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Pre-Columbian Mexico

The pre-Columbian history of the territory now comprising contemporary Mexico is known through the work of archaeologists and epigraphers, through the accounts of the conquistadores and indigenous chroniclers of the immediate post-conquest period. While few documents of the Mixtec and Aztec cultures of the Post-Classic period survived the Spanish conquest, more progress has been made in the area of Mayan archaeology and epigraphy. Human presence in the Mexican region was once thought to date back 40,000 years based upon what were believed to be ancient human footprints discovered in the Valley of Mexico, but after further investigation using radioactive dating, it appears this is untrue, it is unclear whether 21,000-year-old campfire remains found in the Valley of Mexico are the earliest human remains in Mexico. Indigenous peoples of Mexico began to selectively breed maize plants around 8000 BC. Evidence shows a marked increase in pottery working by 2300 B. C. and the beginning of intensive corn farming between 1800 and 1500 B.

C.. Between 1800 and 300 BC, complex cultures began to form. Many matured into advanced pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations such as the: Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec, Huastec, Purépecha, Totonac and Aztec, which flourished for nearly 4,000 years before the first contact with Europeans; these civilizations are credited with many inventions and advancements including pyramid-temples, astronomy and theology. Archaic inscriptions on rocks and rock walls all over northern Mexico demonstrate an early propensity for counting in Mexico; these early and ancient count-markings were associated with astronomical events and underscore the influence that astronomical activities had upon Mexican natives before they possessed urbanization. In fact, many of the Mexican-based civilizations would build their cities and ceremonial centers according to specific astronomical events. Astronomy and the notion of human observation of celestial events would become central factors in the development of religious systems, writing systems, fine arts, architecture.

Prehistoric Mexican astronomers began a tradition of precise observing and commemorating astronomical events that become a hallmark of Mexican civilized achievements. Cities would be founded and built on astronomical principles, leaders would be appointed on celestial events, wars would be fought according to solar-calendars, a complex theology using astronomical metaphors would organize the daily lives of millions of people. At some different points in time, three Mexican cities were among the largest cities in the world; these cities and several others blossomed as centers of commerce, ideas and theology. In turn, they radiated influence outward into neighboring cultures in central Mexico. At its height, Aridoamerica covered part of the present-day Mexican states of Chihuahua and Baja California, while Oasisamerica as the U. S. states of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and parts of California. Cultural groups that flourished in Aridoamerica within the borders of modern-day Mexico include the Mogollon and Hohokam.

These two cultural regions maintained long-distance trade networks with Mesoamerica, evidenced by cacao and other Mesoamerican goods found in Ancestral Pueblo sites, turquoise from Oasisamerica found in precontact Mesoamerican artwork. For example, in Paquimé, a site connected to the Mogollon culture, there have been found ceremonial structures related to Mesoamerican religion, similar to the juego de pelota. While many city-states and empires competed with one another for power and prestige, Mexico can be said to have had seven major civilizations: The Olmec, the Toltec, the Aztec, Zapotec and the Maya; these civilizations extended their reach across Mexico, beyond, like no others. They consolidated power and distributed influence in matters of trade, politics and theology. Other regional power players made economic and political alliances with these seven civilizations over the span of 3,000 years. Many made war with them, but all found themselves within these seven spheres of influence. The Olmec were an ancient Pre-Columbian people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico in what are the modern-day states of Veracruz and Tabasco on the Isthmus of Tehuantepec.

Their immediate cultural influence, extends far beyond this region. The Olmec flourished during the Formative period, dating from 1400 BCE to about 400 BCE, are believed to have been the progenitor civilization of Mesoamerican civilizations; the decline of the Olmec resulted in a power vacuum in Mexico. Emerging from that vacuum was Teotihuacan, first settled in 300 B. C. By AD 150, it had grown to become the first true metropolis of. Teotihuacan established a new political order never before seen in Mexico, its influence stretched across Mexico into Central America, such as Monte Albán, Cerro de las Mesas, Matacapan and Kaminaljuyú. Teotihuacan's influence over the Maya civilization cannot be overstated. Within the city of Teotihuacan was a diverse and cosmopolitan population. Most of the regional ethnicities of Mexico were represented in the city, they lived in rural apartment

Russian Orthodox bell ringing

Russian Orthodox bell ringing has a history starting from the baptism of Rus in 988 and plays an important role in the traditions of the Russian Orthodox Church. The ringing of bells is one of the most essential elements of an Orthodox church. Church bells are rung to: Summon the faithful to services Express the triumphal joy of the Christian Church Announce important moments during the services both to those in church and to those who are not able to be physically present in the church, so that all may be united in prayer Strengthen Christians in piety and faith by its sound, which Orthodox Christians believe is "alloyed with divine grace to disperse and destroy the forces of cruelty and of demonic suggestion" Proclaim important events, such as the death of a member of the church; the use of bells is not only practical, but is considered to be spiritual. Bells are sometimes referred to as "singing icons", because they establish the acoustic space of an Orthodox temple just as painted icons and hymnography define its visual and noetic space, respectively.

