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Pre-Socratic philosophy

Pre-Socratic philosophy is ancient Greek philosophy before Socrates and schools contemporary to Socrates that were not influenced by him. In Classical antiquity, the pre-Socratic philosophers were called physiologoi, their inquiries spanned the workings of the natural world as well as human society and religion, seeking explanations based on natural principles rather than the actions of supernatural gods. They introduced to the West the notion of the world as a kosmos, an ordered arrangement that could be understood via rational inquiry. Significant figures include: the Milesians, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Democritus, among others. Modern interest in early Greek philosophy can be traced back to 1573, when Henri Estienne collected a number of pre-Socratic fragments in Poesis Philosophica. Hermann Diels popularized the term "pre-Socratic" in Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker in 1903. However, the term "pre-Sokratic" was in use as early as George Grote's Plato and the Other Companions of Sokrates in 1865.

Edouard Zeller was important in dividing thought before and after Socrates. Major analyses of pre-Socratic thought have been made by Gregory Vlastos, Jonathan Barnes, Friedrich Nietzsche in his Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks, it may sometimes be difficult to determine the actual line of argument some pre-Socratics used in supporting their particular views. While most of them produced significant texts, none of the texts have survived in complete form. All, available are quotations, testimonies by philosophers and historians, the occasional textual fragment; the pre-Socratic philosophers rejected traditional mythological explanations of the phenomena they saw around them in favor of more rational explanations. Aristotle was the first to call them physiologoi or physikoi and differentiate them from the earlier theologoi, or mythologoi who attributed these phenomena to various gods. Diogenes Laërtius divides the physiologoi into two groups: Ionian, led by Anaximander, Italiote, led by Pythagoras.

These philosophers asked questions about "the essence of things": From where does everything come? From what is everything created? How do we explain the plurality of things found in nature? How might we describe nature mathematically? Others concentrated on defining problems and paradoxes that became the basis for mathematical and philosophic study. Philosophers rejected many of the answers the early Greek philosophers provided, but continued to place importance on their questions. Furthermore, the cosmologies proposed by them have been updated by developments in science. Coming from the eastern or western fringes of the Greek world, the pre-Socratics were the forerunners of what became Western philosophy as well as natural philosophy, which developed into the natural sciences, their efforts were directed to the investigation of the ultimate basis and essential nature of the external world. They sought the material principle of things, the method of their origin and disappearance; as the first philosophers, they emphasized the rational unity of things and rejected supernatural explanations, instead seeking natural principles at work in the world and human society.

The pre-Socratics saw the world as a kosmos, an ordered arrangement that could be understood via rational inquiry. Pre-Socratic thinkers present a discourse concerned with key areas of philosophical inquiry such as being, the primary stuff of the universe, the structure and function of the human soul, the underlying principles governing perceptible phenomena, human knowledge and morality. Only fragments of the original writings of the pre-Socratics survive; the knowledge we have of them derives from accounts - known as doxography - of philosophical writers, some early theologians. The translation of Peri Physeos as On Nature may be misleading: the "on" gives the idea of an "erudite dissertation", while "peri" may refer in fact to a "circular approach"; the first pre-Socratic philosophers were from Miletus on the western coast of Anatolia. Thales is reputedly the father of Greek philosophy. Next came Anaximander, the first writer on philosophy, he assumed as the first principle an undefined, unlimited substance without qualities, out of which the primary opposites and cold, moist and dry, became differentiated.

His younger contemporary, took for his principle air, conceiving it as modified, by thickening and thinning, into fire, clouds and earth. The practical side of philosophy was introduced by Pythagoras. Regarding the world as perfect harmony, dependent on number, he aimed at inducing humankind to lead a harmonious life, his doctrine was adopted and extended by a large following of Pythagoreans who gathered at his school in south Italy in the town of Croton. His followers included Philolaus, Alcmaeon of Croton, Archytas (428-347 B

