Australian Labor Party (South Australian Branch)
The Australian Labor Party known as South Australian Labor, is the South Australian Branch of the Australian Labor Party formed in 1891 as the United Labor Party of South Australia. It is one of two major parties in the bicameral Parliament of South Australia, the other being the Liberal Party of Australia. Since the 1970 election, marking the beginning of democratic proportional representation and ending decades of pro-rural electoral malapportionment known as the Playmander, Labor have won 11 of the 15 elections. Spanning 16 years and 4 terms, Labor was last in government from the 2002 election until the 2018 election. Jay Weatherill led the Labor government since a 2011 leadership change from Mike Rann. During 2013 it became the longest-serving state Labor government in South Australian history, in addition went on to win a fourth four-year term at the 2014 election. Labor's most notable historic Premiers of South Australia include Thomas Price in the 1900s, Don Dunstan in the 1970s and John Bannon in the 1980s.
A United Trades and Labor Council meeting with the purpose of creating an elections committee was convened on 12 December 1890, held on 7 January 1891. The elections committee was formed named the United Labor Party of South Australia with John McPherson the founding secretary. Four months Labor enjoyed immediate success, electing David Charleston, Robert Guthrie and Andrew Kirkpatrick to the South Australian Legislative Council. A week Richard Hooper won the 1891 Wallaroo by-election as an Independent Labor member in the South Australian House of Assembly. McPherson won the 1892 East Adelaide by-election on 23 January, becoming the first official Labor leader and member of the House of Assembly. Prior to party creation, South Australian politics had lacked parties or solid groupings, although loose liberal and conservative blocs had begun to develop by the end of the 1880s; the 1893 election was the first general election Labor would stand at, resulting in liberal and conservative leaning MPs beginning to divide, additionally with unidentified groupings and independents, as well as the subsequent formation of the staunchly anti-Labor National Defence League.
The voluntary turnout rate increased from 53 to 68 percent, with Labor on 19 percent of the vote, 10 Labor candidates including McPherson and Hooper were elected to the 54-member House of Assembly which gave Labor the balance of power. The Kingston liberal government was formed with the support of Labor, ousting the Downer conservative government. Kingston served as Premier for a then-record of six and a half years implementing legislation with Labor support. Thomas Price formed the state's first Labor minority government and the world's first stable Labor Party government at the 1905 election with the support of several non-Labor MPs to form the Price-Peake administration, re-elected at the 1906 double dissolution election, with Labor falling just two seats short of a majority. So successful, John Verran led Labor to form the state's first of many majority governments at the 1910 election, just two weeks after the 1910 federal election where their federal counterparts formed Australia's first elected majority in either house in the Parliament of Australia, the world's first Labor Party majority government at a national level, after the 1904 Chris Watson minority government the world's second Labor Party government at a national level.
Known as the United Labor Party of South Australia until 1917, the Australian Labor Party at both a state/colony and federal level pre-dates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Thirteen of the nineteen parliamentary Labor leaders have served as Premier of South Australia: Thomas Price, John Verran, Crawford Vaughan, John Gunn, Lionel Hill, Frank Walsh, Don Dunstan, Des Corcoran, John Bannon, Lynn Arnold, Mike Rann and Jay Weatherill. Robert Richards was Premier in 1933 while leading the rebel Parliamentary Labor Party of MPs, expelled in the 1931 Labor split. Bannon is Labor's longest-serving Premier of South Australia, ahead of Rann and Dunstan by a matter of weeks; every Labor leader for more than half a century has gone on to serve as Premier. Since the position's formal introduction in 1968, seven parliamentary Labor deputy leaders have served as Deputy Premier of South Australia: Des Corcoran, Hugh Hudson, Jack Wright, Don Hopgood, Frank Blevins, Kevin Foley and John Rau. Foley is the state's longest-serving Deputy Premier.
John McPherson Lee Batchelor Thomas Price John Verran Crawford Vaughan Andrew Kirkpatrick John Gunn Lionel Hill Edgar Dawes Andrew Lacey Robert Richards Mick O'Halloran Frank Walsh Don Dunstan Des Corcoran John Bannon Lynn Arnold Mike Rann Jay Weatherill Peter Malinauskas Kate Ellis – Adelaide MP since 2004 Mark Butler – Port Adelaide MP since 2007 Nick Champion – Wakefield MP since 2007 Amanda Rishworth – Kingston MP since 2007 Tony Zappia – Makin MP since 2007 Steve Georganas – Hindmarsh MP since 2016 Penn
1857 South Australian colonial election
Colonial elections were held in South Australia on 9 March 1857. All 36 seats in the South Australian House of Assembly, all 18 seats in the Legislative Council were up for election. No parties or solid groupings would be formed until after the 1890 election, which resulted in frequent changes of the Premier of South Australia. If for any reason the incumbent Premier lost sufficient support through a successful motion of no confidence at any time on the floor of the house, he would tender his resignation to the Governor of South Australia, which would result in interested members declaring their intent to run for the vacant position. A parliamentary ballot would take place, resulting in the member with the most votes being sworn in by the Governor as the next Premier. Informal groupings increased government stability occurred from the 1887 election; the United Labor Party would be formed in 1891, while the National Defence League would be formed in the same year. The first six Governors of South Australia oversaw governance from proclamation in 1836 until self-government and an elected bicameral Parliament of South Australia was enacted in the year prior to the inaugural 1857 election.
