South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Moon Jae-in is a South Korean politician serving as the 19th and current President of South Korea since 2017. He was elected after the impeachment of Park Geun-hye as the candidate of the Democratic Party. A former student activist, human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun, Moon served as Leader of Democratic Party and a member of the 19th National Assembly, he was a candidate for the former Democratic United Party in the 2012 presidential election in which he lost narrowly to Park Geun-hye. As President, Moon Jae-in has met with North Korean chairman Kim Jong-un at the April 2018 inter-Korean summit, May 2018 inter-Korean summit, September 2018 inter-Korean summit. Born in Geoje, South Korea, during the last year of the Korean War, Moon Jae-in was the second child and oldest son among five children of father Moon Yong-hyung and mother Kang Han-ok, his parents were refugees from South Hamgyeong Province, North Korea, who fled their native city of Hungnam during the Hungnam evacuation during Korean War.
His family settled in Busan. Since his father did not want to become a government employee, as he had been in North Korea, his father started a business selling socks, which left his family in great debt, his mother became the breadwinner by selling clothes received from relief organisations and delivering briquettes. Moon's family became attached to the Catholic Church when his mother went to the local cathedral to receive whole milk powder. Moon once said in an interview that he didn't know how to ride a bike since his family was too poor to afford a bike or monthly school tuition. Moon entered Kyungnam High School at the top of his class, he was accepted to study law at Kyung Hee University with a full scholarship. There he met Kim Jung-sook. After he organized a student protest against the Yushin Constitution, he was arrested, convicted and expelled from the university, he was conscripted into the military and assigned to the South Korean special forces, where he participated in "Operation Paul Bunyan" during the Axe murder incident in Panmunjom.
After his discharge, the death of his father influenced him to decide to take the bar exam. He went into Daeheungsa, the Buddhist temple, to study for the exam and passed the first of two rounds in 1979. In 1980 he returned to school to complete his remaining year of studies; that year, he passed the second round and was admitted to the Judicial Research and Training Institute. He graduated second in his class but was not admitted to become a judge or government prosecutor due to his history of activism against the Yushin dictatorship under Park Chung-hee's rule as a student. Moon chose to go into private practice instead. After becoming a lawyer, he worked with future President Roh Moo-hyun in the 1980s. Along with Roh, he took cases involving human rights and civil rights issues defending labor rights activists and students persecuted for opposing Korea's military dictatorship, they remained friends up until Roh's suicide in 2009. He was a founding member of the progressive South Korean newspaper, The Hankyoreh, in 1988.
Yielding to Roh's insistence, Moon became Roh's campaign manager during his presidential bid. After Roh's victory, Moon became Roh's chief presidential secretary and close aide holding various roles in a presidential administration. Moon held roles as Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Society, Senior Presidential Secretary for Civil Affairs, Chief Presidential Secretary from 2003-2008. Moon was the chairperson of the Promotion of the 2nd North-South Korea Summit. Despite his earlier indifference, he began to get involved in politics, he published. His popularity had been rising steady against the opponent in the presidential race, Park Geun-hye. For instance, in a February 2012 poll, Moon rivaled Park in popularity. Moon managed to capitalize on the conservatives' decline in popularity amid a series of corruption scandals; as one pundit said, "Moon had managed to portray himself as a moderate and rational leader who has the backing of the younger generation".
In 2012, Moon entered a bid for a seat in the National Assembly in the 19th legislative election. Moon won a seat in the Sasang District of Busan on 11 April 2012 as a member of the Democratic United Party with 55% of the vote. On 16 September 2012, Moon received the presidential nomination for the Democratic United Party, he ran for the 2012 presidential election as the Democratic United Party's candidate in a three-way race against Park Geun-hye, the incumbent ruling party's candidate and daughter of the late president Park Chung-hee, as well as independent software mogul Ahn Cheol-soo. Ahn dropped out of the race and endorsed Moon after polls showed a most definitive loss for both candidates were there to be a three-way race against Park. Moon went on to lose the election. Moon was elected as the leader of New Politics Alliance for Democracy on 2 February 2015. Prior to his election, Moon and NPAD party leader and 2012 presidential candidate rival Ahn Cheol-soo had many public disputes over the direction of the party.
