Prefect is a magisterial title of varying definition, but refers to the leader of an administrative area. A prefect's office, department, or area of control is called a prefecture, but in various post-Roman empire cases there is a prefect without a prefecture or vice versa; the words "prefect" and "prefecture" are used, more or less conventionally, to render analogous words in other languages Romance languages. Praefectus with a further qualification, was the formal title of many low to high-ranking, military or civil officials in the Roman Empire, whose authority was not embodied in their person but conferred by delegation from a higher authority, they did have some authority in their prefecture such as controlling prisons and in civil administration. The Praetorian prefect began as the military commander of a general's guard company in the field grew in importance as the Praetorian Guard became a potential kingmaker during the Empire. From the Emperor Diocletian's tetrarchy they became the administrators of the four Praetorian prefectures, the government level above the dioceses and provinces.
Praefectus urbi, or praefectus urbanus: city prefect, in charge of the administration of Rome. Praefectus vigilum: commander of the Vigiles. Praefectus aerarii: nobles appointed guardians of the state treasury. Praefectus aerarii militaris: prefect of the military treasury. Praefectus annonae: official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome. Praefectus alae: commander of a cavalry unit. Praefectus castrorum: camp commandant. Praefectus cohortis: commander of a cohort. Praefectus classis: fleet commander. Praefectus equitatus: cavalry commander. Praefectus equitum: cavalry commander. Praefectus fabrum: officer in charge of fabri, i.e. well-trained engineers and artisans. Praefectus legionis: equestrian legionary commander. Praefectus legionis agens vice legati: equestrian acting legionary commander. Praefectus orae maritimae: official in charge with the control and defense of an important sector of sea coast. Praefectus socium: Roman officer appointed to a command function in an ala sociorum.
For some auxiliary troops, specific titles could refer to their peoples: Praefectus Laetorum Praefectus Sarmatarum gentilium Roman provinces were ruled by high-rank officials. Less important provinces though were entrusted to prefects, military men who would otherwise only govern parts of larger provinces; the most famous example is Pontius Pilate, who governed Judaea at a time when it was administered as an annex of Syria. As Egypt was a special imperial domain, a rich and strategic granary, where the Emperor enjoyed an pharaonic position unlike any other province or diocese, its head was styled uniquely Praefectus Augustalis, indicating that he governed in the personal name of the emperor, the "Augustus". Septimius Severus, after conquering Mesopotamia, introduced the same system there too. After the mid-1st century, as a result of the Pax Romana, the governorship was shifted from the military prefects to civilian fiscal officials called procurators, Egypt remaining the exception. Praefectus urbi: a prefect of the republican era who guarded the city during the annual sacrifice of the Latin: feriae latina on Mount Alban in which the consuls participated.
His former title was "custos urbi". In Medieval Latin, præfectus was used to refer to various officers—administrative, judicial, etc.—usually alongside a more precise term in the vernacular. The term is used by the Roman Catholic Church, which based much of its canon law terminology on Roman law, in several different ways; the Roman Curia has the nine Prefects of all the Congregations as well as the two of the Papal Household and of the Economic Affairs of the Holy See. The title attaches to the heads of some Pontifical Council, who are principally titled president, but in addition there is sometimes an additional ex officio position as a prefect. For example, the president of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue is the prefect of the Commission for Religious Relations with Muslims. Traditionally these Curial officials are Cardinals, hence called "Cardinal-Prefect" or "Cardinal-President". There was a custom that those who were not cardinals when they were appointed were titled "Pro-Prefect" or "Pro-President".
These officials would be appointed prefect or president after their elevation to the Sacred College. However, since 1998, this custom has fallen into disuse. A Prefect Apostolic is a cleric in charge of an apostolic prefecture, a type of Roman Catholic territorial jurisdiction fulfilling the functions of a diocese in a missionary area or in a country, anti-religious, such as the People's Republic of China, but, not yet given the status of regular diocese, it is destined to become one in time. In the context of schools, a prefect is a pupil, given certain responsibilities in the school, similar to the responsibilities given to a hall monitor or safety patrol members. In some British and Commonwealth schools, prefects students in fifth to seventh years (de
The rowing competitions at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo will take place between 24 and 31 July 2020 at the Sea Forest Waterway in Tokyo Bay. Fourteen medal events will be contested by 526 athletes. Unlike the program's format in 2016, rowing features a total of 14 events. Events include, but are not limited to categories for open weight and restricted weight athletes, two styles of rowing: sweep, where competitors each use a single oar, sculling, where they use a double placed on opposite sides of the boat. Sculling events include men's and women's singles, lightweight doubles, quads. Sweep events include men's and women's coxless pairs, coxless fours, eights. On 9 June 2017, the International Rowing Federation welcomed the decision of the International Olympic Committee to approve the changes of the Olympic rowing program to achieve gender equality. Hence, the women's coxless four replaced the men's lightweight coxless four from the previous Games, the most significant change made to the rowing program after 24 years.
The event will take place at a new venue constructed for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. The water is about 6 metres deep; the course is 198 meters wide. Each lane is 12.5 m wide. There are 8 lanes; each nation might qualify one boat for each of the fourteen events. The majority of the berths will be awarded based on the results at the 2019 World Rowing Championships, held in Ottensheim, Austria from 25 August to 1 September 2019. Places are awarded to National Olympic Committees, not to specific athletes, finishing in the top 9 in the single sculls, top 5 in the eights, top 8 in the fours and quadruple sculls, top 7 in the lightweight double sculls, top 11 each in the pairs and double sculls. Further berths will be distributed to the nations at four continental qualifying regattas in Asia and Oceania, Latin America, Europe, at a final Olympic qualification regatta in Lucerne, Switzerland. F = The race. Rowing at the 2020 Summer Paralympics "2020 Olympic Games Regatta". Worldrowing.com
Anouk Leblanc-Boucher is a Canadian short track speed skating athlete at the 2006 Winter Olympics. A student in ecology at the Université du Québec à Montréal, she won a bronze medal in the 500m short track speed skating event on February 15, 2006, at the Winter Olympics, she finished ahead of fellow Canadian Kalyna Roberge with a time of 0:44.759. On February 22, along with Alanna Kraus, Tania Vicent, Amanda Overland and Kalyna Roberge, Leblanc-Boucher helped win a silver medal for Canada in the women's 3000m relay. Leblanc-Boucher announced her pregnancy in 2006 and gave birth to her first child, born in late June 2007, she went on to have two more children and Stella, had planned to compete at the 2010 Winter Olympics in her home country but could not qualify. Leblanc-Boucher made headlines in February 2014 when she posted an advertisement on Kijiji selling her Olympic silver medal and the skates she competed in from the 2006 Winter Olympics. After being inspired watching the 2014 Winter Olympics in Russia, she expressed interest in competing in the sport once again, seeking offers that would help with her finances.
Her asking prices were listed at $1 million for the medal and $7,000 for the skates, excluding the individual bronze medal she won in the 500m race. In March 2014, it was reported she would not have to sell her medal or skates as her Kijiji advertisement resulted in sponsor offers to help fund her comeback at the 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea. Leblanc-Boucher now plans to resume training to return to competition in preparation for the upcoming Olympic season. Sports Reference