hosts. In contrast to other Microsporidia, O. colligata is not capable of producing RNA interference. “Ordospora” is derived from the Latin noun ordo. The word “colligata” is derived from the Latin verb colligo.
National Ransom is the 2010 studio album by Elvis Costello. It was recorded in Nashville and Los Angeles with American songwriter and producer T Bone Burnett, was released on 25 October 2010 on the Hear Music label; the album was received positively, earning a score of 79/100 on the review aggregate website Metacritic. Featured musicians include Costello's recent backing bands The Imposters and The Sugarcanes, while the album includes guest appearances by Vince Gill, Marc Ribot, Buddy Miller and Leon Russell; the cover art is by Maakies creator Tony Millionaire. All tracks are written except where noted. A digital download was given away with orders for the album; the EP was released separately on 10-inch vinyl. Dennis Crouch - double bass Davey Faragher - electric bass Pete Thomas - drums Marc Ribot - electric guitar, acoustic guitar, banjo Buddy Miller - harmony vocals Jerry Douglas - lap steel guitar Mike Compton - mandolin, harmony vocals Vince Gill - harmony vocals Jim Lauderdale - harmony vocals Steve Nieve - organ, Celesta T Bone Burnett - piano, electric guitar Jeff Taylor - piano, accordion Stuart Duncan - violin, viola Dave Eggar - cello Darrell Leonard - trumpet, flugelhorn George Bohanon - trombone Ira Nepus - trombone Tom Peterson - baritone saxophone, bass clarinet Maurice Spears - bass trombone Andrew Duckles - viola Matt Funes - viola Caroline Campbell - violin Lucia Micarelli - violin Neel Hammond - violin Radu Pieptea - violin Bruce Dukov - violin, concertmaster Mike Piersante - shaker Elvis Costello - acoustic guitar, electric Guitar, bass guitar, organ, lead vocals, harmony vocals, whistling Nationalransom.com
The Bull and Mouth Inn was a coaching inn in the City of London that dated from before the Great Fire of London in 1666. It was located between Mouth Street in the north and Angel Street in the south, it was once an important arrival and departure point for coaches from all over Britain, but for the north of England and Scotland. It became the Queen's Hotel in 1830 but was demolished in 1887 or 1888 when new post office buildings were built in St Martin's Le Grand; the original name of the inn was the Boulogne Mouth in reference to the town and harbor of Boulogne, besieged by the English king Henry VIII in 1544–1546. Over time, the name became the Mouth; the inn building was rebuilt. The street took its name from the inn and was first recorded on John Ogilby and William Morgan's Large Scale Map of the City As Rebuilt By 1676; the inn was an important arrival and departure point for coaches from all over England but from the north and Scotland. It was in close proximity to the General Post Office at St Martin's Le Grand, built 1829, the start of the mail coach route north along the Great North Road past the inn and along Aldersgate Street.
In 1830, it was acquired by the coaching entrepreneur Edward Sherman and rebuilt as the Queen's Hotel at a cost of £60,000. The architect was Savage; the hotel provided accommodation for underground stabling for 700 horses. Walter Thornbury described it in 1878 as "much affected by Manchester men", it was painted by Thomas Hosmer Shepherd. The coaching business began to decline after the arrival of the railways in the mid-nineteenth century and by 1875 an Ordnance Survey map shows the south side of the inn in Angel Street as a Great Northern Railway parcel office. Walter Thornbury described it in 1878 as a luggage depot for the railway carriers Horne; the hotel was demolished in 1887 or 1888 and new post office buildings at 1 St Martin's Le Grand erected on the site in 1890–1895. A plaque on that building marks the approximate former location of the inn but in fact it was further west on the south side of Bull and Mouth Street where Postman's Park is now. A terracotta statuette of a bull inside a gaping mouth, above, the bust of King Edward VI and the arms of Christ's Hospital to which the ground belonged, once graced the front of the Queen's Hotel but has since been removed to the garden of the Museum of London at nearby London Wall.
It bears the inscription: Milo the Cretonian An ox slew with his fist, And ate it up at one meal, Ye gods, what a glorious twist! Probably in reference to Milo of Croton, an ancient Greek wrestler and strongman sometimes depicted as carrying a bull on his shoulders; the inn's former sign, described by Historic England as "a striking Mannerist relief carving of a huge mouth swallowing an ox", was transferred to the Guildhall Museum and is now in the garden of the Museum of London. The museum owns a wood and plaster sculpture of a bull above a grinning mouth donated to the Guildhall Museum by Henry Cecil Raikes MP postmaster general, 1887. Queens Hotel, St Martins le Grand, St Anne & St Agnes, City of London. UK Pub History. Scenes in the yard at the Bull & Mouth coaching inn. Bull and Mouth Western Coach Office. View in the yard of the Bull & Mouth, a London coaching inn, showing Bob taking leave of his friends Tom and Jerry before boarding the stagecoach. Bull and Mouth Street, London, 1806. Artist: Valentine Davis