United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
American Expeditionary Forces
The American Expeditionary Forces was a formation of the United States Army on the Western Front of World War I. The AEF was established on July 1917, in France under the command of Gen. John J. Pershing, it fought alongside French Army, British Army, Canadian Army, Australian Army units against the German Empire. A minority of the AEF troops fought alongside Italian Army units in that same year against the Austro-Hungarian Army; the AEF helped the French Army on the Western Front during the Aisne Offensive in the summer of 1918, fought its major actions in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and the Meuse-Argonne Offensive in the latter part of 1918. President Woodrow Wilson planned to give command of the AEF to Gen. Frederick Funston, but after Funston's sudden death, Wilson appointed Major General John J. Pershing in May 1917, Pershing remained in command for the entire war. Pershing insisted; as a result, few troops arrived before January 1918. In addition, Pershing insisted that the American force would not be used to fill gaps in the French and British armies, he resisted European efforts to have U.
S. troops deployed as individual replacements in decimated Allied units. This approach was not always well received by the western Allied leaders who distrusted the potential of an army lacking experience in large-scale warfare. In addition, the British Empire tried to bargain with its spare shipping to make the United States put its soldiers into British ranks. By June 1917, only 14,000 American soldiers had arrived in France, the AEF had only a minor participation at the front through late October 1917, but by May 1918 over one million American troops were stationed in France, though only half of them made it to the front lines. Since the transport ships needed to bring American troops to Europe were scarce at the beginning, the U. S. Army pressed into service passenger liners, seized German ships, borrowed Allied ships to transport American soldiers from ports in New York City, New Jersey, Virginia; the mobilization effort taxed the American military to the limit and required new organizational strategies and command structures to transport great numbers of troops and supplies and efficiently.
The French harbors of Bordeaux, La Pallice, Saint Nazaire, Brest became the entry points into the French railway system that brought the American troops and their supplies to the Western Front. American engineers in France built 82 new ship berths, nearly 1,000 miles of additional standard-gauge tracks, over 100,000 miles of telephone and telegraph lines; the first American troops, who were called "Doughboys", landed in Europe in June 1917. However the AEF did not participate at the front until October 21, 1917, when the 1st Division fired the first American shell of the war toward German lines, although they participated only on a small scale. A group of regular soldiers and the first American division to arrive in France, entered the trenches near Nancy, France, in Lorraine; the AEF used British equipment. Appreciated were the French canon de 75 modèle 1897, the canon de 155 C modèle 1917 Schneider, the canon de 155mm GPF. American aviation units received the SPAD XIII and Nieuport 28 fighters, the U.
S. Army tank corps used French Renault FT light tanks. Pershing established facilities in France to train new arrivals with their new weapons. By the end of 1917, four divisions were deployed in a large training area near Verdun: the 1st Division, a regular army formation. S. Marines; the fifth division, the 41st Division, was converted into a depot division near Tours. Supporting the two million soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean was a massive logistical enterprise, yet the U. S. Army's logistical skills had atrophied during the decades following the Civil War. In order to be successful, the Americans needed to create a coherent support structure with little institutional knowledge. After a rough start, the AEF developed support network appropriate for the huge size of the American force, it rested upon the Services of Supply in the rear areas, with ports, depots, maintenance facilities, clothing repair shops, replacement depots, ice plants, a wide variety of other activities. The Services of Supply initiated support techniques that would last well into the Cold War including forward maintenance, field cooking, graves registration, host nation support, motor transport, morale services.
The work of the logisticians enabled the success of the AEF and contributed to the emergence of the American Army as a modern fighting force. African Americans were made up 13 percent of the draftees. By the end of the war, over 350,000 African-Americans had served in AEF units on the Western Front. However, they were assigned to segregated units commanded by white officers. One fifth of the black soldiers sent to France saw combat, compared to two-thirds of the whites, they were three percent of AEF combat forces, under two percent of battlefield fatalities. "The mass of the colored drafted men cannot be used for combatant troops", said a General Staff report in 1918, it recommended that "these colored drafted men be organized in reserve labor battalions." They handled unskilled labor tasks as stevedores in the Atlantic ports and common laborers at the camps and in the Services of the Rear in Fr
Middletown, Rhode Island
Middletown is a town in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 16,150 at the 2010 census, it lies to the south of Portsmouth and to the north of Newport on Aquidneck Island, hence the name "Middletown". Various issues including unjust taxation and a growing population caused the freeholders living in the northern section of Newport to petition the general assembly for independence; as a result of the petition, the land that Middletown occupies was set apart in 1731. The town was incorporated in 1743. During the 1980s, large sections of East Main Road and West Main Road running through Middletown began to be commercialized, by the late 1990s, the area had become Aquidneck Island's central business district. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.9 square miles, of which 13.0 square miles is land and 2.0 square miles is water. Middletown was known as the "farming community" of Aquidneck Island. Today most of the developed land is located towards the western part of the town, while what is left of its rural heritage is towards the east.