Railway electrification in Australia

Electrification of Australian railways began with the Melbourne and Sydney suburban lines. Melbourne suburban lines were electrified from 1919 using 1.5 kV DC. Sydney suburban lines were electrified from 1926 using the same system. Australian systems used 25 kV AC electrification, introduced in the 1950s in France, by the 1980s become the international standard. Hence they differed from earlier systems, although as each suburban system is centred on a main city and are not interconnected this is not a problem. Suburban systems were Brisbane from 1979, Perth from 1992 and Adelaide from 2014. There has been extensive non-urban electrification in Queensland using 25 kV AC during the 1980s for coal routes. Electrification of Melbourne routes was considered as far back as 1896, in 1903 and 1907. In 1908 British engineer Charles Merz of Merz and McLellan recommended a 200 km system to St Kilda, Port Melbourne and Broadmeadows using 800 V DC from a third rail; however his 1912 report recommended 1500 V DC from overhead catenaries, although at the time the system was not used anywhere in the world.

This proposal was approved, his firm was appointed to supervise the work.. Conversion to DC was by rotary converters, but Melbourne extensions in the 1920s from Croydon and Ringwood used mercury arc rectifiers. Electrification of the Sydney network had been recommended by a Royal Commission in 1909, in the Bradfield plan of 1915. John Bradfield recommended using 1500 V DC. By this time the 1500 V DC system was used on railways in England, the Netherlands and America; the same system was recommended for the Brisbane suburban system in 1947-1950 although this proposal was abandoned in 1959. In the 1950s with the standardisation of Australian industrial power generation at 50 Hz, Melbourne substations were converted to 50 Hz within the life of the 25 Hz power station at Newport (originally of 60,000 kW output. In Sydney the substations were converted between 1960 and 1963. Rail electrification in Sydney commenced in 1926—see Sydney electrification. From 1956 regional lines around Sydney to a radius of 160 km were progressively electrified.

Now the entire Sydney metropolitan area, the intercity lines to Kiama and Newcastle are electrified, are served by EMU trainsets. Electrification is at 1.5 kV DC. Queensland has the most extensive electrification in Australia, it includes the entire Brisbane metropolitan area, the North Coast Line to Rockhampton and the central Queensland coalfields. Electrification is at 25 kV AC. Rail electrification in South Australia did not become a reality until the 21st century. Plans were announced in 2008 to have all four suburban lines electrified by 2018, but were delayed and scrapped; the Seaford and Tonsley lines were the first to be electrified with services commencing in 2014, while original plans to electrify the Gawler line first were delayed in various forms until partial electrification was finalised, due to start construction in late 2018. Electrification is at 25 kV AC. There are no electrified railway lines in Tasmania. Australia's first rail electrification was opened in Melbourne in 1919 - see Railways in Melbourne Electrification.

Electrification is limited to the Melbourne metropolitan area. Previous electrification to Traralgon was removed in 1987. Electrification was subsequently truncated to Pakenham in Melbourne south east. Electrification is at 1.5 kV DC. The first line in Perth was electrified in 1991—see Transperth Trains. Electrification is at 25 kV AC. There are no electrified railway lines in the Northern Territory. Rail transport in Australia Churchman, Geoffrey B.. Railway Electrification in Australia and New Zealand. Wellington & Sydney: IPL Books. ISBN 0-908876-79-3

History of Tenrikyo

The History of Tenrikyo concerns the social and institutional development of Tenrikyo, from the day the teachings were founded by Miki Nakayama in October 26, 1838, to the present day. Since the early 1860s, Miki Nakayama had asked her followers to form confraternities. One of the earliest examples was the Shinmei confraternity, formed sometime in April 1878. From the 1870s, Miki Nakayama and her followers were being persecuted by local government authorities and from members of established religions for expressing their beliefs and performing the Service. To put an end to the persecution, various followers sought for recognition from different religious and state authorities though this was against the wishes of Nakayama. Tenrikyo could not apply as a independent religion because Japanese law during the Meiji period did not grant civil authorization to churches outside of the established traditions, which at the time were Shinto and Christianity. In 1880, Nakayama's eldest son, Shuji traveled to the Jifuku Temple at the foot of Mount Kongō, a Buddhist temple belonging to the Shingon sect.

