A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones and television broadcasting, in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors. Several different types of microphone are in use, which employ different methods to convert the air pressure variations of a sound wave to an electrical signal; the most common are the dynamic microphone. Microphones need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced. In order to speak to larger groups of people, a need arose to increase the volume of the human voice; the earliest devices used to achieve this were acoustic megaphones. Some of the first examples, from fifth century BC Greece, were theater masks with horn-shaped mouth openings that acoustically amplified the voice of actors in amphitheatres.
In 1665, the English physicist Robert Hooke was the first to experiment with a medium other than air with the invention of the "lovers' telephone" made of stretched wire with a cup attached at each end. In 1861, German inventor Johann Philipp Reis built an early sound transmitter that used a metallic strip attached to a vibrating membrane that would produce intermittent current. Better results were achieved in 1876 with the "liquid transmitter" design in early telephones from Alexander Graham Bell and Elisha Gray – the diaphragm was attached to a conductive rod in an acid solution; these systems, gave a poor sound quality. The first microphone that enabled proper voice telephony was the carbon microphone; this was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US. Although Edison was awarded the first patent in mid-1877, Hughes had demonstrated his working device in front of many witnesses some years earlier, most historians credit him with its invention.
The carbon microphone is the direct prototype of today's microphones and was critical in the development of telephony and the recording industries. Thomas Edison refined the carbon microphone into his carbon-button transmitter of 1886; this microphone was employed at the first radio broadcast, a performance at the New York Metropolitan Opera House in 1910. In 1916, E. C. Wente of Western Electric developed the next breakthrough with the first condenser microphone. In 1923, the first practical moving coil microphone was built; the Marconi-Sykes magnetophone, developed by Captain H. J. Round, became the standard for BBC studios in London; this was improved in 1930 by Alan Blumlein and Herbert Holman who released the HB1A and was the best standard of the day. In 1923, the ribbon microphone was introduced, another electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Olson, who reverse-engineered a ribbon speaker. Over the years these microphones were developed by several companies, most notably RCA that made large advancements in pattern control, to give the microphone directionality.
With television and film technology booming there was demand for high fidelity microphones and greater directionality. Electro-Voice responded with their Academy Award-winning shotgun microphone in 1963. During the second half of 20th century development advanced with the Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58 and SM57; the latest research developments include the use of fibre optics and interferometers. The sensitive transducer element of a microphone is called its capsule. Sound is first converted to mechanical motion by means of a diaphragm, the motion of, converted to an electrical signal. A complete microphone includes a housing, some means of bringing the signal from the element to other equipment, an electronic circuit to adapt the output of the capsule to the equipment being driven. A wireless microphone contains a radio transmitter. Microphones are categorized by their transducer principle, such as condenser, etc. and by their directional characteristics. Sometimes other characteristics such as diaphragm size, intended use or orientation of the principal sound input to the principal axis of the microphone are used to describe the microphone.
The condenser microphone, invented at Western Electric in 1916 by E. C. Wente, is called a capacitor microphone or electrostatic microphone—capacitors were called condensers. Here, the diaphragm acts as one plate of a capacitor, the vibrations produce changes in the distance between the plates. There are two types, depending on the method of extracting the audio signal from the transducer: DC-biased microphones, radio frequency or high frequency condenser microphones. With a DC-biased microphone, the plates are biased with a fixed charge; the voltage maintained across the capacitor plates changes with the vibrations in the air, according to the capacitance equation, where Q = charge in coulombs, C = capacitance in farads and V = potential difference in volts. The capacitance of the plates is inversely proportional to the distance between them for a parallel-plate capacitor; the assembly of fixed and movable plates is called an "element" or "capsule". A nearly constant charge is maintained on the capa
Burning Up (Madonna song)
"Burning Up" is a song by American singer Madonna from her 1983 eponymous debut album. It was released as a single on March 9, 1983; the song was presented as an early recorded demo by Madonna to Sire Records who green-lighted the recording of the single after the first single "Everybody" became a dance hit. Madonna collaborated with Reggie Lucas, who produced the single while John Benitez provided the guitar riffs and backing vocals. Musically, the song incorporates instrumentation from bass guitar and drums, the lyrics talk of the singer's lack of shame in declaring her passion for her lover. Released with a B side of "Physical Attraction," which would appear on the debut album, the song was given mixed reviews from contemporary critics and authors, who noted the song's darker, urgent composition while praising its dance beats; the single failed to do well commercially anywhere, except the dance chart in the United States, where it peaked at three, the Australian charts, where it was a top 20 hit.