Moon's official role led Ahn Cheol-soo to form the centrist People's Party. Ahn's departure and Moon's new tenure as party leader led to renaming the liberal, NPAD Party as the new Democratic Party. During his leadership, Moon scouted several politically prominent people, including police studies/criminology expert Pyo Chang-won, political critic Lee Chul-hee, former president Park's secretary Cho Ung-chun to prepare f
Prime Minister of South Korea
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea is appointed by the President of South Korea, with the National Assembly's approval. The officeholder is not required to be a member of the National Assembly; the Prime Minister is not the head of government but rather serves in a role similar to that of a vice president. The Sino-Korean word gungmu means "state affairs" and chongni means "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor", so the full title in Korean means "Prime Minister for State Affairs", but it is not used as official English title; the short title in Korean is just Chongni. The position was created on 31 July 1948, two weeks before the government of South Korea was founded, was held by Lee Beom-seok until 1950; the title was Chief Cabinet Minister from 1961 until 1963. On 27 April 2014, Prime Minister Chung Hong-won announced his desire to resign. However, due to unsuccessful nominations, Chung remained in office until February 2015. On 23 January 2015, President Park Geun-hye named Saenuri's Floor Leader Lee Wan-koo as the new Prime Minister.
Lee was confirmed by the National Assembly as Prime Minister on 16 February 2015. However, on April 20 of the same year, he offered his resignation to the President in the midst of a bribery scandal; the Prime Minister is the principal executive assistant to the President, while the president is the actual head of government, but not the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister holds the second position after the President in the State Council of South Korea, the nominal cabinet of South Korea; the Prime Minister assists the President by supervising ministries, making recommendations for ministers, serves as the Vice-Chairman of the Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the first in the order of succession to discharge the duties of the office of the President as the Acting President should the president be unable to discharge her or his office; the most recent person to have served as Acting President was Hwang Kyo-ahn, during the impeachment of Park Geun-hye in 2016. A Prime Minister, appointed by the President but not yet confirmed by the National Assembly is informally called as the acting Prime Minister.
The term may be applied to a Prime Minister that has resigned but in the interim remains in office in a caretaker role. The Prime Minister's Office is supported by two deputy prime ministers; the Prime Minister of South Korea have some professional background. Whereas the President is always a sole politician. Prime Minister of Korea List of Korea-related topics Politics of South Korea Office for Government Policy Coordination, Prime Minister's Secretariat South Korea at worldstatesmen.org
Supreme Court of South Korea
The Supreme Court of Korea is the highest court in South Korea. It is located in Seoul. Articles 101–110 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea establish the Supreme Court and enumerate its powers and responsibilities. Although the Supreme Court is the highest court for most legal issues, the Constitutional Court of Korea is the court of last resort for more specialized constitutional issues such as impeaching presidents or dissolving political parties; the Supreme Court of Korea is composed of the Chief Justice of the Republic of Korea, 13 other Supreme Court Justices, 12 of which have adjudicatory functions. The 13th justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the Chief Justice as the Minister of Court Administration, does not participate in rendering judicial opinions; the Chief Justice of Korea is appointed to the court by the President with the consent of the National Assembly of South Korea, serves a non-renewable term of six years from the time of appointment. The Chief Justice acts as the head of the judicial branch of the Republic of Korea, has broad administrative powers under the Constitution, including the right to recommend other justices to the Supreme Court and the right to appoint judges of the inferior courts.
The current Chief Justice is Kim Myeong‐soo. The 13 other Justices are appointed to the court by the President on the recommendation of the Chief Justice and the consent of the National Assembly, serve renewable terms of six years. By law, to be eligible for appointment to the Supreme Court, a person must be over 40, have spent at least 15 years: as a judge, public prosecutor, or lawyer or engaged in legal affairs at the state organs, local governments, state-run or public enterprises, state-financed institutions while qualified as a lawyer or in an office higher than assistant professor in the field of jurisprudence at an authorized college or university while qualified as a lawyer. For the most part, Supreme Court Justices are appointed from the bench. Supreme Court Justices are required to retire at age 70; the Supreme Court employs a number of research judges, whose function is to assist the Justices in researching their opinions. These research judges may either be assigned to a particular justice, or else belong to a'pool' that provides assistance to any Justice.
The research judges are appointed from among the judges of the other courts presiding judges of the district courts or else associate judges of the high courts. As of September 2012, there are 106 research judges including 1 Chief research judge and 1 Senior research judge. In addition, there are 10 non-judge researchers; as the court of last resort for the Republic of Korea, the Supreme Court has appellate jurisdiction over cases in the South Korean legal system. Additionally, the Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over challenges to the validity of a presidential or parliamentary election and the power to review the constitutionality and legality of rules, orders and actions of administrative entities; the Supreme Court is organized into each consisting of four Justices. The Petty Benches hear cases from the lower courts, which they may overturn by consensus. Should the Petty Bench assigned to a case fail to reach a consensus, the case will be heard by the Grand Bench; the Grand Bench must be composed of more than two-thirds of the Justices and be presided over by the Chief Justice.
