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Precognition called prescience, future vision, future sight is a claimed psychic ability to see events in the future. As with other paranormal phenomena, there is no accepted scientific evidence that precognition is a real effect and it is considered to be pseudoscience. Precognition appears to violate the principle of causality, that an effect cannot occur before its cause. Precognition has been believed in throughout history. Despite the lack of scientific evidence, many people believe it to be real. Since ancient times, precognition has been associated with trance and dream states involved in phenomena such as prophecy, fortune telling and second sight, as well as waking premonitions; these phenomena were accepted and reports have persisted throughout history, with most instances appearing in dreams. Such claims of seeing the future have never been without their sceptical critics. Aristotle carried out an inquiry into prophetic dreams in his On Divination in Sleep, he accepted that "it is quite conceivable that some dreams may be tokens and causes " but believed that "most dreams are, however, to be classed as mere coincidences...".

Where Democritus had suggested that emanations from future events could be sent back to the dreamer, Aristotle proposed that it was, the dreamer's sense impressions which reached forward to the event. The term "precognition" first appeared in the 17th century but did not come into common use among investigators until much later. An early investigation into claims of precognition was published by the missionary Fr. P. Boilat in 1883, he claimed to have put an unspoken question to an African witch-doctor. Contrary to his expectations, the witch-doctor gave him the correct answer without having heard the question. In the early 20th century J. W. Dunne, a British aeronautics engineer, experienced several dreams which he regarded as precognitive, he developed techniques to record and analyse them, identifying any correspondences between his future experiences and his recorded dreams. He reported his findings in his 1927 book An Experiment with Time. In it he alleges, he persuaded some friends to try the experiment on themselves, with mixed results.

Dunne concluded that precognitive elements in dreams are common and that many people unknowingly have them. He suggested that dream precognition did not reference any kind of future event, but the future experiences of the dreamer, he was led to this idea when he found that a dream of a volcanic eruption appeared to foresee not the disaster itself but his subsequent misreading of an inaccurate account in a newspaper. In 1932 he helped the Society for Psychical Research to conduct a more formal experiment, but he and the Society's lead researcher Theodore Besterman failed to agree on the significance of the results; the Philosopher C. D. Broad remarked that, "The only theory known to me which seems worth consideration is that proposed by Mr. Dunne in his Experiment with Time."In 1932 Charles Lindbergh's infant son was kidnapped and buried among trees. The psychologists Henry Murray and D. R. Wheeler tested precognitive dreams by inviting the public to report any dreams of the child. A total of 1,300 dreams were reported.

Only five percent envisioned the child dead and only 4 of the 1,300 envisioned the location of the grave as amongst trees. This number was no better than chance; the first ongoing and organized research program on precognition was instituted by Joseph Banks Rhine in the 1930s at Duke University's Parapsychology Laboratory. Rhine used a method of forced-choice matching in which participants guessed the order of a deck of 25 cards, each five of which bore one of five geometrical symbols. Although his results were positive and gained some academic acceptance, his methods were shown to be badly flawed and subsequent researchers using more rigorous procedures were unable to reproduce his results, his mathematics was sometimes flawed, the experiments were not double-blinded or necessarily single-blinded and some of the cards to be guessed were so thin that the symbol could be seen through the backing. Samuel G. Soal was described by Rhine as one of his harshest critics, running many similar experiments with wholly negative results.

However, from around 1940 he ran forced-choice ESP experiments in which a subject attempted to identify which of five animal pictures a subject in another room was looking at. Their performance on this task was at chance, but when the scores were matched with the card that came after the target card, three of the thirteen subjects showed a high hit rate. Rhine now described Soal's work as "a milestone in the field"; however analyses of Soal's findings, conducted several years concluded that the positive results were more the result of deliberate fraud. The controversy continued for many years more. In 1978 the statistician and paragnost Betty Markwick, while seeking to vindicate Soal, discovered that he had tampered with his data; the untainted experimental results showed no evidence of precognition. As more modern technology became available, more automated techniques of experimentation were developed that did not rely on hand-scoring of equivalence between targets and guesses, in which the targets could be more reliably and tested at random.