The pre-1857 unicameral Legislative Council was represented from earlier 1851 and 1855 elections. Members of the South Australian House of Assembly, 1857–1860 Members of the South Australian Legislative Council, 1857–1861 History of South Australian elections 1857-2006, volume 1: ECSA Statistical Record of the Legislature 1836-2007: SA Parliament
Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holidays or other anniversaries which commemorate or mark an important proclamation. In some cases it may be the day of, or the anniversary of, the proclamation of a monarch's accession to the throne. A proclamation day may celebrate the independence of a country, the end of a war, or the ratification of an important treaty. Proclamation Day in South Australia celebrates the establishment of government in South Australia as a British province; the province itself was created and proclaimed in 1834 when the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act, which empowered King William IV to create South Australia as a British province and to provide for its colonisation and government. It was ratified 19 February 1836; the proclamation announcing the establishment of Government was made by Captain John Hindmarsh beside The Old Gum Tree at the present-day suburb of Glenelg North on 28 December 1836. The proclamation specified the same protection under the law for the local native population as for the settlers.
The date 28 December as a public holiday in South Australia was modified to the first working day after the Christmas Day public holiday. Formal ceremonies involving the most senior current officials and politicians, followed by public celebrations, continue to be held at the still-extant Old Gum Tree at Glenelg North on 28 December; the proclamation was drafted aboard HMS Buffalo by Hindmarsh's private secretary, George Stevenson, printed by Robert Thomas, who came from England with his family on Africaine, arriving at Holdfast Bay on 8 November 1836. Thomas brought with him the first printing press to reach South Australia; the press was a Stanhope Invenit No. 200, was on display in the State Library until 2001. It may be surmised that, from the quilled text of the proclamation provided to him by the officials, it was Thomas himself who made a more striking layout for print most familiar to the public; the colonising fleet prior to Buffalo consisted of 8 vessels which had first arrived at Nepean Bay on Kangaroo Island before being directed to Holdfast Bay on the mainland.
The first vessel to arrive at Nepean Bay was Duke of York on 27 July 1836 which did not proceed to Holdfast Bay but instead set off on a whaling expedition. Africaine was the seventh to arrive to arrive at Nepean Bay, discharging settlers at Holdfast Bay on 9 November 1836. Seven of these earlier ships preceded Governor John Hindmarsh on Buffalo to enable preparations in advance of his formal arrival on 28 December. Thomas's wife Mary published The Diary of Mary Thomas, in which she described the journey on Africaine and the early years in South Australia. An extract from the diary reads: About December 20th 1836, we built a rush hut a short distance from our tents for the better accommodation of part of our family... and in this place the first printing in South Australia was produced. One of the children of Robert and Mary Thomas was a surveyor who assisted Colonel William Light in the survey which led to the founding of the City of Adelaide. Another son, William Kyffin Thomas, inherited from his father the newspaper of the time, The Register, which his parents had set up.
William had a son called Robert, who became senior proprietor of The Register. He was knighted by King Edward VII in 1909 when President of the first great Press Conference in London. A majestic statue of that king stands prominently outside the South Australian Institute building in North Terrace, Adelaide. In 1876 Parliament decreed that the Proclamation Day holiday, a gala occasion when thousands descended on Glenelg, would henceforth be celebrated on 27 December in lieu of the 28th, in order to make a three-day Christmas holiday. H. J Moseley, proprietor of the Glenelg's Pier Hotel, was the first and loudest protester against the move, rescinded. Proclamation Day refers to 21 October 1890, the day that Western Australia achieved self-government, with its own constitution and self-elected parliament. Proclamation Day was a public holiday, but its significance was overshadowed by the celebrations of the Eight Hours Day, which were held on the same day, by 1919 the public holiday had been replaced by Labour Day.
