Presbyterian polity is a method of church governance typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders. Each local church is governed by a body of elected elders called the session or consistory, though other terms, such as church board, may apply. Groups of local churches are governed by a higher assembly of elders known as the presbytery or classis. Responsibility for conduct of church services is reserved to an ordained minister or pastor known as a teaching elder, or a minister of the word and sacrament. Presbyterian polity was developed as a rejection of governance by hierarchies of single bishops, but differs from the congregationalist polity in which each congregation is independent. In contrast to the other two forms, authority in the presbyterian polity flows both from the top down and from the bottom up; this theory of governance developed in Geneva under John Calvin and was introduced to Scotland by John Knox after his period of exile in Geneva. It is associated with French, Dutch and Scottish Reformation movements, the Reformed and Presbyterian churches.
Among the early church fathers, it was noted that the offices of elder and bishop were identical, were not differentiated until and that plurality of elders was the norm for church government. St. Jerome "In Epistle Titus", vol. iv, said, "Elder is identical with bishop. After it was... decreed throughout the world that one chosen from among the presbyters should be placed over the others." This observation was made by Chrysostom in "Homilia i, in Phil. I, 1" and Theodoret in "Interpret ad. Phil. Iii", 445. Presbyterianism was first described in detail by Martin Bucer of Strasbourg, who believed that the early Christian church implemented presbyterian polity; the first modern implementation was by the Geneva church under the leadership of John Calvin in 1541. Presbyterian polity is constructed on specific assumptions about the form of the government intended by the Bible: "Bishop" and "elder" are synonymous terms. Episcopos means overseer and describes the function of the elder, rather than the maturity of the officer.
A bishop holds the highest office of the church. Preaching and the administration of the sacraments is ordinarily entrusted to specially trained elders in each local congregation, approved for these tasks by a governing presbytery, or classis, called by the local congregation. In addition to these ministers, there are "others … with gifts for government … call "elders" or "ruling elders". Pastoral care, church discipline and legislation are committed to the care of ruling assemblies of presbyters among whom the ministers and "ruling elders" are equal participants. All Christian people together are the priesthood, on behalf of whom the elders are called to serve by the consent of the congregation. Presbyterianism uses a conciliar method of church government. Thus, the presbyters and "elders" govern together as a group, at all times the office is for the service of the congregation, to pray for them and to encourage them in the faith; the elders together exercise oversight over the local congregation, with superior groups of elders gathered on a regional basis exercising wider oversight.
Presbyterians have viewed this method of government as approximating that of the New Testament and earliest churches. However, sometimes it is admitted that episcopacy was a form of government, used early in the church for practical reasons. Presbyterianism is distinct from congregationalism, in that individual congregations are not independent, but are answerable to the wider church, through its governing bodies. Moreover, the ordained ministry possesses a distinct responsibility for preaching and sacraments. Congregational churches are sometimes called "Presbyterian" if they are governed by a council of elders. Thus, these are ruled by elders only at the level of the congregations, which are united with one another by covenants of trust. There are two types of elder. An excerpt from Miller expands this. In every Church organized, that is, furnished with all the officers which Christ has instituted and which are necessary for carrying into full effect the laws of his kingdom, there ought to be three classes of officers, viz: at least one Teaching Elder, Bishop, or Pastor — a bench of Ruling Elders — and Deacons.
The first to "minister in the Word a
Chamber Music America is an American non-profit organization that provides small ensemble professionals with access to a variety of professional development and funding resources. CMA's regular initiatives include grants and commissioning programs for ensembles and presenters, a national conference held annually in New York City, the publication of Chamber Music magazine. CMA-members organizations and individuals include ensembles, concert presenters, artist managers, composers and others involved in the performance of classical, jazz and world music. In May 2012, Chamber Music America introduced National Chamber Music Month, a month-long initiative to raise awareness of small ensemble performance in the United States. Chamber Music America was founded in 1977 by 34 musicians with the principal aims of uniting and advocating for small ensemble music professionals. After first initiating a series of residencies designed to bring small ensemble performance into new, community-oriented venues, CMA was chosen by the National Endowment for the Arts to administer NEA's first chamber music grant program.
The first Chamber Music America National Conference was held in 1978, membership was extended to presenters, artist managers and music-related businesses shortly thereafter. In the early 1980s, CMA began its first commissioning series. Among the first pieces commissioned with CMA-support were works by Martin Bresnick, Ellen Taaffe Zwilich, Charles Wuorinen. Aaron Jay Kernis’s String Quartet No. 2—commissioned by the Lark Quartet with CMA support—won the Pulitzer Prize in 1997. The current Classical Commissioning program is supported by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Since 2000, jazz has been a significant part of Chamber Music America's grants and professional development programs. CMA's two jazz-specific grant programs—New Jazz Works: Commissioning and Ensemble Development and Presenter Consortium for Jazz—are supported by the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. CMA defines chamber music as "music composed for small ensembles, with one musician per part performed without a conductor; the term once referred only to Western classical music such as string quartets.
