President of Iran

The President of Iran is the head of government of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The President is the highest-ranking official of Iran; the President carries out the decrees, answers to the Supreme Leader of Iran, who functions as the country's head of state. Unlike the executive in other countries, the President of Iran does not have full control over the government, under the control of the Supreme Leader; the President of Iran is elected for a four-year term by direct vote and not permitted to run for a third term or serve for more than 8 years in the office. Chapter IX of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran sets forth the qualifications for presidential candidates; the procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President functions as the executive of the decrees and wishes of the Supreme Leader, including: signing treaties with foreign countries and international organizations; the President appoints the ministers, subject to the approval of Parliament, the Supreme Leader who can dismiss or reinstate any of the ministers at any time, regardless of the president or parliament's decision.

The Supreme Leader directly chooses the ministries of Defense and Foreign Affairs, as well as certain other ministries, such as the Science Ministry. Iran's regional policy is directly controlled by the office of the Supreme Leader with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ task limited to protocol and ceremonial occasions. All of Iran's ambassadors to Arab countries, for example, are chosen by the Quds Corps, which directly reports to the Supreme Leader; the current long-time Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, ruling Iran for nearly three decades, has issued decrees and made final decisions on economy, foreign policy, national planning, everything else in the country. Khamenei has made final decisions on the degree of transparency in elections in Iran, has fired and reinstated Presidential cabinet appointments; the current President of Iran is Hassan Rouhani, assumed office on 3 August 2013, after the 2013 Iranian presidential election. He succeeded Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, who served 8 years in office from 2005 to 2013.

Rouhani won re-election in the 2017 presidential election. After the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and referendum to create the Islamic Republic on March 29 and 30, the new government needed to craft a new constitution. Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, ordered an election for the Assembly of Experts, the body tasked with writing the constitution; the assembly presented the constitution on October 24, 1979, Supreme Leader Ruhollah Khomeini and Prime Minister Mehdi Bazargan approved it. The 1979 Constitution designated the Supreme Leader of Iran as the head of state and the President and Prime Minister as the heads of government; the post of Prime Minister was abolished in 1989. The first Iranian presidential election was held on January 25, 1980 and resulted in the election of Abulhassan Banisadr with 76% of the votes. Banisadr was impeached on June 1981 by Parliament; until the early election on July 24, 1981, the duties of the President were undertaken by the Provisional Presidential Council. Mohammad-Ali Rajai was elected President on July 24, 1981 and took office on August 2.

Rajai was in office for less than one month because he and his prime minister were both assassinated. Once again a Provisional Presidential Council filled the office until October 13, 1981 when Ali Khamenei was elected president; the election on August 3, 2005 resulted in a victory for Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. The election on June 12, 2009 was reported by government authorities as a victory for Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the incumbent candidate, although this is disputed by supporters of rival candidates, who noted the statistical anomalies in voting reports and large-scale overvoting in the announced tallies. Ali Khamenei, Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and Hassan Rouhani were each elected president for two terms; the procedures for presidential election and all other elections in Iran are outlined by the Supreme Leader. The President of Iran is elected for a four-year term in a national election by universal adult suffrage for everyone of at least 18 years of age. Candidates for the presidency must be approved by the Council of Guardians, a twelve-member body consisting of six clerics and six lawyers.

According to the Constitution of Iran candidates for the presidency must possess the following qualifications: Iranian origin. Within these guidelines the Council vetoes candidates; the approval process is considered to be a check on the president's power, amounts to a small number of candidates being approved. In the 1997 election, for example, only four out of 238 presidential candidates were approved by the council. Western observers have criticized the approvals process as a way for the Council and Supreme Leader to ensure that only conservative and like-minded Islamic fundamentalists can win office. However, the council rejects the criticism, citing approval of so-called refo

Lechmere Canal

Lechmere Canal is a short canal in East Cambridge, Massachusetts. It opens onto the Charles River and used to be an active port for Boston Harbor and the Atlantic Ocean; the canal was constructed in 1895 by walling off an existing portion of the Charles around, laid landfill. The area was an active seaport until the Charles River Dam Bridge was interposed between it and Boston Harbor in 1910; the canal's original right of way appears to have been granted by several deeds in 1834, as conveyed by the Proprietors of Canal Bridge, the predecessor of the Charles River Dam Bridge. Landing near Water Street, this was the second bridge to connect eastern Cambridge to western Boston, after the West Boston Bridge. In this area on the south side of what is now Monsignor O'Brien Highway was waterfront property; the deeds conveyed canal passage as well as "the privilege of a dock 100 feet in width on the south-westerly side of the aforegranted premises. Its south spur seems to have been authorized by the Harbor Commissioners in 1874.