After a number of live appearances in clubs to promote the single, it was added to the set-list of the 1985 Virgin Tour. An electric guitar version was performed on the 2004 Re-Invention World Tour and the 2015–2016 Rebel Heart Tour; the accompanying music video of the song portrayed Madonna in the classic submissive female positions, while writhing in passion on an empty road, for her lover who appeared to come from her behind on a car. The video ended showing Madonna driving the car instead, thereby concluding that she was always in charge. Many authors noted that the "Burning Up" music video was a beginning of Madonna's depiction of her taking control of a destabilized male sexuality. In 1982, Madonna was trying to launch her musical career, her Detroit boyfriend, Steve Bray, became the drummer for her band. Abandoning hard rock, they were signed by a music management company, Gotham records, decided to pursue music in the funk genre, they soon dropped. Madonna carried rough tapes of three songs with her: "Everybody", "Ain't No Big Deal" and "Burning Up".
Madonna presented "Everybody" to the DJ Mark Kamins who, after hearing the song, took her to Sire Records, where she was signed for a single deal. When "Everybody" became a dance hit, Sire Records decided to follow up with an album for her. However, Madonna chose not to work with either Bray or Kamins, opting instead for Warner Brothers producer Reggie Lucas. Michael Rosenblatt, the A&R director of Sire Records, explained to Kamins that they wanted a producer who had more experience in directing singers, he pushed Madonna in a more pop direction and produced "Burning Up" and "Physical Attraction" for her. While producing the tracks, Lucas radically changed their structure from the original demo versions. Madonna did not accept the changes, so John "Jellybean" Benitez, a DJ at the Funhouse Disco, was called in to remix the tracks, he added some extra guitar riffs and vocals to "Burning Up". Sire Records backed up the single by sending Madonna on a series of personal appearances in clubs around New York, where she performed the single.
They hired a stylist and jewelry designer called Maripol, who helped Madonna with the single cover. The cover for the 12-inch dance single. Musically, "Burning Up" has a starker arrangement brought about by bass, single guitar and drum machine; the guitar riffs in the songs were not characteristics of Madonna's records. The tom-tom drum beats used in the song were reminiscent of the records of singer Phil Collins, it incorporated electric guitars and the most state-of-the-art synthesizers of that time. The chorus is a repetition of the same three lines of the lyrics, while the bridge consists of a series of double entendres in regards to the lyrics of the song which describes what she is prepared to do for her lover and that she is individualistic and shameless. According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com by Alfred Publishing, "Burning Up" is written in the time signature of common time with a dance beat tempo of 138 beats per minute. The song is composed in the key of B minor, with Madonna's vocals ranging from the tonal nodes of A3 to B4.
"Burning Up" follows a basic sequence of Bm–Bm–A–E as its chord progression. "Burning Up" was released on March 9, 1983. Like its predecessor "Everybody", the song failed to enter the Billboard Hot 100 chart, "Burning Up" did not chart in the Bubbling Under Hot 100 Singles chart, it did manage to peak at number three on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play, staying on the chart for 16 weeks. The song was a top 20 hit in Australia in June 1984, peaking at number 13, after having charted in the lower reaches of the top 100 in November 1983; the song was used as background music for a scene in the 1984 film The Wild Life. Author Rikky Rooksby, in his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, commented that the song was noticeably weaker compared to other singles like "Lucky Star" and "Borderline". Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine denoted the track as punk-infused. Stephen Thomas Erlewine from Allmusic commented that "Burning Up" and B side "Physical Attraction" had a darker, carnal urgency in their composition.