In 1969 Helmut Schmidt introduced the use of high-speed random event generators for precognition testing, experiments were conducted at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Resea

Christ's Entry Into Brussels in 1889

Christ's Entry Into Brussels in 1889 is an 1888 painting by James Ensor and is considered his most famous work and was a precursor to Expressionism. The painting was rejected by Les XX, not exhibited until 1929, it was shown at his studio in his lifetime. It was exhibited at the Royal Museum of Fine Arts, Antwerp from 1947 to 1983, Kunsthaus Zürich from 1983 to 1987, it was shown at a retrospective in 1976 at the Art Institute of Chicago, Guggenheim Museum. The painting is on permanent exhibition at the Getty Center in Los Angeles; the painting is one of just three selected by Stefan Jonsson to explicate the history of democracy and socialism over a period of two centuries, how "the masses" are perceived. "James Ensor: Christ's Entry into Brussels in 1889". Getty Publications. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2012


A column or pillar in architecture and structural engineering is a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below. In other words, a column is a compression member; the term column applies to a large round support with a capital and a base or pedestal, made of stone, or appearing to be so. A small wooden or metal support is called a post, supports with a rectangular or other non-round section are called piers. For the purpose of wind or earthquake engineering, columns may be designed to resist lateral forces. Other compression members are termed "columns" because of the similar stress conditions. Columns are used to support beams or arches on which the upper parts of walls or ceilings rest. In architecture, "column" refers to such a structural element that has certain proportional and decorative features. A column might be a decorative element not needed for structural purposes. A long sequence of columns joined by an entablature is known as a colonnade.

All significant Iron Age civilizations of the Near East and Mediterranean made some use of columns. In ancient Egyptian architecture as early as 2600 BC, the architect Imhotep made use of stone columns whose surface was carved to reflect the organic form of bundled reeds, like papyrus and palm. In Egyptian architecture faceted cylinders were common, their form is thought to derive from archaic reed-built shrines. Carved from stone, the columns were decorated with carved and painted hieroglyphs, ritual imagery and natural motifs. Egyptian columns are famously present in the Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, where 134 columns are lined up in sixteen rows, with some columns reaching heights of 24 metres. One of the most important type are the papyriform columns; the origin of these columns goes back to the 5th Dynasty. They are composed of lotus stems which are drawn together into a bundle decorated with bands: the capital, instead of opening out into the shape of a bellflower, swells out and narrows again like a flower in bud.

The base, which tapers to take the shape of a half-sphere like the stem of the lotus, has a continuously recurring decoration of stipules. Some of the most elaborate columns in the ancient world were those of the Persians the massive stone columns erected in Persepolis, they included double-bull structures in their capitals. The Hall of Hundred Columns at Persepolis, measuring 70 × 70 metres, was built by the Achaemenid king Darius I. Many of the ancient Persian columns are standing, some being more than 30 metres tall. Tall columns with bull's head capitals were used for porticoes and to support the roofs of the hypostylehall inspired by the ancient Egyptian precedent. Since the columns carried timber beams rather than stone, they could be taller and more spaced than Egyptian ones; the Minoans used whole tree-trunks turned upside down in order to prevent re-growth, stood on a base set in the stylobate and topped by a simple round capital. These were painted as in the most famous Minoan palace of Knossos.

The Minoans employed columns to create large open-plan spaces, light-wells and as a focal point for religious rituals. These traditions were continued by the Mycenaean civilization in the megaron or hall at the heart of their palaces; the importance of columns and their reference to palaces and therefore authority is evidenced in their use in heraldic motifs such as the famous lion-gate of Mycenae where two lions stand each side of a column. Being made of wood these early columns have not survived, but their stone bases have and through these we may see their use and arrangement in these palace buildings; the Egyptians and other civilizations used columns for the practical purpose of holding up the roof inside a building, preferring outside walls to be decorated with reliefs or painting, but the Ancient Greeks, followed by the Romans, loved to use them on the outside as well, the extensive use of columns on the interior and exterior of buildings is one of the most characteristic features of classical architecture, in buildings like the Parthenon.

The Greeks developed the classical orders of architecture, which are most distinguished by the form of the column and its various elements. Their Doric and Corinthian orders were expanded by the Romans to include the Tuscan and Composite orders. Columns, or at least large structural exterior ones, became much less significant in the architecture of the Middle Ages; the classical forms were abandoned in both Byzantine and Romanesque architecture in favour of more flexible forms, with capitals using various types of foliage decoration, in the West scenes with figures carved in relief. During the Romanesque period, builders continued to reuse and imitate ancient Roman columns wherever possible, they were decorated with mosaics. Renaissance architecture was keen to revive the classical vocabulary and styles, the informed use and variation of the classical orders remained fundamental to the training of architects throughout Baroque and Neo-classical architecture. Early columns were constructed of some out of a single piece of stone.

