Pre-existence, beforelife, or premortal existence refers to the belief that each individual human soul existed before mortal conception, at some point before birth enters or is placed into the body. Concepts of pre-existence can encompass either the belief that the soul came into existence at some time prior to conception or the belief that the soul is eternal. Alternative positions are traducianism and creationism, which both hold that the individual human soul does not come into existence until conception, it is to be distinguished from preformation, about physical existence and applies to all living things. Ancient Greek thought and Islam affirm pre-existence, but it is denied in Christianity. Plato believed in the pre-existence of the soul, he thought that we are born with knowledge from a previous life, subdued at birth and must be relearned. He saw all attainment of knowledge not as acquiring new information, but as remembering known information. Before we were born, we existed in a perfect world.
A concept of pre-existence was advanced by a second and third-century church father. Origen believed. Church Fathers Tertullian and Jerome held to traducianism and creationism and pre-existence was condemned as heresy in the Second Council of Constantinople in AD 553. Origen quoted Romans 9:11-14 as evidence for his position: For the children being not yet born, neither having done any good or evil, that the purpose of God according to election might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth; as it is written, Jacob have I loved. What shall we say then? Is there unrighteousness with God? God forbid. Origen argued that God could not love Jacob and hate Esau until Jacob had done something worthy of love and Esau had done something worthy of hatred, this passage only means that Jacob and Esau had not yet done good or evil in this life and their conduct before this life was the reason why Esau would serve Jacob, he rejected the position that God loves or hates a soul based on its inclination toward good or evil, before the soul commits a good or evil act.
Origen quoted Jeremiah 1:5: Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee. Those who reject pre-existence, which would be every Christian denomination that accepts the conclusions of the Second Council of Constantinople see Jeremiah 1:5 as another passage about God's foreknowledge; this ecumenical Council explicitly stated "If anyone asserts the fabulous pre-existence of souls, shall assert the monstrous restoration which follows from it: let him be anathema." This would make rejection of Origen's doctrine to be the majority Christian opinion to the present day. The belief that human souls choose good or evil independently of God's will, most found among the more extreme Arminian Christians, means that God does not determine the will of each soul. However, ex nihilo creation, a belief commonly found among Arminians, means that God determined everything that exists, including the will of each soul, without drawing on anything but himself; the question is definitively resolved in Calvinism by asserting that all souls act according to God's sovereign will, in Mormonism by asserting that human souls have always existed and are co-eternal with God.
The concept of premortal existence is an fundamental doctrine of Mormonism. In the faith’s eponymous text, the Book of Mormon, published on March 26, 1830, a pre-mortal Christ explains individuals were created in the beginning in the image of Christ. Further, a prophet named Jacob articulates the belief that our spirits participated in the conflict between God and Lucifer, “an angel of light,” and could have become evil “like unto him, we become devils”. By inference, those born into life instead chose God as a pre-requisite to being born; this appears to be the justification for Jacob’s teaching that God’s atonement would redeem all those who died without knowledge of the law. Jacob and writers in the Book of Mormon express the teaching that Christ’s sacrifice was intended to allow all mankind the possibility of return to that God who had given them life pre-mortal spiritual life. In 1833, early in the Latter Day Saint movement, its founder Joseph Smith taught that human souls are co-eternal with God the Father just as Jesus is co-eternal with God the Father, "Man was in the beginning with God.
Intelligence, or the light of truth, was not created or made, neither indeed can be."In 1844, Smith elaborated on this idea in his King Follett discourse:...the soul—the mind of man—the immortal spirit. Where did it come from? All learned doctors of divinity say that God created it in the beginning. We say that God Himself is a self-existing being... Man does exist upon the same principles... does not say in the Hebrew that God created the spirit of man. It says, "God made man out of the earth and put into him Adam's spirit, so became a living body." The mind or the intelligence which man possesses is co-equal with God himself... Is it logical to say that the intelligence of spirits is immortal, yet that it has a beginning? The intelligence of spirits had no beginning, neither will it have an en
Coplanar waveguide is a type of electrical planar transmission line which can be fabricated using printed circuit board technology, is used to convey microwave-frequency signals. On a smaller scale, coplanar waveguide transmission lines are built into monolithic microwave integrated circuits. Conventional coplanar waveguide consists of a single conducting track printed onto a dielectric substrate, together with a pair of return conductors, one to either side of the track. All three conductors are on the same side of the substrate, hence are coplanar; the return conductors are separated from the central track by a small gap, which has an unvarying width along the length of the line. Away from the central conductor, the return conductors extend to an indefinite but large distance, so that each is notionally a semi-infinite plane. Conductor-backed coplanar waveguide is a common variant which has a ground plane covering the entire back-face of the substrate; the ground-plane serves as a third return conductor.
