The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Nation, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Alberto Fernández was sworn into office on 10 December 2019; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of 25 May 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compositio
Glendon Oakley Jr. is an African-American United States Army private, called a "hero" for preventing many deaths during the 2019 El Paso shooting. Oakley was born circa 1997, he grew up in Texas. He is the son of a retired sergeant major and a retired master sergeant, the brother of a retired captain. Oakley was recruited by the United States Army in Georgia, he graduated from Basic Combat Training and Advanced Individual Training in March 2018. He now serves as a private in the 1st Armored Division at Fort Bliss, he is the recipient of the National Defense Service Medal, the Global War on Terrorism Service Medal, the Army Service Ribbon. On August 4, 2019, Oakley was off duty and shopping at a Foot Locker store near the Cielo Vista Mall when he became aware of the shooting, he explained: I didn't think. I just grabbed as many kids as I ran five stores down to the exit. We ran into a whole batch of police pointing their guns at us. I wasn't focused on myself, I wasn't focused on my surroundings...
I was just focused on those kids. Oakley was praised by El Paso police Chief Greg Allen for saving many lives. During his El Paso visit on August 8, 2019, President Donald J. Trump met Oakley and remarked, "What a job he did." James Shaw Jr
In computer networking, a unicast flood is when a switch receives a unicast frame and treats it as a broadcast frame, flooding the frame to all other ports on the switch. The term unicast refers to a one-to-one transmission from one point in the network to another point. Conventionally, unicast is considered more secure because the frame is delivered to the intended recipient and not to multiple hosts; this diagram illustrates the unicast transmission of a frame from one network host to another: When a switch receives a unicast frame with a destination address not in the switch’s forwarding table, the frame is treated like a broadcast frame and sent to all hosts on a network: The learning process of transparent bridging requires that the switch receive a frame from a device before unicast frames can be forwarded to it. Before any such transmission is received, unicast flooding is used to assure transmission reach their intended destination; this is a short-lived condition as receipt produces a response which completes the learning process.
The process occurs when a device is connected to a network, is moved from one port to another or after 5 minutes of inactivity when the device is purged from the forwarding table. A switch that has no room left in its address cache will flood the frame out to all ports; this is a common problem on networks with many hosts. Less common is the artificial flooding of address tables—this is termed MAC flooding. Another common cause are hosts with ARP timers longer than the address cache timeout on switches—the switch forgets which port connects to the host. Devices other than switches may create unicast floods as well. A router which has a bridge interface but does not have the destination frame's address in the bridge cache will flood the frame out to all bridge members. Misconfigured features of the networks may lead to unicast flooding as well. If there are two layer 2 paths from Host A to B and Host A uses path 1 to talk to Host B, but Host B uses path 2 to respond to Host A intermediate switches on path 1 will never learn the destination MAC address of Host B and intermediate switches on path 2 will never learn the destination MAC address of Host A.
A final cause of unicast floods are topology changes. When a link state changes on a network port which participates in rapid spanning tree, the address cache on that switch will be flushed causing all subsequent frames to be flooded out of all ports until the addresses are learned by the switch. There are several remedies discussed in the links above, but for many situations, a low end switch needs to be replaced with a higher end switch—one that has a larger address table and one that can block unicast floods. Blocking unicast floods on a Cisco switch is easy to do. After ensuring that timeouts and/or security features have been configured to maintain table entries on client access ports longer than typical host ARP cache timeouts, this command is used to quiet down the unicast floods on those ports: Switch# switchport block unicast Other techniques involve isolating hosts at Layer 2, which blocks intra-LAN communication not destined to the router. A handy tool is the Switch# switchport protected or a more robust, cross-switch solution than'switchport protected' is the use of Private VLANs.
When a network is experiencing unicast flooding, network performance is degraded. Here is an graph of a bridge before and after adjusting the size of the bridge address cache: 80% of the frames were flooded out never to be received by the destination address, while 20% was valid traffic. In high volume networks, the flooded traffic may cause ports to saturate and lead to packet loss and high latency. Another side effect of exhausted address tables is the compromise of data; the security considerations are discussed in the MAC flooding—one of several causes of unicast floods. If an end user is running a packet sniffer, the flooded frames could be captured and viewed