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Premonstratensians

The Order of Canons Regular of Prémontré known as the Premonstratensians, the Norbertines and, in Britain and Ireland, as the White Canons, are a religious order of Canons regular of the Catholic Church founded in Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Norbert of Xanten, who became Archbishop of Magdeburg. Premonstratensians are designated by O. Praem. Following their name. Norbert was a friend of Bernard of Clairvaux and was influenced by the Cistercian ideals as to both the manner of life and the government of his order; as the Premonstratensians are not monks but Canons Regular, their work involves preaching and the exercising of pastoral ministry. The order was founded in 1120. Saint Norbert had made various efforts to introduce a strict form of canonical life in various communities of canons in Germany. There, in a rural place called Prémontré, he and thirteen companions established a monastery to be the cradle of a new order; as they were canons regular, they followed the Rule of St. Augustine, but with supplementary statutes that made their life one of great austerity.

Common prayer and celebration of the Eucharist was to be the sustaining dynamic of the community. In 1126, when the order received papal approbation by Pope Honorius II, there were nine houses; the Norbertines played a predominant part in the conversion of the Wends and the bringing of Christianity to the territories around the Elbe and the Oder. In time and relaxations emerged, these gave rise to reforms and semi-independent congregations within the Order; the Norbertines came to England about 1143, first at Newhouse in Lincoln and before the dissolution under Henry VIII there were 35 houses. Soon after their arrival in England, they founded Dryburgh Abbey in the Borders area of Scotland, followed by other communities at Whithorn Priory, Dercongal Abbey and Tongland Abbey all in the Borders area, as well as Fearn Abbey in the northern part of the nation. Like most orders they were completely devastated by the successive onslaughts of the Reformation, French Revolution and Napoleon, but experienced a revival in the 19th century.

By the beginning of the nineteenth century the order had become extinct, only eight houses surviving, all in Austria. However, there was something of a resurgence, at the start of the twentieth century there were 20 monasteries and 1000 priests; as of 2005, the number of monasteries had spread to every continent. In 1893, Father Bernard Pennings and two other Norbertines from Berne Abbey came to the United States to minister to Belgian immigrants in northern Wisconsin. De Pere, became the site of the first Norbertine Abbey in the new world. In the twenty-first century, like all canons regular, they follow the Augustinian Rule. In order to “earn their living”, the different communities had, as to create and operate small industrial activities such as printing, cheese-making, running schools, agreements with breweries, retreat centres, astronomical observatories, artistic bookbinding and pilgrimages. According to the Premonstratentian website, there are some 1000 male and 200 female members of the Order.

The Feast of All Norbertine Saints and Blesseds is celebrated internally on Nov. 13. The Order has several abbeys of women who, though technically called canonesses, followed the life of an enclosed religious order and are therefore more termed Norbertine nuns. Like the Norbertine communities for men, those for women are autonomous. Unusually, within the religious communities of the Catholic Church, the Norbertine Order has always seen the spiritual life of the canonesses as being on an equal footing with that of its priests and lay brothers. In the Middle Ages, the Premonstratentians had a few double monasteries, where men and women lived in cloisters located next to each other as part of the same abbey, the communities demonstrating their unity by sharing the church building. Today, it is common for a foundation of canonesses to have links not only with other canonesses, but a community of canons. On January 29, 2011, a canonry of the canonesses, the Bethlehem Priory of St. Joseph, was established with the solemn religious profession of the first nine canonesses at the Saint John the Baptist Cathedral, California.

The priory is located in Tehachapi, by 2013 had grown to 26 members in all. The community was first founded as a public association of the faithful by the Norbertine canons of St. Michael's Abbey, Orange County, California, it is the first canonry of Norbertine canonesses founded in North America. The Premonstratensians were among the religious orders with their own rite who kept this rite after Pope Pius V suppressed such rites with a continuous tradition of less than two hundred years; the Premonstratensian Rite was characterized by a ritual solemnity. The Premonstratensian Rite was characterized by an emphasis on the Paschal mystery unique among the Latin rites; this was seen in the solemnity wit

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period; this Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne. The warrior kings of the early 18th Dynasty had encountered only little resistance from neighbouring kingdoms, allowing them to expand their realm of influence but the international situation had changed radically towards the end of the dynasty; the Hittites had extended their influence into Syria and Canaan to become a major power in international politics, a power that both Seti I and his son Ramesses II would confront in the future. New Kingdom Egypt reached the zenith of its power under Seti I and Ramesses II, who campaigned vigorously against the Libyans and the Hittites; the city of Kadesh was first captured by Seti I, who decided to concede it to Muwatalli of Hatti in an informal peace treaty between Egypt and Hatti.

Ramesses II attempted unsuccessfully to alter this situation in his fifth regnal year by launching an attack on Kadesh in his Second Syrian campaign in 1274 BC. Ramesses II profited from the Hittites' internal difficulties, during his eighth and ninth regnal years, when he campaigned against their Syrian possessions, capturing Kadesh and portions of Southern Syria, advancing as far north as Tunip, where no Egyptian soldier had been seen for 120 years, he accepted that a campaign against the Hittites was an unsupportable drain on Egypt's treasury and military. In his 21st regnal year, Ramesses signed the earliest recorded peace treaty with Urhi-Teshub's successor, Hattusili III, with that act Egypt-Hittite relations improved significantly. Ramesses II married two Hittite princesses, the first after his second Sed Festival; this dynasty declined. Amenmesse usurped the throne from Merneptah's son and successor, Seti II, but he ruled Egypt for only four years. After his death, Seti destroyed most of Amenmesse's monuments.

Seti was served at court by Chancellor Bay, just a'royal scribe' but became one of the most powerful men in Egypt, gaining the unprecedented privilege of constructing his own tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Both Bay and Seti's chief wife, had a sinister reputation in Ancient Egyptian folklore. After Siptah's death, Twosret ruled Egypt for two more years, but she proved unable to maintain her hold on power amid the conspiracies and powerplays being hatched at the royal court, she was ousted in a revolt led by Setnakhte, founder of the 20th Dynasty. The pharaohs of the 19th Dynasty ruled for 110 years: from c. 1292 to 1187 BC. Many of the pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings in Thebes. More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website. Nineteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree

Highway M04 (Ukraine)

Highway M04 is a Ukraine international highway connecting Znamianka to Krasnodon on the border with Russia, where it continues into Russia as the A260. In Soviet times the M04 was part of the M21. Today the highway stretches through four oblasts and ends at the Izvaryne-Donetsk border checkpoint, part of Krasnodon city; the section from Znamianka to Debaltseve is part of European route E50, the section from Debaltseve to the Russian border is part of European route E40. In eastern Ukraine, significant armed conflict has occurred along and near the M04 in the Donetsk and Luhansk Oblasts during the War in Donbass. Roads in Ukraine Ukraine Highways International E-road network Pan-European corridors National Roads in Ukraine in Russian