Coplanar waveguide was invented in 1969 by Cheng P. Wen as a means by which non-reciprocal components such as gyrators and isolators could be incorporated in planar transmission line circuits; the electromagnetic wave carried by a coplanar waveguide exists in the dielectric substrate, in the air above it. In general, the dielectric constant of the substrate will be different than that of the air, so that the wave is travelling in an inhomogeneous medium. In consequence CPW will not support a true TEM wave. However, these longitudinal components are small and the mode is better described as quasi-TEM. Nonreciprocal gyromagnetic devices depend on the microwave signal presenting a rotating magnetic field to a statically magnetized ferrite body. CPW is designed to produce just such a rotating magnetic field in the two slots between the central and side conductors; the dielectric substrate has no direct effect on the magnetic field of a microwave signal travelling along the CPW line. For the magnetic field, the CPW is symmetrical in the plane of the metalization, between the substrate side and the air side.
Currents flowing along parallel paths on opposite faces of each conductor are subject to the same inductance, the overall current tends to be divided between the two faces. Conversely, the substrate does affect the electric field, so that the substrate side contributes a larger capacitance across the slots than does the air side. Electric charge can accumulate or be depleted more on the substrate face of the conductors than on the air face; as a result, at those points on the wave where the current reverses direction, charge will spill over the edges of the metalization between the air face and the substrate face. This secondary current over the edges gives rise to a longitudinal, magnetic field in each of the slots, in quadrature with the vertical magnetic field associated with the main current along the conductors. If the dielectric constant of the substrate is much greater than unity the magnitude of the longitudinal magnetic field approaches that of the vertical field, so that the combined magnetic field in the slots approaches circular polarization.
Coplanar waveguides play an important role in the field of solid state quantum computing, e.g. for the coupling of microwave photons to a superconducting qubit. In particular the research field of circuit quantum electrodynamics was initiated with coplanar waveguide resonators as crucial elements that allow for high field strength and thus strong coupling to a superconducting qubit by confining a microwave photon to a volume, much smaller than the cube of the wavelength. To further enhance this coupling, superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators with low losses were applied. Coplanar resonators can be employed as quantum buses to couple multiple qubits to each other. Another application of coplanar waveguides in solid state research is for studies involving magnetic resonance, e.g. for electron spin resonance spectroscopy or for magnonics. Coplanar waveguide resonators have been employed to characterize the material properties of superconducting thin films. Waveguide Microstrip Stripline Post-wall waveguide Telegrapher's equations Via fence
Indus University Indus Institute of Higher Education, is a University in Pakistan. It is chartered by the government of Sindh and ranked with the top most category "W" by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. In 2013 CIEC of Pakistan placed Indus University in list of 5 Star Universities of Pakistan. Awarded Degree awarding status awarded by the Government of Sindh; the Indus Institute of Higher Education Bill, 2004 have been passed by the Provincial Assembly of Sindh on Monday 28 November 2005 and assented by the Government of Sindh on 7 January 2006, In 2012 Sindh Government upgraded Indus Institute of Higher Education to Indus University. Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad Recognized as a "W" Category Institute. Education & Literacy Department, Government of Sindh, Karachi. Virtual University of Pakistan, Ministry of Science & Technology, Government of Pakistan Board of Intermediate Education, Government of Sindh. Registered with Sindh Board of Technical Education. Executive District Officer- Colleges, City Government, Karachi.
Pakistan Computer Bureau, Islamabad Government of Pakistan. Pakistan Engineering Council. University of Central Lancashire, UK Faculty of Business Administration and Commerce Ph. D M. Phil M. S M. B. A B. B. A B. Com Faculty of Design Bachelor of Fashion Design Bachelor of Interior Design Bachelor of Textile Design Faculty of Engineering B. E Electrical Engineering B. E Electrical Engineering Faculty of Sciences B. S Faculty of Social Sciences B. Ed M. EdFaculty of Information, Science & Technology B. S Bachelor of Technology M. Tech. Indus University has signed an Memorandum of Understanding with more than 40 International Universities. Collaborative arrangements help the resident and non-resident entities in numerous ways and act as a gateway to develop close ties and collaboration with other countries. Quality Enhancement Cell aims to strengthen the higher education sector of Pakistan by setting up an exemplary Quality Assurance mechanism that shall be congruent with the national and international practices.