Privy Council of the United Kingdom. "Letters Patent establishing the Province of South Australia 19 February 1836". Museum of Australian Democracy. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information
Electoral district of Adelaide
Adelaide is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. The 22.8 km² state seat of Adelaide consists of the Adelaide city centre including North Adelaide and suburbs to the inner north and inner north east: Collinswood, Gilberton, Medindie Gardens, Thorngate, most of Prospect, part of Nailsworth. The federal division of Adelaide covers the state seat of Adelaide and additional suburbs in each direction; the electorate's name comes from the city which it encompasses, named after Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the German born Queen consort of the King of England, King William IV. The six-seat multi-member electoral district of City of Adelaide existed from 1857 to 1862; the four-member electoral district of Adelaide was created by the Constitution Act Amendment Act, 1901 for the 1902 election from the districts of East Adelaide, West Adelaide and North Adelaide. The district had four members through to 1915. Adelaide became a three-member district from the 1915 election, changed from a multi-member to single-member district upon the introduction of the Playmander from the 1938 election.
For most of the next half-century, the electorate was comfortably safe for the Labor Party. A significant redistribution in 1983 saw the Labor two-party vote reduced from 66 percent to 47 percent, transforming it into a notional marginal Liberal electorate. However, Labor retained the seat at the 1985 election, albeit as the most marginal seat in parliament. Liberal Michael Armitage narrowly took the seat at the 1989 election – the first time that they or their predecessors, the Liberal and Country League, had won it in its single-member incarnation; the highest Liberal vote in Adelaide occurred at the landslide 1993 election, with the Liberal two-party vote rising to a safe 64.1 percent. However, it once again became a marginal Liberal seat at the 1997 election. After the redistribution ahead of the 2002 election made the electorate more marginal, Armitage tried to transfer to the safer Liberal electorate of Bragg, but lost a preselection battle to Vickie Chapman. Labor candidate Jane Lomax-Smith regained the seat for Labor at the 2002 election as a marginal seat, one of two gains that assisted Labor in forming government.
It became a safe Labor seat at the landslide 2006 election on a 60.2 percent two-party vote, before the Liberals won Adelaide for the second time at the 2010 election on a two-party swing of over 14 percent, turning it from safe Labor to marginal Liberal. Despite a −1.8 percent two-party swing, the Liberals retained Adelaide at the 2014 election on a 52.4 percent two-party vote. The 2016 electoral redistribution added the rest of Collinswood to the electorate, moved the electorate's northern boundary from Regency Road to several blocks south of Regency Road, removing a significant amount of northern Prospect; this increased the Liberal margin from 2.4 percent to an estimated 3.0 percent. The draft of the 2016 Redistribution Report had proposed moving the Liberal-voting suburbs of Walkerville and Gilberton to a neighbouring electorate, but Liberal incumbent Rachel Sanderson proceeded with a concerted campaign, organising the mass letter-box distribution of a pro forma document in the two suburbs, which aimed for residents to use the pro forma document to submit their objection to the commission.
Of a record 130 total submissions received in response to the overall draft redistribution, over three-quarters were from the two letter-boxed suburbs and Gilberton, which resulted in the proposal not appearing in the final redistribution. Although Sanderson suffered a further 2.0 percent two-party swing, she narrowly retained Adelaide at the 2018 election with a 51.0 percent two-party vote. With the Liberals winning government after 16 years in opposition, Adelaide became the government's second most marginal seat, behind only King; the Greens achieved their highest vote in an electorate at the 2018 election in Adelaide. ECSA profile for Adelaide: 2018 ABC profile for Adelaide: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Adelaide: 2018
Governor of South Australia
The Governor of South Australia is the representative in the Australian state of South Australia of Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The Governor performs the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia at the national level. In accordance with the conventions of the Westminster system of parliamentary government, the Governor nearly always acts on the advice of the head of the elected government, the Premier of South Australia; the Governor retains the reserve powers of the Crown, has the right to dismiss the Premier. As from June 2014, the Queen, upon the recommendation of the Premier, accorded all current and living former Governors the title'The Honourable' for life; the first six Governors oversaw the colony from proclamation in 1836 until self-government and an elected Parliament of South Australia was enacted in the year prior to the inaugural 1857 election. The first Australian-born Governor of South Australia was Major-General Sir James Harrison, most subsequent governors have been Australian-born.
The first South Australian-born governor was Sir Mark Oliphant, the first Aboriginal governor was Sir Douglas Nicholls. The current governor is Hieu Van Le. who commenced when the term of the previous governor, Rear Admiral Kevin Scarce, expired on 7 August 2014. The Governor's official residence is Government House, in the state's capital. Prior to self-government, the Governor was responsible to the Government of the United Kingdom and was charged with implementing laws and policy; the Governor is responsible for safeguarding the South Australian Constitution and facilitating the work of the Parliament and state government. The Governor exercises power on the advice of Ministers, conveyed through the Executive Council. Constitutional powers bestowed upon the Governor and used with the consent and advice of the Executive Council include: to appoint and dismiss Ministers. Exercising the prerogative of mercy. Issuing regulations and proclamations under existing laws. Giving Royal Assent to bills passed by Parliament.