Middletown has several beaches. The town is governed by elected at-large in partisan elections. Executive authority is vested in an appointed town administrator; the town elects a non-partisan school committee. Middletown forms part of Rhode Island's 1st congressional district, represented by Democrat David Cicilline. At the state level, Middletown is part of three state house districts; the 12th Rhode Island Senate district, which includes parts of Newport, Little Compton and Tiverton, is held by Democrat Louis P. DiPalma. In the Rhode Island House of Representatives, Middletown forms part of the 72nd, 73rd, 74th districts; the 72nd, which includes portions of Newport and Portsmouth, is represented by Republican Daniel Reilly. The 73rd, predominantly Newport, is held by Democrat Russell Jackson; the 74th, shared between Middletown and Jamestown, is represented by Democrat Deb Ruggiero. At the 2000 census, there were 17,334 people, 6,993 households and 4,643 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,335.4 per square mile.
There were 7,603 housing units at an average density of 585.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.12% White, 2.72% African American, 2.36% Native American, 1.18% Asian, 1.11% Pacific Islander, 1.07% from other races, 2.43% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.93% of the population. There were 6,993 households of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.9% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families. Of all households 28.7% were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.01. 25.0% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males.
The median household income was $51,075 and the median family income was $57,322. Males had a median income of $41,778 and females $27,229; the per capita income for the town was $25,857. About 3.7% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.2% of those under age 18 and 4.7% of those age 65 or over. Newport State Airport, a public-use general aviation airport and the only airport on Aquidneck Island, is located in Middletown. West Main Road and East Main Road are the main roads running north–south through Middletown. Middletown is home to St Columba's Cricket Club, which hosts an annual cricket tournament for teams throughout the New England area; the Newport National Golf Club is located in Middletown. The town is home to the Middletown Islanders hockey, baseball and lacrosse teams, they are involved with Pop Warner football and cheerleading. More known as a middle school football league, Pop Warner hosts from young ages and separates them by age. Kids ages 6–8: Mighty Mights Kids ages 9 & 10: Junior Pee Wee Kids ages 11 & 12: Pee Wee Kids ages 13 & 14: Midget As of September 2009, the Middletown Public School District consists of four schools serving pre-kindergarten through 12th grade.
They are Aquidneck Elementary School, Forest Avenue Elementary School, Joseph H. Gaudet Middle School and Middletown High School. Starting in September 2009, all fourth grade students will attend Joseph H. Gaudet Middle School. John F. Kennedy, former elementary school, will be closed at the end of the 2008–2009 school year due to budget cuts. Middletown is home to private schools, including All Saints Academy, a Catholic school, St. George's School. Boyd's Windmill, built 1810 Bailey Farm, built 1838 Clambake Club of Newport, built in 1895 Gardiner Pond Shell Midden Hamilton Hoppin House, built in 1856 Lyman C. Joseph House, built 1882 Paradise School, built 1875 Prescott Farm, ca. 1715 Whitehall, built 1729 Witherbee School, built 1900 Israel T. Almy, Fall River architect, born in Middletown George Berkeley, 18th century Anglo-Irish philosopher.
The Bush family is an American family, prominent in the fields of politics, sports and business, founded by Obadiah Bush and Harriet Smith. Best known for its involvement in politics, the family has held various national and state offices spanning across four generations, including a U. S. Senator, Prescott Bush, a Governor, Jeb Bush, two U. S. Presidents—one having served as Vice President, George H. W. Bush, while the other was a Governor, George W. Bush. Other family members include a National Football League executive, Joe Ellis, two nationally known TV personalities, Billy Bush and Jenna Bush Hager. Peter Schweizer, author of a biography of the family, has described the Bushes as "the most successful political dynasty in American history". According to some online sources, the Bush family is of English and German descent; the Bush family traces its European origin to the 17th century, with Samuel Bush being their first American-born ancestor, in 1647. James Smith Bush, father of Samuel P. Bush Samuel Prescott Bush, father of Prescott Bush and son of James Smith Bush Flora Sheldon Bush, wife of Samuel P. Bush and mother to Prescott Bush Prescott Sheldon Bush, Samuel P. Bush's son, served as a U.
S. Senator from Connecticut. Dorothy Wear Walker Bush, wife of Prescott, was a daughter of George Herbert Walker of the well-connected Walker family of bankers and businessmen, served as informal First Mother from 1989, her son's inauguration during the beginning of his presidency until her death in 1992, in her son's final year of the presidency, her brothers are George Herbert Walker Jr. and John M. Walker Prescott Sheldon "Pressy" Bush Jr. Prescott Bush's eldest son, who served as chairman of the United States-China Chamber of Commerce. "Sue" Bush Sarah Bush Richey, daughter of James L. Bush. S. President Franklin Pierce, Second Lady and First Lady of the U. S. George Walker Bush, George H. W. Bush's eldest son, 43rd President of the United States and 46th Governor of Texas Laura Lane Welch Bush, wife of George W. and First Lady.