This extension was allowed to be 120 feet wide and some 900 feet long, would be created in the midst of landfill as the harbor was filled. After landfilling it would parallel First Street from the current terminus, passing where the main hall of the Cambridgeside Galleria is now, extending to Bent Street. Today the canal has been incorporated into the East Cambridge Embankment, serves as a scenic accent to the surrounding neighborhood and park, it is northwest of the Museum of Science near Lechmere Square. It is used by the Charles River Boat Company, which operates pleasure trips from a mooring in front of the Galleria. Private boats can use the moorings there for mall access. Massachusetts Committee on Charles River Dam, Henry Smith Pritchett, chairman and Arguments Before the Committee on Charles River Dam, Wright & Potter Printing Co. State Printers, 1903. Pages 459-461

István Friedrich

István Friedrich was a Hungarian politician and factory owner who served as Prime Minister of Hungary for three months between August and November in 1919. His tenure coincided with a period of political instability in Hungary after World War I, during which several successive governments ruled the country. Friedrich was born into a family of German origin as the son pharmacist János Friedrich and Erzsébet Wagner on 1 July 1883 in the town of Malacka, he finished his secondary studies at the High Gymnasium of Pozsony. As a right winger footballer of the Műegyetemi AFC, he played once for the Hungary national football team on 9 October 1904, when they suffered a 4–5 defeat against Austria in WAC-Platz. Thus, Friedrich became the first prime minister in the world history who had earlier played for a national football team on a professional level. Following the game, he functioned as a referee. Friedrich studied engineering at the universities of Budapest and Charlottenburg before studying law at Budapest and Berlin.

He worked as an engineer for AEG in Berlin until 1908. That year he returned to Hungary and married Margit Asbóth, daughter of Emil Asbóth, the owner of the Ganz-Danubius Company, one of the largest industrial conglomerates in Hungary, although he did not work for his father-in-law, instead setting up his own business in Mátyásföld, on the outskirts of the Hungarian capital. On his return to Hungary he was owned an iron foundry. Friedrich spent eight years working as an emigrant in the United States. In 1912 he joined the Independence Party of Mihály Károlyi and was considered as part of the left wing of the liberals. During that time he came in contact with a Masonic lodge. Soon, Friedrich became president of his party's Mátyásföld branch. In 1914 he had accompanied Mihály Károlyi to the United States and since was one of his closest friends. Károlyi recalled him as a "youtful and enthusiastic" who held in high esteem for his "resolute desire for peace". On his way home, Friedrich was interned in France for a short time following the outbreak of the World War I.

Returning to Hungary after a successful escape through Spain and Italy, he volunteered and served in the Austro-Hungarian Army, in the artillery, with the rank of lieutenant, fought at the Uzsok Pass in Carpathian Ruthenia. After having been declared unfit for service on the front, he went to work as a rearguard in Pilsen and Vienna served as commander of a technical repair unit until his demobilisation from the army in 1917. During the Aster Revolution at the end of World War I, he led large protests at the Royal Palace of Budapest to demand the appointment of the Károlyi government. Following the formation of the government on 31 October, he was appointed Secretary of State for War in Károlyi's first cabinet on 1 November, which came under his control because of the small size of his superior, minister Béla Linder's entity. According to Károlyi, Friedrich was an "uncontrollable demagogue." The old enthusiasm between the prime minister and his deputy minister cooled quickly. Friedrich approached the more conservative section of the party, while Károlyi relied on the Social Democrats.

Károlyi proclaimed himself a follower of Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points, thus he and his followers trusted the Entente Powers and pinned their hopes for maintaining Hungary's territorial integrity, the securing of a separate peace, exploiting Károlyi's close connections in France. By contrast, Friedrich, as a prominent member of the moderate wing, rejected Károlyi's "naive" foreign policy and sought to set up a powerful army under the old leadership of military officers, contradicting Linder's pacifist manifesto. After the dismissal of Linder, Friedrich was a close associate of Albert Bartha, the new defence minister, he maintained a relationship with counter-revolutionary groups, thus drifted into the political right-wing. In the dismemberment of the party that took place in January 1919 between conservatives and progressives, Friedrich left, along with the majority, while Károlyi only managed to keep less than a quarter of the party next to him. Friedrich was dismissed as Secretary of State for War on 8 February 1919.

He formed an opposition party along with other former cabinet members, such as Minister of Education Márton Lovászy and Minister of the Interior Tivadar Batthyány. In the coming decades, several former colleagues, including Lajos Varjassy, Oszkár Jászi and Mihály Károlyi himself regarded Friedrich as a traitor, who had joined the reactionary forces, abandoning the cause of the short-lived liberal democracy in Hungary. Following the resignation of the coalition government of Dénes Berinkey on 20 March 1919, caused by the intention of the Entente to further reduce the territory controlled by Hungary, the Social Democrats called the Communists to a coalition government, which gained power the next day, leading to the establishment of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. Most prominent liberals took refuge in the countryside. However, Lovászy and Friedrich remained in the capital. In the face of the Hungarian-Romanian War, the new Soviet government took numerous hostages. On 19 April the authorities arrested Friedrich and sentenced him to death for counter-revolutionary activities.

With the aid of People's Commissar Zsigmond Kunfi, a former member of the Károlyi Cabinet, he managed to have the sentence commuted and soon managed to escape with the aid of some of the wo