Unlike the Petty Benches, the Grand Bench can enter judgments by simple majority, rather than needing a consensus. If no majority can be reached amongst the Justices sitting on the Grand Bench, the judgment of the lower court is sustained by default. In addition to cases that fail to garner a consensus in one of the petty benches, the Grand Bench hears cases where it is deemed that any order, rule, or regulation is in violation of the laws or the Constitution, where a previous opinion of the Supreme Court needs modification, or in cases where adjudication by the Petty Benches would not be appropriate. In addition to its adjudicative functions, the Supreme Court is responsible for the administration of the South Korean court system; the Supreme Court Justices Council comprises the highest body of court administration in the Republic of Korea. This council is presided over by the Chief Justice, with all of the Justices of the Supreme Court sitting on the Council; the Council has the power to promulgate the rules of procedure for the Supreme Court and lower courts, select judicial precedents for publication, request the budget for the judicial branch, rule on other matters which are referred to it by the Chief Justice.
In addition, the Council is responsible for confirming the nominations of the Chief Justice of judges for the lower courts. To pass a resolution, the Justices Council requires a quorum of more than two-thirds of the Justices of the Supreme Court, a majority of which must approve of the proposed measure; the Chief Justice has a vote on the Council, is given the prerogative to cast the deciding vote in the event of a tie. The National Court Administration is headed by the Minister of the National Court Administration, handles much of the daily operation and general administrative duties of the judicial branch; the Minister and Vice Minister of the National Court Administration have the right to address the National Assembly and the State Council on issues related to court administration. The court and its administrative offices are housed in a 66,500 square meter building located at 967 Seocho-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul; this has been the home of the Supreme Court of South Korea since December 1, 1995.
Before moving to its new building, the court was housed in a 10,300 square meter building built in 1928 as well as two annex buildings at 37 Seosomun-dong, Jung-gu, Seoul. List of
Elections in South Korea
Elections in South Korea are held on national level to select the President and the National Assembly. Local elections are held every four years to elect governors, metropolitan mayors, municipal mayors, provincial and municipal legislatures; the president is directly elected for a single five-year term by plurality vote. The National Assembly has 300 members elected for a four-year term, 253 in single-seat constituencies and 47 members by proportional representation; each individual party willing to represent its policies in the National Assembly is qualified on the legislative election if: i) the national party-vote reaches over 3% on proportional contest or ii) more than 5 members of the party are elected from each of their first-past-the-post election constituencies. Since the 2017 presidential elections, South Korea has two main parties, the left-leaning Democratic Party of Korea and the conservative Liberty Korea Party. In addition, there are three significant minor parties: the centrist Party for Democracy and Peace, the liberal-conservative Bareun Party and the progressive Justice Party.
Polling places are located in schools. During the absentee or early voting period, voters can vote at any polling place in the country. On election day, voters may only vote at polling places in their registered constituency. Korean voters mark paper ballots with a rubber stamp using red ink. There is one race per ballot paper. Korea uses a central count model. After the polls close, ballot boxes are sealed and transported to the constituency's counting center. Traditionally ballots were hand counted, optical scanners have been adopted since 3rd local elections held on 13th June, 2002; the scanners resemble cash sorter machines. Stacks are counted using machines resembling currency counting machines. Korean elections have been praised as a model of best practice. However, the legality of the introduction of optical scan technology has been challenged and there have been allegations of rigged counting. Seat changes are compared to previous election, not the outgoing Assembly1 Comparison based on 2012 Democratic United Party result2 Comparison includes members elected in 2012 for the Liberty Forward Party3 Non-parliamentary grouping: not to be confused with the larger Democratic Party of Korea, more referred to as the Minjoo Party South Korean local elections, 2010 South Korean local elections, 2014 History of South Korea Constitution of South Korea Electoral calendar Electoral system List of Korea-related topics Nahm, A.