Don Shewey from Rolling Stone called the song "simple stuff" while complimenting the B side, saying: "'Physical Attraction' is a capsule history of high-school proms, with its sly references to The Association's "Cherish" and Olivia Newton-John's "Physical." Robert Christgau called the 12-inch pair of "Burning Up" and "Physical Attraction" electroporn. Santiago Fouz-Hernández in his book Madonna's drowned worlds complimented the song for having upbeat dance music. Jim Farber from Entertainment Weekly commented that "Burning Up" proved that Mado
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
True Blue (Madonna song)
"True Blue" is a song by American singer Madonna. It is the title track from her third studio album True Blue, was released as the album's third single on September 17, 1986 by Sire Records. Written and produced by Madonna and Steve Bray, the song deals with Madonna's feelings for her then-husband Sean Penn. A dance-pop song, it features instrumentation from a rhythm guitar, a synthesizer and drums; the main chorus is backed by an alternate one, incorporating a chord progression found in doo-wop music. Received by the critics as a light-hearted and cute retro song, "True Blue" topped the charts in the United Kingdom and Canada and became another consecutive top-ten song in United States for Madonna, by reaching number three on the Billboard Hot 100; the original music video portrayed her again with a new look and sporting platinum blond bushy hair. An alternate video was made through the "Make My Video" contest on MTV; the final selected videos had a similar theme of a 1950s-inspired setting and the storyline following the lyrics of the song.
"True Blue" has been performed on the Who's the Rebel Heart Tour. When Madonna had started working on her third studio album, True Blue in 1985, she was in a relationship with actor Sean Penn whom she married by the year-end, it was the first album that the singer acted in the role of a record producer and wanted to add her own "sophistication" to it. Her optimism assimilated in the songs created, including the title track, which she co-wrote and co-produced the song with Stephen Bray. According to Madonna, "True Blue" takes its title from a favorite expression of Penn and to his pure vision of love; the song and the album was Madonna's "unabashed valentine" for Penn. In an interview, Bray said, "She was much in love, it was obvious. If she's not in love she won't be writing love songs." In 2015, Madonna said. I didn't know what I was talking about when I wrote it." "True Blue" is a dance-pop song, musically inspired by the Motown's girl groups from the 1960s which are considered the direct antecedents of Madonna's musical sound, the music she had grown up in her hometown Detroit.
The song is composed in the key of B major. It is set in compound quadruple meter used in doo-wop, has a moderate tempo of 118 beats per minute. "True Blue" features instrumentation from a rhythm guitar, a synthesizer and drums for the bassline, with a basic sequence of I–vi–IV–V as its main chord progression. Madonna's vocal range spans a bit less than one and a half octaves, from F♯3 to B4; the chorus is backed by sounds of bells ringing, an alternate verse—"This time I know it's true"—, sung by three back-up singers during the interlude, a bass counter melody which introduces her vocals during the second chorus. The lyrics are constructed with the theme being Madonna's feelings for Penn.. According to author Lucy O'Brien, who wrote in her biography Madonna: Like an Icon, the verse-and-chorus composition was reminiscent of The Dixie Cups' 1964 single "Chapel of Love", with backup singers Siedah Garrett and Edie Lehman accompanying Madonna's convincing "girly" vocals like a choir. Davitt Sigerson from Rolling Stone said that the song "squanders a classic beat and an immensely promising title", In his book Madonna: An Intimate Biography, journalist J. Randy Taraborrelli described the song as "the light-hearted, fun track of the whole True Blue album project having a retro 1950's feel to it".
In the book Rock'n' Roll Gold Rush, author Maury Dean said that the song as a "masterwork of simplicity interwoven with secret complexity" adding that "on one hand, it's just a basic Streetcorner ditty, with four basic chords. In another context, it's a counterpoint harmonic blanket, twirling with star-spangled timbre and dynamic drive." Rikky Rooksby, in his book The Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna, said that "True Blue" is "a saccharine uptempo version of'Shoo-Bee-Do' with telegraphed rhymes... a song, cute and not up to being the title track of an album". O'Brien relegated the track as a "ditty" which contained "schmaltzy nostalgia" with Madonna's convincing vocals making it contemporary. A reviewer for The Wichita Eagle did not like the track, believing that it was "sassless and neutered" as compared to the other songs on the record. However, Daniel Brogan of the Chicago Tribune believed the song was good, calling it "impressive" like the rest of the album, Jan DeKnock of the same paper believed it was "charming".