But today chamber music encompasses myriad forms, including contemporary and traditional jazz and world genres." In 2012, Chamber Music America introduced the first National Chamber Music Month. According to Chamber Music America, the goals of NCMM are to "raise public awareness of the chamber music field nationally and to help ensembles and presenters attract new audiences and media attention within their own communities." National Chamber Music Month is held in May
Emperor Wu of Chen, personal name Chen Baxian, courtesy name Xingguo, nickname Fasheng, was the first emperor of the Chen dynasty of China. He first distinguished himself as a Liang dynasty general during the campaign against the rebel general Hou Jing, he was progressively promoted. In 555, he seized power after a coup against his superior, the general Wang Sengbian, in 557 he forced Emperor Jing to yield the throne to him, establishing the Chen dynasty, he died in 559, as his only surviving son Chen Chang was held by Northern Zhou as a hostage, he was succeeded by his nephew Chen Qian. Chen Baxian was born in the second year of the reign of Emperor Wu of Liang, he was from Wuxing Commandery. His family traced its ancestry to Chen Shi, a county magistrate and Confucian scholar during Han Dynasty. During the lineage, traced, Chen's ancestors served as low-level officials, although several were important figures in imperial governments of Jin Dynasty and the subsequent Southern dynasties, including Chen Baxian's grandfather Chen Daoju.
However, no record indicated. His mother was a Lady Dong Chen Wenzan's wife; when Chen Baxian was young, he was considered ambitious. As he grew, he learned various fighting techniques, he married a daughter of Qian Zhongfang, from Wuxing Commandery, but she died early. After Lady Qian's death, he married Zhang Yao'er from Wuxing Commandery, she bore him Chen Chang. In the late 530s, when Xiao Ying the Marquess of Xinyu, a nephew of Emperor Wu, was the governor of Wuxing Commandery, he had the chance to see Chen Baxian and was impressed by him; when Xiao Ying was made the governor of Guang Province around 540, he invited Chen to serve on his staff, subsequently, Xiao Ying made him an acting commandery governor. In 541, the people of Giao Châu Province, dissatisfied with the cruel rule of Xiao Zi the Marquess of Wulin, rebelled under the leadership of Lý Bôn. Xiao Ying sent the generals Sun Jiong and Lu Zixiong to attack Lý Bôn, with Xiao Ying overseeing the operations. In spring 542, Xiao Ying and Xiao Zi ordered Sun and Lu to attack, despite Sun and Lu's request to delay the attack to fall 542 due to fears that hot temperature could cause illnesses.
When Lý Bôn crushed their forces with heavy casualties, Xiao Zi falsely accused Sun and Lu of working in concert with Lý Bôn, Emperor Wu ordered Sun and Lu to commit suicide. Lu Zixiong's brothers Lu Zilüe and Lu Zilie and subordinates, the brothers Du Tianhe and Du Sengming and Zhou Wenyu attacked the capital of Guang Province, wanting to kill Xiao Zi and Xiao Ying to avenge Lu Zixiong. Xiao Ying ordered Chen to engage them, he defeated them, killing Du Tianhe and capturing Du Sengming and Zhou. Believing that Du Sengming and Zhou were both good soldiers, he released them and retained them on his staff. For this accomplishment, Emperor Wu created Chen the Viscount of Xin'an, while he did not summon Chen to the capital Jiankang, he had an artisan draw a portrait of Chen and deliver it to him. In January 544, Lý Bôn proclaimed himself emperor and named the country Vạn Xuân, ending the Second Chinese domination of Vietnam. In winter 544, Xiao Ying died, Chen started escorting Xiao Ying's casket back to Jiankang for burial.
On the way, while he was still at Dayu Mountain, he was ordered to rendezvous with the new governor of Giao Châu Province, Yang Piao, another nephew of Emperor Wu's, Xiao Bo, to attack Lý Bôn. Xiao Bao did not want to set out on the campaign, therefore tried to persuade Yang not to advance. Chen persuaded Yang otherwise, in spring 545, with Chen as his lieutenant, attacked Lý Bôn, defeating him and forcing him to flee into the mountains and conduct guerilla warfare instead. In 548, Lý Bôn's subordinates killed Lý Bôn, when Lý Bôn's brother Lý Thiên Bảo succeeded him and attacked Ai Province, Chen defeated Lý Thiên Bảo. Emperor Wu made Chen the governor of Gaoyao Commandery as well as the commander of the forces of the surrounding commanderies. In summer 548, Hou Jing a general of Eastern Wei whose defection Emperor Wu had accepted, in 549 captured Jiankang, taking Emperor Wu and his son and crown prince Xiao Gang hostage. After Jiankang's fall, who had claimed that he wanted to restore Northern Wei's imperial clan to power, from the control of the regent Gao Cheng, enticed the governor of Guang Province, Yuan Jingzhong, a member of Northern Wei's imperial Yuan clan, to join him, when Chen received the news, he publicly announced Yuan's treachery and gathered the troops of the nearby generals to attack Yuan.
Yuan committed suicide, Chen welcomed Xiao Bo the governor of Ding Province to take over Guang Province. In winter 549, against Xiao Bo's request, Chen took his troops and embarked on a campaign to join the fight against Hou, sending messengers to Emperor Wu's son Xiao Yi the Prince of Xiangdong, the governor of Jing Province (荊州