C.. Korea: A history of the Korean people. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 978-1-56591-070-6. Lee, Il-cheong. 인명국사대사전 (Inmyeong guksa daesajeon, Unabridged biographical dictionary of Korean history. Seoul: Goryeo Munhaksa. Lee, Ki-baik. A new history of Korea. Seoul: Ilchokak. ISBN 978-89-337-0204-8. Overview of candidates and outcomes of South Korean elections since 1952 Comment on the October 26, 2005 by-election results
2017 South Korean presidential election
Presidential elections were held in South Korea on 9 May 2017, after the impeachment and dismissal of Park Geun-hye. The elections were conducted in a single round on a first-past-the-post basis, had been scheduled for 20 December 2017. However, they were brought forward after the decision of the Constitutional Court on 10 March 2017 to uphold the National Assembly's impeachment of Park. Following procedures set out in the Constitution of South Korea, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn succeeded Park as the acting president. After Park was removed from the office by the Constitutional Court's ruling, acting president Hwang announced he would not run for a term in his own right. Opinion polling before April placed the Democratic Party's candidate, Moon Jae-in, runner-up in the 2012 elections, as the front-runner. Second place in the opinion polls was held by former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, who declined to run in February, followed by Ahn Hee-jung, whilst he lost the Democratic primaries to Moon.
Support for People's Party founder Ahn Cheol-soo surged, threatening Moon's lead in the polls throughout early April, before descending to equal that of Liberty Korea Party's candidate, Hong Jun-pyo, in final polls. Unlike the previous presidential elections, the new president-elect assumed the office upon the confirmation of results by the National Election Commission, with the inauguration at the National Assembly on the same day. Park Geun-hye of the conservative Saenuri Party won the previous presidential election in 2012, succeeding Lee Myung-bak of the same party; the Saenuri Party lost the parliamentary election in April 2016, with opposition parties including liberal Democratic Party of Korea and People's Party winning a majority in the National Assembly. Commentators described the result as leaving Park a lame duck president, as she may not run again under South Korea's one-term presidency rule, and the Nikkei Asian Review noted that, in the wake of her "crushing defeat", "rivals sense a prime opportunity to complete the power shift in the December 2017 presidential vote".
The Korea Times stated: "The drama of deals and power struggles for next year's election has begun." On 9 December 2016, President Park was impeached by the National Assembly by a vote of 234 for and 56 against after her implication in the 2016 South Korean political scandal. The Constitutional Court reviewed the motion of impeachment. On 10 March 2017, Park was formally removed from office, with a unanimous ruling by all eight of the Constitutional Court's justices supporting her impeachment. A presidential election would have to be held within 60 days. In the interim, Prime Minister Hwang Kyo-ahn succeeded Park and served out the remainder of the 18th term until election day; the six parties represented in the National Assembly are the social liberal Democratic Party of Korea, the conservative Liberty Korea Party, the centrist People's Party, the conservative Bareun Party, the progressive Justice Party, Pro-Park Geun-hye conservative Saenuri Party. Ballot numbers for party candidates were given according to the candidate's party seat distribution in the National Assembly.
Ballot numbers for independent and minor party candidates were determined through a random lottery by the National Election Commission. A record number of 15 candidates registered, out of. Candidates were determined by an open primary of citizens who registered as a voter between February 15 to March 9, March 12 to March 21. Overall, 2,144,840 people registered as a primary voter, making the 2017 primary the largest in Korean history; the primary was conducted from March 22 to April 3, with the voting base divided by four regions: Honam, Yeongnam and Seoul Capital Area, Gangwon Province, Jeju Province as a single region. 71.6% of the registered voters voted in the primary, putting the vote total at 1,642,640. Candidates were: Moon Jae-in, former party chairman, member of the National Assembly for Busan Sasang District, 2012 Democratic United Party presidential nominee Ahn Hee-jung, Governor of South Chungcheong Province Choi Sung, Mayor of Goyang, former member of the National Assembly for Goyang Lee Jae-myung, Mayor of Seongnam Candidate was determined by a combination of opinion polls, conducted between March 30 to March 31, the votes cast by the delegates at the party convention held in March 31.