Steve Morse of The Boston Globe, when describing the song, said that it was a "bid to be an'80s Helen of Troy". Sal Cinquemani from Slant Magazine called it as an "authentic throwback to the girl-group-era pop". AllMusic's Stephen Thomas Erlewine felt that "True Blue" was Madonna's "real trick" to keep her status as a "dance-pop diva" and recalled the classic pop girl influence. Writing for Stuff.co.nz website, James Croot listed the track as the "crowning glory" on the album, describing it as a "toe-tapping 1950s-inspired ditty, it is pop-song confection perfection". Terry Hearn from The Metropolist opined that calling "True Blue" as "dated and simplistic" did not consider that the song was made for a particular musical genre, she compared Madonna's vocals with that of songs by 1950 -- 60s standards. Hearn ended by saying, "Understandably, hearing this from the woman, singing Like a Virgin a year earlier could be disorienting, but what a feat it is to shock people by being so simple and pure.
Rickenbacker International Corporation is an electric string instrument manufacturer based in Santa Ana, California. The company is credited as the first known maker of electric guitars —in 1932—and produced a range of electric guitars and bass guitars. Known for their distinctive jangle and chime, Rickenbacker twelve string guitars were favored by The Beatles, Roger McGuinn of The Byrds, Gerry Marsden of Gerry and the Pacemakers. Well known players of the six string include John Fogerty of Creedence Clearwater Revival, John Kay of Steppenwolf, Tom Petty of Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers Adolph Rickenbacher and George Beauchamp founded the company in 1931 as the Ro-Pat-In Corporation to sell electric Hawaiian guitars. Beauchamp had designed these instruments, assisted by Paul Barth and Harry Watson, at National String Instrument Corporation, they chose the brand name Rickenbacher. Early examples bear the brand name Electro; the early instruments were nicknamed "fry-pans" because of circular bodies.
They are the first known solid-bodied electric guitars. They had a single pickup with a steel cover. By the time they ceased producing the "fry pan" model in 1939, they had made several thousand. Electro String sold amplifiers to go with their guitars. A Los Angeles radio manufacturer named Van Nest designed the first Electro String production-model amplifier. Shortly thereafter, design engineer Ralph Robertson further developed the amplifiers, by the 1940s at least four different Rickenbacker models were available. James B. Lansing of the Lansing Manufacturing Company designed the speaker in the Rickenbacker professional model. During the early 1940s, Rickenbacker amps were sometimes repaired by Leo Fender, whose repair shop evolved into the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company. George Beauchamp was a vaudeville performer and steel guitarist who, like many acoustic guitarists in the pre-electric-guitar 1920s, was looking for some way to make his instrument cut through an orchestra.
He first conceived of a guitar fitted with a phonograph-like amplifying horn. He approached inventor and violin-maker John Dopyera, who made a prototype that was, by all accounts, a failure, their next collaboration involved experiments with mounting three conical aluminum resonators into the body of the guitar beneath the bridge. These efforts produced an instrument that so pleased Beauchamp that he told Dopyera that they should go into business to manufacture them. After further refinements, Dopyera applied for a patent on the so-called tri-cone guitar on April 9, 1927. Thereafter and his brothers made the tri-cone guitars in their Los Angeles shop, under the brand name National. On January 26, 1928, the National String Instrument Corporation opened, with a new factory located near a metal-stamping shop owned by Adolph Rickenbacher and staffed by experienced and competent craftsmen; the company made Spanish and Hawaiian style tri-cone guitars as well as four-string tenor guitars and ukuleles.
Adolph Rickenbacher was born in Basel, Switzerland in 1887 and emigrated to the United States to live with relatives after the death of his parents. Sometime after moving to Los Angeles in 1918, he changed his surname to "Rickenbacker". In 1925, Rickenbacker and two partners formed the Rickenbacker Manufacturing Company and incorporated it in 1927. By the time he met George Beauchamp and began manufacturing metal bodies for the "Nationals" being produced by the National String Instruments Corporation, Rickenbacker was a skilled production engineer and machinist. Adolph Rickenbacher became a shareholder in National and, with the assistance of his Rickenbacker Manufacturing Company, National boosted production to fifty guitars a day. National's line of instruments was not well diversified and, as demand for the expensive and hard-to-manufacture tri-cone guitars began to slip, the company realized that it would need to produce instruments with a lower production cost to remain competitive. Dissatisfaction with what John Dopyera felt was mismanagement led him to resign from National in January 1929.