Monolithic columns are among the heaviest stones used in architecture. Other stone columns are created out of multiple sections of mortared or dry-fit together. In many classical sites, sectioned columns were carved with a centre hole or depression so that they could be pegged together, using sto

Clutching construction

In topology, a branch of mathematics, the clutching construction is a way of constructing fiber bundles vector bundles on spheres. Consider the sphere S n as the union of the upper and lower hemispheres D + n and D − n along their intersection, the equator, an S n − 1. Given trivialized fiber bundles with fiber F and structure group G over the two hemispheres given a map f: S n − 1 → G, glue the two trivial bundles together via f. Formally, it is the coequalizer of the inclusions S n − 1 × F → D + n × F ∐ D − n × F via ↦ ∈ D + n × F and ↦ ∈ D − n × F: glue the two bundles together on the boundary, with a twist, thus we have a map π n − 1 G → Fib F: clutching information on the equator yields a fiber bundle on the total space. In the case of vector bundles, this yields π n − 1 O → Vect k, indeed this map is an isomorphism; the above can be generalized by replacing D ± n and S n with any closed triad, that is, a space X, together with two closed subsets A and B whose union is X. A clutching map on A ∩ B gives a vector bundle on X.

Let p: M → N be a fibre bundle with fibre F. Let U be a collection of pairs such that q i: p − 1 → N × F is a local trivialization of p over U i ⊂ N. Moreover, we demand that the union of all the sets U i is N. Consider the space ∐ i U i × F modulo the equivalence relation ∈ U i × F is equivalent to ∈ U j × F if and only if U i ∩ U j ≠ ϕ and q i ∘ q j − 1 =. By design, the local trivializations q i give a fibrewise equivalence between this quotient space and the fibre bundle p. Consider the space ∐ i U i × Homeo ⁡ modulo the equivalence relation ∈ U i × Homeo ⁡ is equivalent to ( u j


Havilah refers to both a land and people in several books of the Bible. In one case, Havilah is associated with the Garden of Eden, that mentioned in the Book of Genesis: And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; the name of the first is Pison:, it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold. The Table lists the descendants of Noah. Besides the name mentioned in Genesis 10:7-29, another is mentioned in the Books of Chronicles. One person is the son of the son of Ham; the other person is descendant of Shem. The name Havilah appears in Genesis 25:18, where it defines the territory inhabited by the Ishmaelites as being "from Havilah to Shur, opposite Egypt in the direction of Assyria". One passage mentions Israelites being sent to Halah. According to the monk Antoine Augustin Calmet, Halah most indicates Havilah. In extra-biblical literature, the land of Havilah is mentioned in Pseudo-Philo as the source of the precious jewels that the Amorites used in fashioning their idols in the days after Joshua, when Kenaz was judge over the Israelites.

There is the Cave of Treasures. According to this tale, in the early days after the Tower of Babel, the children of Havilah, son of Joktan built a city and kingdom, near to those of his brothers and Ophir. W. W. Müller, in the 1992 Anchor Bible Dictionary, holds that the "Havilah" of Genesis 2 must refer to a region in southwest Arabia, he locates the reference to a "Havilah" in Genesis 25:18 as referring to a northern Arabian location. Some have said Havilah were of Cushite background who colonized Arabia linking them with the Macrobians. Saadia Gaon's tenth-century Arabic translation of the Hebrew Bible substitutes Havilah with Zeila in present day Somalia. Benjamin Tudela, the twelfth-century Jewish traveler, claimed that the land of Havilah is confined by Al-Habash on the west. In 1844, Charles Forster argued that a trace of the ancient name Havilah could still be found in the use of Aval for what is now known as Bahrain Island. Augustus Henry Keane believed that the land of Havilah was centered on Great Zimbabwe and was contemporaneous with what was Southern Rhodesia.