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Geronimo was a prominent leader and medicine man from the Bedonkohe band of the Apache tribe. From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo joined with members of three other Chiricahua Apache bands—the Tchihende, the Tsokanende and the Nednhi—to carry out numerous raids as well as resistance to US and Mexican military campaigns in the northern Mexico states of Chihuahua and Sonora, in the southwestern American territories of New Mexico and Arizona. Geronimo's raids and related combat actions were a part of the prolonged period of the Apache–United States conflict, which started with American settlement in Apache lands following the end of the war with Mexico in 1848. While well known, Geronimo was not a chief among the Bedonkohe band. However, since he was a superb leader in raiding and warfare he led large numbers of men and women beyond his own following. At any one time, about 30 to 50 Apaches would be following him. During Geronimo's final period of conflict from 1876 to 1886 he "surrendered" three times and accepted life on the Apache reservations in Arizona.
Reservation life was confining to the free-moving Apache people, they resented restrictions on their customary way of life. In 1886, after an intense pursuit in Northern Mexico by U. S. forces that followed Geronimo's third 1885 reservation "breakout", Geronimo surrendered for the last time to Lt. Charles Bare Gatewood, an Apache-speaking West Point graduate who had earned Geronimo's respect a few years before. Geronimo was transferred to General Nelson Miles at Skeleton Canyon, just north of the Mexican/American boundary. Miles treated Geronimo as a prisoner of war and acted promptly to remove Geronimo first to Fort Bowie to the railroad at Bowie Station, Arizona where he and 27 other Apaches were sent off to join the rest of the Chiricahua tribe, exiled to Florida. In his old age, Geronimo became a celebrity, he appeared at fairs, including the 1904 World's Fair in St. Louis, where he rode a ferris wheel and sold souvenirs and photographs of himself. However, he was not allowed to return to the land of his birth.
He died at the Fort Sill hospital in 1909, still as a prisoner of war. He is buried at the Fort Sill Indian Agency Cemetery surrounded by the graves of relatives and other Apache prisoners of war. Apache is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans from the Southwest United States; the current division of Apachean groups includes the Western Apache, Mescalero, Jicarilla and Plains Apache. During the centuries of Apache-Mexican and Apache-United States conflict, raiding had become embedded in the Apache way of life, used not only for strategic purposes but as an economic enterprise, there was overlap between raids for economic need and warfare. Raids ranged from stealing livestock and other plunder, to the capture and/or killing of victims, sometimes by torture. Mexicans and Americans responded with retaliatory attacks against the Apache which were no less violent and were seldom limited to identified individual adult enemies; the raiding and retaliation fed the fires of a virulent revenge warfare that reverberated back and forth between Apaches and Mexicans and Apaches and Americans.
From 1850 to 1886 Geronimo, as well as other Apache leaders, conducted attacks, but Geronimo was driven by a desire to take revenge for the murder of his family and accumulated a record of brutality during this time, unmatched by any of his contemporaries. His fighting ability extending over 30 years forms a major characteristic of his persona. Among Geronimo's own Chiricahua tribe many had mixed feelings about him. While respected as a skilled and effective leader of raids or warfare, he emerges as not likable, he was not popular among the other Apache; this was because he refused to give in to American government demands leading to some Apaches fearing the American responses to Geronimo's sense of Indian nationalism. Apache people stood in awe of Geronimo's "powers" which he demonstrated to them on a series of occasions; these powers indicated to other Apaches that Geronimo had super-natural gifts that he could use for good or ill. In eyewitness accounts by other Apaches, Geronimo was able to become aware of distant events as they happened, he was able to anticipate events that were in the future.