He subsequently formed the Dobro Manufacturing Corporation called Dobro Corporation and began to manufacture his own line of resonator-equipped instruments. Patent infringement disagreements between National and Dobro led to a lawsuit in 1929, with Dobro suing National for $2 million in damages. Problems within National's management as well as pressure from the deepening Great Depression led to a production slowdown at National; this resulted in part of the company's fractured management structure organizing support for George Beauchamp's newest project: development of a electric guitar. By the late twenties, the idea for electrified string instruments had been around for some time, experimental banjo and guitar pickups had been developed. George Beauchamp had experimented with electric amplification as early as 1925, but his early efforts, which used microphones, did not produce the effect he desired. Beauchamp pursued the idea, building a one-string test guitar out of a 2X4 piece of lumber and an electric phonograph pickup.
As problems at National became more apparent, Beauchamp's home experiments became more rigorous, he began to attend night classes in electronics and collaborate with fellow National employee Paul Barth. When they developed a prototype electric pickup that met their satisfaction, Beauchamp asked former National shop craftsman Harry Watson to make a wooden neck and body to hold the pickup. Somebody nicknamed it the "fry-pan" because of its shape, though Rickenbacker liked to call it the pancake. Th
The Lexington Herald-Leader is a newspaper owned by The McClatchy Company and based in the U. S. city of Lexington, Kentucky. According to the 1999 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook, the Herald-Leader's paid circulation is the second largest in the Commonwealth of Kentucky; the newspaper has won the 1986 Pulitzer Prize for Investigative Reporting, the 1992 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Writing and the 2000 Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning. It had been a finalist in six other Pulitzer awards in the 22-year period up until its sale in 2006, a record, unsurpassed by any mid-sized newspaper in the United States during the same time frame; the publisher is Rufus Friday, Peter Baniak is the editor. The Herald-Leader was created by a 1983 merger of the Lexington Leader; the story of the Herald begins in 1870 with a paper known as the Lexington Daily Press. In 1895, a descendant of that paper was first published as the Morning Herald to be renamed the Lexington Herald in 1905. Meanwhile, in 1888 a group of Fayette County Republicans began publication of a competing afternoon paper named the Kentucky Leader, which became known as the Lexington Leader in 1901.
In 1937, the owner of the Leader, John Stoll, purchased the Herald. The papers continued as independent entities for 46 years. Despite the common ownership, the two papers had different editorial stances; the two newspapers published a combined Sunday edition. In 1973, both were purchased by Knight Newspapers, which merged with Ridder Publications to form Knight Ridder the following year. A decade in 1983, the Herald and Leader merged to form today's Lexington Herald-Leader. In 1985, publisher Creed Black allowed reporters to publish a series of articles which exposed widespread corruption within the University of Kentucky's Wildcats men's basketball team. From 1979 to 1991, the paper was edited by John Carroll, who went on to edit The Baltimore Sun and The Los Angeles Times. On July 11, 2001, the paper reduced four positions due to declining advertising revenue and higher newsprint costs. Long-time columnists Don Edwards and Dick Burdette took voluntary early retirements but are still published as contributing writers.
The job eliminations were a cumulation of efforts that started in May when the workforce was reduced by 15 positions. On July 4, 2004, the newspaper, in an effort to apologize for failing to cover the Civil Rights Movement, published a front-page package of stories and archive photos documenting Lexingtonians involved in the movement; the stories, written by Linda B. Blackford and Linda Minch, received international attention, including a story on the front page of The New York Times, it received an annual professional award by the Kentucky chapter of the Special Libraries Association. On June 27, 2006, the McClatchy Company purchased Knight Ridder for $4 billion in cash and stock on June 27, 2006, it assumed Knight Ridder debt of $2 billion. McClatchy sold 12 Knight Ridder papers; the Herald-Leader's new office and production plant facility was completed in September 1980 at a cost of $23 million. It was a 158,990 square feet structure that featured 14 Goss Metro offset presses that had the capacity to produce 600,000 newspapers in a typical week.
