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President of France

The President of France the President of the French Republic, is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic. In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country; the powers and duties of prior presidential offices, as well as their relation with the prime minister and Government of France, have over time differed with the various constitutional documents since the French Second Republic. The president of the French Republic is the ex officio co-prince of Andorra, grand master of the Legion of Honour and of the National Order of Merit; the officeholder is honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome; the current president of the French Republic is Emmanuel Macron, who succeeded François Hollande on 14 May 2017. The presidency of France was first publicly proposed during the July Revolution of 1830, when it was offered to the Marquis de Lafayette, he demurred in favour of Prince Louis Phillipe. Eighteen years during the opening phases of the Second Republic, the title was created for a popularly elected head of state, the first of whom was Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, nephew of Emperor Napoleon.

Bonaparte served in that role until he staged an auto coup against the republic, proclaiming himself Napoleon III, Emperor of the French. Under the Third Republic and Fourth Republic, which were parliamentary systems, the office of President of the Republic was a ceremonial and powerless one; the Constitution of the Fifth Republic increased the President's powers. A 1962 referendum changed the constitution, so that the president would be directly elected by universal suffrage and not by the Parliament. In 2000, a referendum shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years. A maximum of two consecutive terms was imposed after the 2008 constitutional reform. Since the referendum on the direct election of the president of the French Republic in 1962, the officeholder has been directly elected by universal suffrage. After the referendum on the reduction of the mandate of the President of the French Republic, 2000, the length of the term was reduced to five years from the previous seven.

President Jacques Chirac was first elected in 1995 and again in 2002. At that time, there was no limit on the number of terms, so Chirac could have run again, but chose not to, he was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 16 May 2007. Following a further change, the constitutional law on the modernisation of the institutions of the Fifth Republic, 2008, a president cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac are the only presidents to date who have served a full two terms. In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed nominations from more than 500 elected officials mayors; these officials must be from at least 30 départements or overseas collectivities, no more than 10% of them should be from the same département or collectivity. Furthermore, each official may nominate only one candidate. There are 45,543 elected officials, including 33,872 mayors. Spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are regulated.

There is a cap on spending and government public financing of 50% of spending if the candidate scores more than 5%. If the candidate receives less than 5% of the vote, the government funds €8,000,000 to the party. Advertising on TV is forbidden, but official time is given to candidates on public TV. An independent agency regulates party financing. French presidential elections are conducted via run-off voting, which ensures that the elected president always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off. After a new president is elected, they go through a solemn investiture ceremony called a passation des pouvoirs; the French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the French president is quite powerful. Although the Prime Minister of France, through their Government as well as the Parliament, oversees much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs, the French president wields significant influence and authority in the fields of national security and foreign policy.

The President's greatest power is the ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since the French National Assembly has the sole power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the President is forced to name a Prime Minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly, they have the duty of arbitrating the well-functioning of governmental authorities for efficient service, as the Head of State of France. When the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the president, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the President's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive Prime Minister and National Assembly, is not directly attributed to the post of President; when the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The Prime Minister is the personal choice of the President, can be replaced if the administration becomes unpopular.

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Madan Mohan Malaviya

Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya (pronunciation was an Indian scholar, educational reformer and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement and as the four times president of Indian National Congress. He was respectfully addressed as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and addressed as Mahamana. Malaviya strived to promote modern education among Indians and founded Banaras Hindu University at Varanasi in 1916, created under the B. H. U. Act, 1915; the largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world, having over 40,000 students across arts, sciences, linguistic, Ritual medical, performing arts and technology from all over the world. He was Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University from 1919–1938, he is remembered for his role in ending the Indian indenture system in the Caribbean. His efforts in helping the Indo-Caribbeans is compared to Mahatma Gandhi's efforts of helping Indian South Africans. Malaviya was one of the founders of Scouting in India, he founded a influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909.