The Quality Enhancement Cell has been established at Indus University in the year 2010. It started functioning under the supervision of Muhammad Ahmed Amin, Vice Chancellor of Indus University; the programmes being offered by three departments namely. Indus University
Nadia Anjuman was a poet from Afghanistan. In 1980, Nadia Anjuman Herawi was born in the city of Herat in northwestern Afghanistan, she was one of six children, raised during one of Aghanistan's more recent periods of tumult. In September 1995, the Taliban captured Herat and ousted the then-Governor of the Province, Ismail Khan. With the new Taliban government in power, women had their liberties drastically restrained. A gifted student in her tenth year of schooling, Anjuman now faced a future with no hope for education, as the Taliban shut the schools for girls and denied any instruction to her and her peers; as a teenager, Anjuman rallied with other local women and began attending an underground educational circle called the Golden Needle Sewing School, organized by the young women and mentored by Herat University professor Muhammad Ali Rahyab in 1996. Members of the Golden Needle School would gather three times a week under the guise of learning how to sew, while in actuality the meetings enabled them to hear lectures from Herat University professors and lead discussions on literature.
If caught, the punishment was imprisonment and hanging. In order to protect themselves, the attendants had their children play outside the building and act as lookouts, they would alert the women of approaching religious police, at which point the students would hide their books and take up needlework. The program continued through the entirety of the Taliban governmental rule; the Golden Needle School was not Anjuman's only creative outlet. She decided to approach Professor Rahyab, in hopes of having him mentor her in writing and literature. In a time when women were not permitted to leave their homes alone, Rahyab began to tutor the sixteen-year-old Anjuman, helped her find the voice that would soon captivate thousands of readers, he exposed her to many writers that would influence her work including Hafiz Shirazi, Bidel Dehlavi, Forough Farrokhzad, others. The citizens of Herat suffered the abuses of the Taliban for six years before their purported liberation by the United States-backed Northern Alliance in 2001.
Anjuman was 21 and, as she was free to pursue an education and was accepted to Herat University, where she matriculated in 2002 in the department of Farsi Literature and Languages. While earning her degree in literature, Anjuman published a book of poetry entitled “Gul-e-dodi” which proved popular in Afghanistan and Iran. Anjuman's husband, Farid Ahmad Majid Neia, graduated from Herat University with a degree in literature and became the head of the library there. Anjuman's friends and supporters are of the opinion that Neia and his family believed her poetry to be a disgrace to their reputation. Anjuman continued to write despite, was set to publish a second volume of poetry in 2006 entitled “Yek sàbad délhoreh” which included poems expressing her isolation and sadness concerning her marital life. On November 4, 2005, Anjuman and her husband had an altercation. According to Neia, Anjuman wanted to go out and visit family and friends, a common practice during Eid al-Fitr. Neia said. Anjuman protested, they began to fight.
That night, Neia beat Anjuman until she was unconscious bruised, her head cut. Hours with Anjuman still unconscious, Neia took her to a hospital by rickshaw. Soon afterward, a senior police officer, Nisar Ahmad Paikar, stated that her husband had confessed to battering her following a row, but not to killing her. Anjuman is said to have vomited blood after having lost consciousness, which doctors believed was the most cause of death. Neia claimed that Anjuman had taken poison after their row and had asked him to tell family and friends that she had died of a heart attack. Neia and his family barred doctors from carrying out an autopsy, so no definitive evidence of the actual cause of death was found. Neia and his mother were both arrested for the possible murder of Anjuman. Neia was convicted of having murdered Anjuman, for which he was incarcerated. Tribal elders in Herat began to press Anjuman's ailing father to forgive Neia for her death, in order to shorten Neia's prison sentence. With the promise that Neia would remain in prison for five years, Anjuman's father relented, Anjuman's death was deemed a suicide by the Afghan courts -- and Neia was released just one month later.