Appointing judges, royal commissioners and senior public servants. Dissolving Parliament and issuing writs for elections; the Governor additionally maintains'reserve powers' which can be used without the consent of the Executive Council. These powers relate to the dismissal of Ministers and Parliament; these people administered the government in the absence of the official governor. Three former governors are alive; the latest-serving former governor to die was Dame Roma Mitchell, on 5 March 2000. The most recent death of a former governor was that of Sir Keith Seaman, on 30 June 2013; the Official Website of the Governor of South Australia Previous governors on official website
Richard Hanson (Australian politician)
Sir Richard Davies Hanson, was the fourth Premier of South Australia, from 30 September 1857 until 8 May 1860, was a Chief Judge from 20 November 1861 until 4 March 1876 on the Supreme Court of South Australia, the highest ranking court in the Australian State of South Australia. Hanson was born in London, the second son of Benjamin Hanson, a fruit merchant and importer, was educated at a private school in Melbourn, Cambridgeshire. Admitted a solicitor in 1828, he practised in London, becoming a disciple of Edward Gibbon Wakefield in connection with his colonization schemes. Hanson joined The Globe as a political critic early in 1837. In 1838 he went with Lord Durham to Canada as assistant commissioner of inquiry into crown lands and immigration. Hanson worked with Dominick Daly in Canada. In 1840, on the death of Lord Durham, Hanson settled in New Zealand, he there acted in 1846 moved to South Australia. On his arrival in the colony of South Australia in 1846, Hanson set up a legal practice, he served as Advocate-General and Attorney-General for the colony before election to the seat of City of Adelaide in 1857.
In 1851 Hanson was appointed advocate-general of the colony as a temporary replacement for the ailing William Smillie, made permanent when Smillie died. He took an active share in the passing of many important measures, such as the first Education Act, the District Councils Act of 1852, the Act of 1856 which granted constitutional government to the colony. In 1856 he was attorney-general in the first ministry under Boyle Travers Finniss. Among the acts passed were the first patents act, an insolvency act, a partial consolidation of the criminal law, the Torrens real property act, though he was at first opposed to this measure, he passed an act legalizing marriage with a deceased wife's sister, the first of its kind in the Empire, but the royal assent was refused on this occasion. After leaving parliament, Hanson replaced Sir Charles Cooper as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of South Australia in 1861, he was knighted in 1869 by Queen Victoria when he visited England, was acting Governor of South Australia for 1872–73.
In his spare time Hanson gave much time to theological studies. His publications include Law in Nature and Other Papers, The Jesus of History, Letters to and from Rome, The Apostle Paul, the Preaching of Christianity in the Primitive Church, he was elected the first Chancellor of the University of Adelaide. He died in Australia on 4 March 1876. Freemasonry was an integral part of Hanson's personal life, he was elected as a member and initiated into the Craft on 27 November 1834 in London when The Lodge of Friendship, a Lodge founded to become South Australia's first Lodge, held its first meeting. He was to rise in position within the Lodge, which still exists to the present day, served as its Master, his summer residence, near Piccadilly, South Australia, is today owned by the South Australian Scout Association, used for Scout leader training and private functions and accommodation. Richard's brother William Hanson was an architect and engineer who played a decisive role in the early history of South Australia's railways and waterworks.
Hanson married the widow Ann "Annie" Scanlon, née Hopgood at his home, Sturt Street, Adelaide, on 29 March 1851. Their eldest daughter Sarah Elizabeth "Lisa" Hanson married barrister Eustace Beardoe Grundy QC at St Johns Church, Adelaide, on 6 July 1876.. The following places in South Australia were named after him: Hanson Street in Adelaide named in 1837 and, subsumed by the expanded Pulteney Street in 1967; the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Hanson created in 1860. The cadastral unit of the County of Hanson created in 1877; the town of Hanson, named in 1940 The seat of Hanson in the South Australian House of Assembly, created in 1970 and renamed to Ashford in 2002. Judiciary of Australia Boase, George Clement. "Hanson, Richard Davies". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 24. London: Smith, Elder & Co.'Hanson, Sir Richard Davies', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 4, MUP, 1972, pp 336–340. Retrieved 20 January 2009 Serle, Percival. "Hanson, Richard". Dictionary of Australian Biography.
Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Retrieved 2009-01-20; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Hanson, Sir Richard Davies". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 931. South Australian Parliament - Hanson