Icons are considered "scripture in image" as bells are "scripture in sound". There are several liturgical services which point out the importance of bells in the Russian Orthodox Church: Blessing the Foundation of a New Bell Tower, Blessing a New Bell Tower, Blessing and Chrismating a Bell. There is a service for the blessing of a bell ringer. Bells are blessed with a ritual containing many of the elements of the Rite of Baptism; the new bell is blessed with holy water and censed, both outside and inside, the priest lays hands on the bell to bless it. During the rite, the bell is "named"; the bell is anointed with chrism, just as an Orthodox Christian is at chrismation. The theological understanding of bells as "weapons" in spiritual warfare, their role in the Christian life is emphasized during the rite by the scripture lesson from Numbers 10:1-10: "And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying: Make for yourself two silver trumpets … And they shall be for you for the calling of the assembly … When you sound an alarm … And if you shall go forth to war … And in the days of your rejoicing …" The use of bells is symbolic of the proclamation of the Gospel.

Sometimes Orthodox churches and monasteries will combine the use of bells with the striking of a wooden or metal semantron, with the semantron being sounded first the bells being rung later. The quieter and simpler sound of the semantron is understood to symbolize the Old Testament prophets, for it is the symbol only of a coming event, whereas the ringing of the bells is spread far into the air symbolizing the annunciation of the Gospel throughout the world. After the conversion of Kievan Rus to Christianity in the 10th century, bells came into use everywhere. A flat piece of wood or metal called a semantron would be beaten rhythmically with a mallot to summon the faithful to services; this was true in monasteries, some of which still to this day use both semantrons and bells. While the semantron was inherited from Greece, the use of church bells was imported into Russia from Western Europe; the Russian word for bell is kolokol, which comes from the German word glocke, derived from the Latin clocca, which in turn appears to come from the Irish clog.

The word for bell in Church Slavonic is kampan, derived from Latin campana. During the fifteenth century the semantron began to be replaced by bells. At that time, several foundries for bell making were established in Russia. Russian church bells are cast using a mixture of bronze and tin with silver added to the bell metal, to produce their unique sonority and resonance. Russian bells tend to differ from Western bells in the proportion of their height to width, the method of varying the thickness of the walls of the bell; the clapper of the bell follows a different design than that used in the West. The art of bellfounding reached its pinnacle in the 18th century, with the production of unimaginably huge bells; the largest bell in the world, the Tsar Bell was cast in 1733 for the Ivan the Great Bell Tower in Moscow. The Tsar Bell was damaged in a fire in 1737 before it could be hung, stands today at the base of the tower; the largest working bell in the world is the Dormition Bell which hangs in the same Ivan the Great Bell Tower.

After the Bolshevik Revolution, the Soviet Union persecuted Christianity. Numerous bells were destroyed and during certain periods the production of church bells all but stopped. After the fall of the Iron Curtain the production of bells resumed, has experienced a surge of activity as many of the churches that were destroyed are being rebuilt. Technically, bells rung in the Russian tradition are sounded by chiming and never by swinging the bell. For the Russian tradition a special complex system of ropes is used, designed individually for each belltower. All the ropes are gathered at one point, where the bell-ringer stands; some ropes are played by hand. The bigger ropes are played by foot; the major part of the ropes are not pulled, but rather pressed. Since

Los Peñasquitos Creek Arch Bridge

The Los Peñasquitos Creek Arch Bridge is a pair of road bridges located in San Diego, California, USA. Completed in 1949, the original bridge is a reinforced concrete open-spandrel arch-bridge with an overall length of 434 feet, arch span of 220 feet, it now serves as a service bike path. The new Los Peñasquitos Creek bridge was first built in 1966 as the southbound lanes of the U. S. Route 395 freeway, it was replaced by a prestressed concrete girder bridge during the widening of the Interstate 15 freeway in 1976. In 1995, the new bridge was renamed the Cara Knott Memorial Bridge after 20-year-old Cara Knott, a San Diego State University student, stopped and subsequently murdered by California Highway Patrol officer Craig Peyer near the bridge on the night of December 27, 1986. Peyer was convicted in the case and is serving a 25 years-to-life sentence in prison. In 2000, Cara's father, died of a heart attack, just a few yards from the exact place where his daughter was killed, while taking care of a garden the family built to honor Cara