The plant is on a 6-acre lot at the corner of Midland. The $23 million cost was divided into $7,804,000 for architecture, $750,000 for interiors and $8,500,000 for production equipment and presses. In June 2016, it was announced that the Herald-Leader would cease its printing operations in Lexington, passing that role to Louisville-based Gannett Publishing Services; as a result of the move, 25 full-time and 4 part-time employees would be laid-off. It was announced that the plant would be put up for sale, with the Fayette County property valuation administrator assessing the property at $6.84 million for tax purposes. The first issue of the Louisville-printed Herald-Leader published on August 1, 2016; the last issue of the Lexington Herald-Leader to be printed in Lexington was printed on July 31, 2016. It marked the end of 229 years of newspaper printing in Lexington; the Herald-Leader building has been proposed as a new city hall for the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government. Remaining staff will be relocated to a smaller office space upon the sale of the building.
The Courier-Journal – Kentucky's largest newspaper List of newspapers in Kentucky Lexington Herald-Leader official site Lexington Herald-Leader mobile site The McClatchy Company's subsidiary profile of the Lexington Herald-Leader John C. Wyatt Lexington Herald-Leader photographs collection, University of Kentucky Libraries Special Collections Research Center James Edwin Weddle photographic collection, University of Kentucky Libraries Special Collections Research Center
Extra (U.S. TV program)
Extra is an American syndicated television newsmagazine, distributed by Warner Bros. Television Distribution and premiered on September 5, 1994; the program serves as a straight rundown of news headlines and gossip throughout the entertainment industry, providing coverage of events and celebrities. As of 2017, the program's weekday broadcasts are anchored by Mario Lopez and Renee Bargh; the series was developed in the fall of 1993, for a planned launch during the 1994–95 television season. The program was developed under the working title Entertainment News Television. Television and Telepictures Productions to bar them from using the title. C. Nielsen ratings diary homes which would have seen their panelists writing down the wrong program they watched; the program was anchored by Dave Nemeth and Arthel Neville. Neville joined the program after being anchor at New Orleans ABC affiliate WVUE-TV and a three-year run on Extreme Close-Up, a one-on-one celebrity interview show that she co-produced for E!
Entertainment TV. Extra was distributed by Time-Telepictures Television, a joint venture between Time Inc. and Telepictures – both of which were owned at the time by Time Warner –, absorbed by Telepictures in 2003. Nemeth and Neville were both replaced by Brad Goode and Libby Weaver on June 10, 1996 for the remainder of Season 2, Season 3, before Weaver was replaced by Maureen O'Boyle in July 1997 during Season 3. O'Boyle took over as main anchor of the program in September 1997 during season 4 premiere. In September 2002, Telepictures debuted Celebrity Justice; the program, hosted and executive produced by Harvey Levin, had originated as a segment featured on Extra that focused on legal issues involving celebrities and high-profile court cases with little to no relation to the entertainment industry. Following Gibbons's departure in 2004, Extra switched to a two-anchor format for the weekday editions with Sugar Ray lead singer/founder Mark McGrath and correspondent Dayna Devon taking over as presenters.
In September 2007, the production staff of Extra began handling production responsibilities for CW Now, a weekly lifestyle newsmagazine that aired as part of The CW's Sunday night lineup. On July 28, 2008, Telepictures announced that actor Mario Lopez would take over as solo host of the program. On September 13, 2010, the date of the program's 17th-season premiere, Extra became the fourth American syndicated newsmagazine to begin broadcasting in high definition, after Entertainment Tonight, The Insider and Access Hollywood. On August 4, 2011, Telepictures announced that Maria Menounos would join Extra as Lopez's co-host, as part of an overall deal with Warner Bros./Telepictures that included a role as a contributor for the CW talk show Dr. Drew's Lifechangers and development of television program projects. On September 9, 2013, at the beginning of its 20th season, Extra moved its taping location to Universal Studios Hollywood and its CityWalk. News, actress/producer Tracey Edmonds and SportsNation-turned-Fox Sports Live co-host Charissa Thompson were added to replace her as co-hosts.
Edmonds left in June 2017. Thompson left at the end of the program's 23rd season. On August 7, 2017, Telepictures announced co-host changes in preparation for the program's 24th season: former host/correspondent Tanika Ray would return to Extra as weekday co-host, with correspondents A. J. Calloway and current weekend edition host Renee Bargh becoming weekday co-hosts. All join fellow host Mario Lopez. British TV personality Mark Wright will join as weekday correspondent. Jerry Penacoli serves