He was the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. His efforts resulted in the launch of its Hindi edition named Hindustan Dainik in 1936, he was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, a day before his 153rd Birth Anniversary. Malaviya was born in Allahabad, North-Western Provinces, India on 25 December 1861, in a Brahmin family to Pandit Baijnath and Moona Devi Malaviya, his ancestors, known for their Sanskrit scholarship hailed from Malwa in the present-day state of Madhya Pradesh and hence came to be known as'Malaviyas'. Their original surname was Chaturvedi, his father was a learned man in Sanskrit scriptures, used to recite the Srimad Bhagavatam. Malaviya was traditionally educated at two Sanskrit Pathshalas and continued education at an English school. Malaviya started his schooling at Hardeva's Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala, where he completed his primary education and another school run by Vidha Vardini Sabha, he joined Allahabad Zila School, where he started writing poems under the pen name Makarand which were published in journals and magazines.

Malaviya matriculated in 1879 from the Muir Central College, now known as Allahabad University. Harrison College's Principal provided a monthly scholarship to Malaviya, whose family had been facing financial hardships, he was able to complete his B. A. at the University of Calcutta. Although he wanted to pursue an M. A. in Sanskrit, his family conditions did not allow it and his father wanted him to take his family profession of Bhagavat recital, thus in July 1884 Madan Mohan Malaviya started his career as an assistant master at the Govt High School in Allahabad. In December 1886, Malaviya attended the 2nd Indian National Congress session in Calcutta under chairmanship of Dadabhai Naoroji, where he spoke on the issue of representation in Councils, his address not only impressed Dadabhai but Raja Rampal Singh, ruler of Kalakankar estate near Allahabad, who started a Hindi weekly Hindustan but was looking for a suitable editor to turn it into a daily. Thus in July 1887, he left his school job and joined as the editor of the nationalist weekly, he remained here for two and a half years, left for Allahabad to join L.

L. B, it was here that he was offered co-editorship of an English daily. After finishing his law degree, he started practising law at Allahabad District Court in 1891, moved to Allahabad High Court by December 1893. Malaviya became the President of the Indian National Congress in 1909 and 1918, he was a moderate leader and opposed the separate electorates for Muslims under the Lucknow Pact of 1916. The "Mahamana" title was conferred to him by Mahatma Gandhi. To redeem his resolve to serve the cause of education and social-service he renounced his well established practice of law in 1911, for ever. In order to follow the tradition of Sannyasa throughout his life, he pursued the avowed commitment to live on the society's support, but when 177 freedom fighters were convicted to be hanged in the Chauri-chaura case he appeared before the court, despite his vow and got acquitted 156 freedom fighters. He remained a member of the Imperial Legislative Council from 1912 and when in 1919 it was converted to the Central Legislative Assembly he remained its member as well, till 1926.

Malaviya was an important figure in the Non-cooperation movement. However, he was opposed to the politics of appeasement and the participation of Congress in the Khilafat movement. In 1928 he joined Lala Lajpat Rai, Jawaharlal Nehru and many others in protesting against the Simon Commission, set up by the British to consider India's future. Just as the "Buy British" campaign was sweeping England, he issued, on 30 May 1932, a manifesto urging concentration on the "Buy Indian" movement in India. Malaviya was a delegate at the Second Round Table Conference in 1931. However, during the Civil Disobedience Movement, he was arrested on 25 April 1932, along with 450 other Congress volunteers in Delhi, only a few days after he was appointed in 1932 at Delhi as the President of Congress after the arrest of Sarojini Naidu. In 1933, at Calcutta, Malaviya was again appointed as the President of the Congress, thus before Independence, Malaviya was the only leader of the Indian National Congress, appointed as its President for four terms.

On 25 September 1932, an agreement known as Poona Pact was signed between Dr. Malaviya; the agreement gave reserved seats for the depressed classes

2006 IBSF World Snooker Championship

The 2006 IBSF World Snooker Championship was an amateur snooker event, sanctioned by the International Billiards and Snooker Federation, held at the Amman Olympics Sports Centre in Amman, Jordan from November 5-November 15, 2006. A total of 32 players qualified for finishing in the top 4 positions in eight groups, they were drawn into a 32 player knock-out bracket to decide the winner. Source: Snooker SceneReanne Evans, the 2004 champion, did not enter the event. There were twenty entries, two qualifying groups of ten players were set, each to be played as a round-robin, with the top four from each group qualifying for the eight-player knock-out phase to decide the winner. Following withdrawals, only nine players participated in each group. Wendy Jans scored nine of the eleven top breaks in the competition on her way to winning the title. Official event website