What It Meant: The Complete Discography

What It Meant: The Complete Discography is a compact disc compilation featuring all of the known studio recordings by influential American hardcore punk band Judge. Released in 2005 by Revelation Records, the CD puts the band's two EPs, New York Crew and The Storm, their lone studio album Bringin' It Down together along with, as bonus tracks, the "original", aborted version of Bringin' It Down, a unreleased demo recording. Fed Up In My Way I've Lost New York Crew Warriors Take Me Away Bringin' It Down Hold Me Back Give It Up The Storm Hear Me Like You I've Lost Where It Went Forget This Time The Storm II When the Levee Breaks Take Me Away Bringin' It Down Hold Me Back Give It Up The Storm Hear Me Like You I've Lost Holding On No Apologies Just Like YouAll songs written and composed by John Porcelly and Michael Ferraro, except for "Warriors" and "When the Levee Breaks". Tracks 1-5From the 7" EP New York Crew Produced by Porcell and Don FuryTracks 6-14From the LP Bringin' It Down Produced by Tom Soares and Porcell Engineered by Tom SoaresTracks 15-17From the EP The Storm Produced by Porcell and Don FuryTracks 18-27First released in a limited edition of 110 copies as Chung King Can Suck It, in Germany on the CD No Apologies.

Bootlegged on a white vinyl 10". The "some cokehead loser" producer credit for this compilation's tracks was given on Chung King Can Suck It's liner notes as "He Who Can Suck It". Track 28Previously unreleased demo recording. Three additional demo tracks are found on the 2xLP vinyl version of this release

Great Russia (political party)

Great Russia is a Russian far-right ultra-nationalist political party, associated with neo-Nazism. It was established in April 2007 by former Rodina leader and legislator Dmitry Rogozin in conjunction with the prohibited xenophobic Movement Against Illegal Immigration, the Congress of Russian Communities and former members of the Rodina party which won 9% of the vote at the 2003 Russian Parliamentary elections; the current Chairman of the party is Andrei Saveliyev. The colours of the party are the yellow of the Amur tiger. According to Dmitry Rogozin, he came up with the idea of using the tiger as the party's logo upon learning that the animal's population had increased in 2006 for the first time in recorded history. Rogozin has stated "I believe that the Amur tiger will become a competitor to the blue bear", referring to the symbol of United Russia, a white bear on a blue background. Great Russia has stated it supports Belarusian President Alexander Lukashenko's candidacy for President of Russia in 2008, a candidacy, impossible as Lukashenko is not a Russian citizen.

Rogozin has stated that the party will contest seats in the December elections to the State Duma. Rogozin estimated that the party would obtain twenty five percent of the vote in the election, opinion polls suggested the party had a good chance of crossing the seven percent threshold for representation in the Duma. On 24 July 2007 Great Russia was denied registration by the Federal Registration Service; the Secretary of the party's ruling council, Sergei Pykhtin, said the party would either appeal the decision or submit new paperwork in an attempt to be registered. However, the party was unsuccessful and so did not contest the 2007 Russian legislative election. Rogozin creates "Great Russia" 12 April 2007 Will Russia's new party be built on Berezovsky's money? Regnum 13 April 2007 New Party Set Up With Plans to Win Every Fourth Seat in the Duma Kommersant 7 May 2007

Wensley Haydon-Baillie

Wensley Grosvenor Haydon-Baillie is the son of a surgeon from Worksop, was once one of the 50 richest men in the UK after working his way up in the pharmaceutical industry. A company he invested in, Porton International, sold at high prices when it seemed it had a cure for herpes, it collapsed when it turned out it did not and the company wound up selling at a discounted price to Ipsen Pharmaceutical. He restoring many Spitfires, he owned Wentworth Woodhouse in Yorkshire – one of the largest private homes in Europe with an assumed 365 rooms. In the 1980s, he invested millions in a firm that claimed to have a cure for herpes but it never materialised and in 1998 he admitted to debts of £13m. In 1994, Haydon-Baillie married a secretary. Prince Michael of Kent was best man, he was once the owner of the two largest passenger hovercraft in the world, the SRN4s, one of the fastest boats in the world, the GTY Brave Challenger. Haydon-Baillie is a descendant of Royal Navy officer Jeremiah Coghlan. Wedding Photos My doomed love affair with England's greatest house, Transforming Network Infrastructure, February 16, 2007