Candidates were: Lee In-je, member of the National Assembly Hong Jun-pyo, incumbent governor of South Gyeongsang Province Kim Kwan-yong, incumbent Governor of North Gyeongsang Province Kim Jin-tae, member of the National Assembly for Chuncheon Candidate was chosen by an open primary and an opinion poll conducted between April 4 and 5. The primary was conducted through March 25 with 7 regional primaries being held. Ahn Cheol-soo was declared winner of the primary on April 4; the candidate were: Ahn Cheol-soo, former party co-chairman, former co-chairman of the New Politics Alliance for Democracy, withdrawn presidential candidate in 2012, founder of AhnLab, Inc. member of the National Assembly for Nowon District Sohn Hak-kyu, former member of the National Assembly for Seongnam, former Governor of Gyeonggi Province, former assemblyman for Gwangmyeong Park Joo-seon, deputy speaker of the National Assembly, member of the National Assembly
Excellency is an honorific style given to certain high-level officers of a sovereign state, officials of an international organization, or members of an aristocracy. Once entitled to the title "Excellency", the holder retains the right to that courtesy throughout their lifetime, although in some cases the title is attached to a particular office, is held only for the duration of that office. People addressed as Excellency are heads of state, heads of government, ambassadors, certain ecclesiastics and others holding equivalent rank, it is sometimes misinterpreted as a title of office in itself, but in fact is an honorific that precedes various titles, both in speech and in writing. In reference to such an official, it takes the form Her Excellency; the abbreviation HE is used instead of His/Her Excellency. In most republican nation states, the head of state is formally addressed as Her Excellency. If a republic has a separate head of government, that official is always addressed as Excellency as well.
If the nation is a monarchy, the customs may vary. For example, in the case of Australia, all ambassadors, high commissioners, state governors and the governor-general and their spouses are entitled to the use of Excellency. Governors of colonies in the British Empire were entitled to be addressed as Excellency and this remains the position for the governors of what are now known as British Overseas Territories. In various international organizations, notably the UN and its agencies, Excellency is used as a generic form of address for all republican heads of state and heads of government, it is granted to the organization's head as well, to those chiefs of UN diplomatic missions, such as Resident Coordinators, who are accredited at the Head of State level, or at the lower Head of Government level. In recent years, some international organizations, such as the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, or the European Union, have designated their Permanent Representatives in third countries as Ambassadors, although they do not represent sovereign entities.
This is now accepted, because these Ambassadors rank after the UN representative in the orders of precedence of representatives of international organizations, the UN coming first as pre-eminent, the UN Resident Coordinators are now commonly but informally referred to in diplomatic circles as ambassadors, although the UN itself does not refer to them in this way. Judges of the International Court of Justice are called Your Excellency. In some monarchies the husbands, wives, or children, of a royal prince or princess, who do not possess a princely title themselves, may be entitled to the style. For example, in Spain spouses or children of a born infante or infanta are addressed as Excellency, if not accorded a higher style. Former members of a royal house or family, who did have a royal title but forfeited it, may be awarded the style afterwards. Examples are former husbands or wives of a royal prince or princess, including Alexandra, Countess of Frederiksborg, following her divorce from Prince Joachim of Denmark.
Count Carl Johan Bernadotte of Wisborg, who lost his succession rights to the Swedish throne and discontinued use of his royal titles in 1946 when he married the commoner Elin Kerstin Margaretha Wijkmark, was accorded the style. In some emirates, only the Emir, heir apparent and prime minister are called His Highness, their children are styled with the lower treatment of His/Her Excellency. In Spain members of the high nobility, holding the dignity of grandee, are addressed as The Most Excellent Lord/Lady. In Denmark, some counts those related by blood or marriage to the monarch, who have entered a morganatic marriage or otherwise left the Royal Family have the right to be styled as Your Excellency, e.g. the Counts of Danneskiold-Samsøe, some of the counts of Rosenborg and the Countess of Frederiksborg. Excellency can attach to a prestigious quality, notably in an order of knighthood. For example, in the Empire of Brazil, it was attached to the highest classes, each time called Grand Cross, of all three imperial orders: Imperial Order of Pedro I, Imperial Order of the Southern Cross and Order of the Rose.
In modern days, Knights Collar and Knights Grand Cross of the Spanish Orders of Chivalry, like the Order of Charles III, Order of Isabella the Catholic, Order of Civil Merit, Order of Alfonso X the Wise, Royal Order of Sports Merit, Civil Order of Health, as well as recipients of the Grand Cross of Military and Aeronautical Merit are addressed as such. Furthermore, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Gregory the Great and the Order of St. Sylvester of the Holy See, Knights of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Knights Grand Cross of several other orders of high prestige, are addressed as Excellency. By a decree of the Sacred Congregation of Ceremonial of 31 December 1930 the Holy See granted bishops of the Roman Catholic Church the title of Most Reverend Excellency. In the years following the First World War, the ambassadorial title of Excellency given to nuncios, had begun to be used by other Catholic bishops; the adjective Most Reverend was intended to distinguish the religious title from that of Excellency given to civil officials.