Havilah Camp was the name of the base camp of a group of British archaeologists who studied the Great Zimbabwe ruins from 1902 to 1904. In the end, they rejected any biblical connection with the settlement

Robinson Crusoe (1997 film)

Robinson Crusoe is a 1997 American adventure survival drama film directed by Rod Hardy and George T. Miller, starring Pierce Brosnan in the titular role of Robinson Crusoe, based on Daniel Defoe's novel Robinson Crusoe; the film opens to a fictionalized Daniel Defoe being offered to read a castaway's autobiography. He grudgingly begins to get engrossed in the narrative. Robinson Crusoe is a Scottish gentleman with experience in the British army, he accidentally kills his lifelong friend Patrick in a duel over his childhood love Mary. Patrick's brothers arrive and threaten Crusoe. Fleeing back to Mary, Crusoe subsequently ends up leaving for a year so that Mary can attempt to smooth over relations with Patrick's family. Crusoe joins the merchant marine transporting assorted cargoes between ports in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, he chronicles the ship's journeys at the behest of the captain until a typhoon shipwrecks him near the coast of New Guinea. On his first day ashore on the island he buries other crew members who had washed up on the surrounding beaches.

The next day he heads to the ship. He salvages tools and weapons from the ship. Crusoe frees the captain's corgi Skipper from a supply room. Crusoe begins to acclimate himself to the island while hoping for a passing European ship. One day a ship appears, but Crusoe notices it too late to be rescued. Crusoe resolves to acclimate himself to the island and moves inland, building a shelter and growing food. One day he hears human voices. Investigating the noises he finds a tribe from a nearby island making human sacrifices. After two prisoners have been sacrificed Crusoe intervenes by firing his weapon, which allows the third prisoner to escape, he meets the escaped native and attempts to befriend him. Cultural and language barriers prevent him from communicating before they are attacked by a group of the tribesmen, he witnesses the native cut out the heart of a defeated enemy and calls him a savage heathen before fleeing to his shelter and preparing a defence. Days Crusoe falls into a snare laid by the native.

Crusoe communicates the danger and potency of his firearms on a bat, which allows them to begin communicating. He has himself referred to as Master. Within six months Friday has learned the basics of English, but when Crusoe attempts to convert him to Christianity, Friday refuses and an argument ensues. Friday separates himself from Crusoe. Missing the companionship, Crusoe attempts to make peace with Friday. Reunited, the two set a trap for the tribe of natives. Once they arrive Crusoe lights a fuse leading to a load of gunpowder, but Skipper chases after the lit fuse and dies in the explosion. At Skipper's funeral Crusoe gains a deeper appreciation for Friday's religion. Crusoe decides they must leave the island due to an impending attack by the native tribe. Friday mentions, he says he cannot take Crusoe to his home island because he is considered dead for being a sacrifice and he cannot go to New Britain because the Europeans enslave his people. Friday subsequently learns that "Master" is not Crusoe's real name, but an indicator of enslavement and once again leaves Crusoe, who subsequently attempts to build a canoe to get to New Britain by himself.

A typhoon arrives. Friday accepts that Crusoe had decided not to make him a slave; the two attempt to salvage their crops and wildlife, but the typhoon destroys them – as well as Crusoe's canoe. The pair expect to die in the defence; the tribesmen arrive in force. Crusoe and Friday manage to defend the island. Friday decides to try to save Crusoe by taking him to his home island. Upon arriving there Friday's tribe capture Crusoe, they force Crusoe to fight Friday to the death for his freedom. After sparing Friday, Friday is about to land a killing blow, but Crusoe becomes upset. A European scout party returns him to Scotland where he is reunited with Mary. Pierce Brosnan as Robinson Crusoe William Takaku as Man Friday Polly Walker as Mary McGregor Ian Hart as Daniel Defoe James Frain as Robert, Defoe's Publisher Damian Lewis as Patrick Connor Ben Robertson as James, Patrick's Brother Martin Grace as Captain Braga Sean Brosnan as Cabin boy Lysette Anthony as Mrs. Crusoe Tim McMulian as Crusoe's Second Mal Tobias as Patrick Connor's Second Jim Clark as Slave Ship Captain Due to a limited release, the film did not receive any widespread critical attention or gross.

Among the few reviews available, DVD Talk praised Brosnan's performance, but felt that the pacing was too fast and did not allow for proper immersion. Christopher Null of just dismissed the film as "laughable". Official Listing on Miramax's website Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe on IMDb Robinson Crusoe at Rotten Tomatoes