Her father died shortly thereafter according to Anjuman's brother. Anjuman was survived by a six-month-old son, now in Neia's custody. Both "Gole Doudi" and "Yek Sabad Delhoreh" were first published in Afghanistan. "Gole Doudi" has sold over 3,000 copies. The United Nations condemned the killing soon afterwards, their spokesperson, Adrian Edwards, said that "he death of Nadia Anjuman, as reported, is indeed tragic and a great loss to Afghanistan.... It needs to be investigated and anyone found responsible needs to be dealt with in a proper court of law." Paikar confirmed. According to friends and family, Anjuman disgrace her husband's family through her poetry, which described the oppression of Afghan women. Diana Arterian has translated several of Nadia Anjuman's poems, in collaboration with Marina Omar. Excerpts can be read in Asymptote, The Brooklyn Rail, Circumference, Ex
Samsu-iluna was the seventh king of the founding Amorite dynasty of Babylon, ruling from 1750 BC to 1712 BC, or from 1686 to 1648 BC. He was the successor of Hammurabi by an unknown mother, his reign was marked by the violent uprisings of areas conquered by his father and the abandonment of several important cities. When Hammurabi rose to power in the city of Babylon, he controlled a small region directly around that city, was surrounded by vastly more powerful opponents on all sides. By the time he died, he had conquered Sumer, Eshnunna and Mari making himself master of Mesopotamia, he had significantly weakened and humiliated Elam and the Gutians. While defeated, these states were not destroyed. Within a few years of his death and Assyria had withdrawn from Babylon's orbit and revolutions had started in all the conquered territories; the task of dealing with these troubles—and others—fell to Samsu-iluna. Though he campaigned tirelessly and seems to have won the king proved unable to stop the empire's unwinding.
Through it all, however, he did manage to keep the core of his kingdom intact, this allowed the city of Babylon to cement its position in history. In the 9th year of Samsu-iluna's reign a man calling himself Rim-sin raised a rebellion against Babylonian authority in Larsa which spread to include some 26 cities, among them Uruk, Ur, Isin and Kisurra in the south, Eshnunna. in the north. Samsu-iluna seems to have had the upper-hand militarily. Within a year he dealt the coalition a shattering blow which took the northern cities out of the fight. In the aftermath the king of Eshnunna, was dragged to Babylon and executed by strangulation. Over the course of the next 4 years, Samsu-iluna's armies tangled with Rim-sin's forces up and down the borderlands between Babylon and Elam. Samsu-iluna attacked Ur, pulled down its walls and put the city to the sack, he did the same to Uruk, Isin as well. Larsa itself was defeated and Rim-sin II was killed, thus ending the struggle; the floodgates had opened. A few years a pretender calling himself Ilum-ma-ili, claiming descent from the last king of Isin, raised another pan-Sumerian revolt.
Samsu-iluna marched an army to Sumer, the two met in a battle which proved indecisive. Samsu-iluna seems to have taken a defensive approach after this; this proved fruitless. Eshnunna had not reconciled itself to Babylonian control either, because in Samsu-iluna's 20th year it rebelled again. Samsu-iluna marched his army through the region and after some bloodshed, constructed the fortress of Dur-samsuiluna to keep them in line; this seems to have done the trick, as documents see Samsu-iluna take a more conciliatory stance repairing infrastructure and restoring waterways. As if this weren't enough, both Assyria and Elam used the general chaos to re-assert their independence. Kuturnahunte I of Elam, seizing the opportunity left by Samsu-iluna's attack on Uruk, marched into the city and plundered it, among the items looted was a statue of Inanna which wouldn't be returned until the reign of Ashurbanipal 11 centuries later. In Assyria, a native vice regent named Puzur-Sin ejected Asinum, a vassal king of his fellow Amorite Hammurabi.
A native king Ashur-dugul seized the throne, a period of civil war in Assyria ensued. Samsu-Iluna seems to have been powerless to intervene, a king named Adasi, restored a stable native dynasty in Assyria, removing any vestages of Amorite-Babylonian influenceIn the end, Samsu-iluna was left with a kingdom, only fractionally larger than the one his father had started out with 50 years prior; the status of Eshnunna is difficult to determine with any accuracy, while it may have remained in Babylonian hands the city was exhausted and its political influence at an end. Samsu-iluna's campaigns might not have been responsible for the havoc wreaked upon Uruk and Ur, his loss of Sumer might have been as much a calculated retreat as defeat. Records in the cities of Ur and Uruk stop after the 10th year of Samsu-iluna's reign, their priests continued writing, but from more northerly cities. Larsa's records end about this time. Records keep going in Nippur and Isin until Samsu-iluna's 29th year, cease there as well.
These breaks are observed in the archeological record, where evidence points to these cities being or abandoned for hundreds of years, until well into the Kassite period. Reasons for this are hard to come by; the constant warfare cannot have helped matters, but Samsu-iluna appears to have campaigned just as hard in the north, that region was thriving during the period. The rise of Babylon marks a definite end to Sumerian cultural dominance of Mesopotamia and a shift to Akkadian for government and popular writing.