He demonstrated powers to heal other Apaches. Geronimo was born to the Bedonkohe band of the Apache, in Arizpe, near Turkey Creek, a tributary of the Gila River in the modern-day state of New Mexico part of Mexico, though the Apache disputed Mexico's claim, his grandfather, had been chief of the Bedonkohe Apache. He had four sisters, his parents raised him according to Apache traditions. Geronimo married a woman named Alope, from the Nedni-Chiricahua band of Apache when he was 17, she was the first of nine wives. On March 5, 1858, a company of 400 Mexican soldiers from Sonora led by Colonel José María Carrasco attacked Geronimo's camp outside Janos while the men were in town trading. Among those killed were his wife and mother; the loss of his family led Geronimo to hate all Mexicans for the rest of his life. Recalling that at the time his band was at peace with the Mexicans, Geronimo remembered the incident as follows: Late one afternoon when returning from town we were met by a few women and children who told us th
Hupmobile was an automobile built from 1909 through 1939 by the Hupp Motor Car Company. The prototype was developed in 1908 and had its first successful run on November 8 with investors aboard for champagne at the Tuller Hotel a few blocks away; the company was incorporated in November of that year. The first Hupmobile model, the Hupp 20, was introduced at the 1909 Detroit automobile show, it was an instant success. In 1909, Bobby Hupp co-founded Hupp Motor Car Company, with Charles Hastings of Oldsmobile, who put up the first US$8500 toward manufacturing Hupp's car, they were joined by investors J. Walter Drake, Joseph Drake, John Baker, Edwin Denby. Drake was elected president. Emil Nelson Nelson of Oldsmobile and Packard, joined the company as chief engineer. Hastings was named assistant general manager. In late 1909 Bobby's brother, Louis Gorham Hupp, left his job with the Michigan Central Railroad in Grand Rapids and joined the company. Hupp Motors obtained US$25,000 in cash deposits at the 1909 automobile show to begin manufacturing the Hupp 20.
The first cars were built in a small building at 345 Bellevue Avenue in Michigan. The company outgrew this space and began construction of a factory a few blocks away at E. Jefferson Avenue and Concord, next to the former Oldsmobile plant; the company produced 500 vehicles by the end of the 1909 model year. Production increased to more than 5,000 in the 1910 model year. Henry Ford paid the Hupp 20 the ultimate compliment. "I recall looking at Bobby Hupp's roadster at the first show where it was exhibited and wondering whether we could build as good a small car for as little money." When Hupp left Hupp Motors in 1913, he informed the company his supplier companies would devote their full capacity to make parts for RCH. Facing the loss of manufactured parts from Hupp Corporation and increasing demand for the Hupmobile, Hupp Motors acquired seven acres for a new factory at Mt. Elliott and Milwaukee, it moved into the new plant in late April 1912. Hupp Motors sold the Jefferson Avenue plant to the King Motor Car Company.
In 1911 Hupp became one of two automakers pioneering the use of all-steel bodies, joining BSA in the U. K. Nelson approached Hale & Kilburn Company in Philadelphia looking for help with developing an all-metal body for the Hupp 32. Hale & Kilburn had pioneered the replacement of cast iron with pressed steel for many parts for the interiors of railway carriages. According to Nelson, “None of the Detroit plants would contract” to make an all-steel body for the Hupp 32. Edward Budd and Joseph Ledwinka were employed at Hale & Kilburn at the time, Budd as the general manager and Ledwinka as engineer. Budd was interested in the project. Hale & Kilburn had built some body panels for King and Paige but Budd had grander aspirations the Hupp project would permit him to pursue. Budd and Ledwinka worked with Nelson to develop means to manufacture Nelson's design for this body, they devised a system where the body's numerous steel stampings were welded together by hand and supported by a crude system of angle iron supports that held the welded subassemblies together.
The disassembled bodies were shipped by rail to Detroit where they were put back together and trimmed in the Hupmobile factory. Both the touring car and a coupe were made by this process and one Hupmobile limousine. In 1911 no one, not Nelson, Ledwinka or Budd, thought to patent the process to manufacture all-steel bodies. While the Hupp 32 bodies were in production and Ledwinka left and formed the Edward G. Budd Manufacturing Company. In 1914, Ledwinka received a patent for the process of making all-steel bodies. However, Budd lost a patent infringement litigation it brought against C. R. Wilson Body Company when the court held. "fter the art had developed... Ledwinka has endeavored to go back and cover by a patent that which had become public property.... E is endeavoring to bring under his patent those things which belong to the public." The court relied on the production of the Hupp 32 in 1911 as a major example of the prior art. The opinion does provide insight as to what was or was not novel about the process to manufacture the Hupp 32's body.
Several thousand all steel touring cars were made before Nelson resigned as Chief Engineer in 1912. Hupmobile's commitment to this leading edge approach did not survive his departure; the rest of the Hupp 32 production used conventional body assembly processes. Carl Wickman, a car dealer in Hibbing, used an unsold 7-passenger model as the first vehicle for what became Greyhound. In 1913 Frank E. Watts was hired as a designer. Hupp Motor Car Company continued to grow. Hupp competed against Ford and Chevrolet. DuBois Young became company president in 1924. By 1928 sales had reached over 65,000 units. To increase production and handle sales growth, Hupp purchased the Chandler-Cleveland Motors Corporation for its manufacturing facilities. Sales and production began to fall before the depression in 1930. A strategy to make the Hupmobile a larger, more expensive car began with the 1925 introduction of an 8-cylinder model, followed by the elimination of the 4-cylinder Hupmobile after 1925. While aiming for a more lucrative market segment, Hupp turned its back on its established clientele