The Jifuku Temple agreed to Shuji's request to establish a church, on September 22, 1880, the "Tenrin-O-Kosha" church was formally inaugurated with a Buddhist fire rite and sermons by Buddhist priests. The Meisei confraternity spread Nakayama's teachings as moral philosophy and thus escaped persecution. Following this example, a petition was submitted on May 9, 1884 to establish an organization named, "Tenrin-O-Sha: Institute for the Study of Practical Ethics." Thought the office denied the request because of the lack authority to grant the request, an office called "Tenrin-O-Sha" was opened in Osaka. In March and April 1885, the followers approached the Shinto Headquarters for the appointment of Shinnosuke Nakayama and nine others as religious instructors. On May 22, Shinnosuke was appointed as a religious instructor, the next day, May 23, the other religious instructors were appointed, permission was granted for the establishment of a sixth-degree church to be directly supervised by the Shinto Headquarters.

On June 2, a letter accepting these appointments was sent to the Shinto authorities. The first attempt to obtain civil authorization happened on April 29, 1885, when the followers filed a petition to the governor of Osaka for permission to form the Tenrikyo Church. Attached with the petition were four texts – The Twelve Songs, Ofudesaki Part IV, Ofudesaki Part X, the Story of Creation; the request was denied. On July 3, the followers filed a second petition to the governor of Osaka, which read, "Request to Establish the Shinto Tenrikyo Church." Again, the request was denied. On January 26, 1887 by the lunar calendar, the foundress of Tenrikyo, Nakayama Miki, died at around two o'clock in the afternoon, after a performance of the Service. On February 25, 1887, a funeral for Nakayama Miki was conducted, with over 10,000 people in attendance, she was buried in the graveyard at Zenpuku-ji, along with other members of the Nakayama family. However, in 1892, Tenrikyo followers, led by Nakayama Shinnosuke, constructed a new cemetery on Mount Toyoda, the ceremony for her reburial was held on December 13.

The reburial ceremony was attended by over a hundred thousand people. A petition for the legal recognition of a church was sent to the government office of Tokyo prefecture. On April 10, 1888, the governor of Tokyo approved this petition, establishing Tenrikyo Church Headquarters as a "sixth class" church belonging to the Shinto Main Bureau; the legal authorization removed the threat of suppression and allowed followers to seek permission to establish branch churches and to gain official recognition for missionary work. In 1888, Koriyama and Yamana were established as the first two branch churches under Tenrikyo Church Headquarters. On April 6, 1891, the Shinto Main Bureau changed Tenrikyo's designation from a "sixth class" church to a "first class" church; the membership rose in the first decade of the Headquarters' existence. In 1892, the number of Tenrikyo followers had reached over one million, a thirty-fold increase in membership in five years. By December 1896, Tenrikyo had 3,137,113 members belonging to 1,078 churches, there were 19,061 ministers.

This growth invited negative reactions from Buddhist institutions, which were concerned about losing adherents, from newspapers such as Chuo Shinbun, Yorozu Chouho, Ni-Roku Shinbun, who labeled the religion as "anti-social." On April 6, 1896, the Home Ministry issued "Directive No. 12," which ordered strict and secretive surveillance over Tenrikyo Church Headquarters under the pretense of maintaining and strengthening the state polity of Japan. Issues raised by authorities were the congregation of both men and women together, the obstruction of medical treatment, the alleged policy of enforced donations; the Tenrikyo leaders complied to the state demands in several ways. They changed several aspects of their prayer ritual, known to adherents as the Service; the name of the Tenrikyo deity Tenri-O-no-Mikoto was changed to "Tenri-no-Okami." Tenrikyo Church Headquarters' conformity with the state demands resulted in a dual structure of the Tenrikyo faith, where on the surface, Tenrikyo complied with the state demands, while adherents disregarded those changes and maintained the teachings and rites as taught by Miki Nakayama.

In 1899 the Shinto Main Bureau advised the Tenrikyo Church Headquarters officials about the possibility of official recognition as an independent religion (independent meaning to be classified directly under the Meiji