Credo quia absurdum is a Latin phrase that means "I believe because it is absurd" misattributed to Tertullian in his De Carne Christi. It is believed to be a paraphrasing of Tertullian's "prorsus credibile est, quia ineptum est" which means "It is certain because it is absurd", consistent with an anti-Marcionite context. Early modern and Enlightenment rhetoric against Catholicism and religion more broadly resulted in this phrase being changed to "I believe because it is absurd", displaced it from an anti-Marcionite and to a religious context; the original phrase, before being transmuted through Enlightenment rhetoric to its modern form "I believe because it is absurd", appeared in Tertullian's work De Carne Christi, read by scholars as "I believe because it is unfitting". The context is a defense of the tenets of orthodox Christianity against docetism: et mortuus est dei filius: credibile est, quia ineptum est. et sepultus resurrexit: certum est, quia impossibile. and the Son of God died, it is credible, because it is unfitting.
The consensus of Tertullian scholars is that the reading "I believe because it is absurd" diverges from Tertullian's own thoughts, given his placed priority on reasoned argument and rationality in his writings. In the same work, Tertullian writes "But here again, I must have some reasons." Elsewhere, he writes that the new Christian “should believe nothing but that nothing should be rashly believed.” Scholars note further examples of. The meaning of the phrase may relate to 1 Corinthians 1:17–31, where something foolish to a human may be a member of God's wisdom, or Tertullian may be repeating an idea rehearsed in Aristotle's Rhetoric, where Aristotle argues that something is more credibly true if it is an incredible claim, on the reason that it would have not been made up if it were so incredible to the human mind. Eric Osborn concludes that “the classic formula credo quia absurdum does not represent the thought of Tertullian." No notice was given to this maxim throughout the classical and medieval periods, the maxim first began to receive attention and undergo change during the early modern era.
In 1521, the humanist scholar Beatus Rhenanus produced an edition of Tertullian's De carne Christi. The only French translation of this work to appear in the 17th century was Louis Giry's 1661 edition. According to Peter Harrison, the first time that the maxim was quoted was in Thomas Browne's influential religious classic Religio Medici, ensuring that the maxim received a wide audience at this time, Browne shifted the context of Tertullian's phrase from a discourse against Marcion to personal faith, shifted the wording of the phrase from its original "It is certain, because it is impossible" to "I believe, because it is impossible." Many of Browne's contemporaries criticized him and Tertullian for this maxim, including Henry More, Edward Stillingfleet, Robert Boyle, John Locke. As Protestant anti-Catholic polemic and rhetoric grew, many writers began associating certain Catholic doctrines transubstantiation, with this maxim; the maxim was brought to a French audience through Pierre Bayle's influential 1697 Dictionnaire Historique et Critique, which catalogued controversies of philosophical and religious nature as well as historical events and persons related to them.
Voltaire, in his anonymously published Le Dîner du comte de Boulainvillier, took the maxim to the next step and shifted the phrase from "I believe because it is impossible" to "I believe because it is absurd", Voltaire attributed it to Augustine instead of Tertullian, a much more central figure in Christian history. The maxim would continue to be attributed to Augustine until Gaston de Flotte noted the original Latin and misattribution by Voltaire, the rhetorical appeal of the maxim was great enough that it continued to be used into the present day, including being used by figures like Sigmund Freud, Ernst Cassirer, Max Weber, Richard Dawkins, Jerry Coyne and Simon Blackburn's Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy; the phrase does not express the Catholic Faith, as explained by Pope Benedict XVI: "The Catholic Tradition, from the outset, rejected the so-called “fideism”, the desire to believe against reason. Credo quia absurdum is not a formula that interprets the Catholic faith."The phrase is thus sometimes associated with the doctrine of fideism, that is, "a system of philosophy or an attitude of mind, denying the power of unaided human reason to reach certitude, affirms that the fundamental act of human knowledge consists in an act of faith, the supreme criterion of certitude is authority.".
It has been used, though in different interpretations, by some existentialists. The phrase inspired a celebrated bon mot by H. L. Mencken: "Tertullian is credited with the motto Credo quia absurdum—'I believe because it is impossible'. Needless to say, he began life as a lawyer." It has been adopted as the motto for The Ancient and Honorable Order of E Clampus Vitus in modern times, was used as an example of zen in D. T. Suzuki's book, Introduction to Zen Buddhism: "A noted Christian Father of the early Middle Ages once exclaimed: "O poor Aristotle! Thou who has discovered for the heretics the art of dialectics, the art of building up and destroying, the art of discussing all things and accomplishing nothing!" So m