Yoweri Kaguta Museveni is a Ugandan politician, President of Uganda since 1986. Museveni was involved in rebellions that toppled notorious Ugandan leaders Idi Amin and Milton Obote before capturing power in the 80s. In the mid to late 1990s, Museveni was celebrated by the West as part of a new generation of African leaders. During Museveni's presidency, Uganda has experienced relative peace and significant success in battling HIV/AIDS. At the same time, Uganda remains a country suffering from high levels of corruption and poverty. Museveni's presidency has been marred by involvement in the civil war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and other Great Lakes region conflicts; these have been a concern to foreign commentators. Museveni was born on 15 September 1944 in Ntungamo, Uganda Protectorate, to parents Mzee Amos Kaguta, a cattle herder, Esteri Kokundeka Nganzi, a housewife, he is a Muhororo by tribe Museveni gets his middle name from Mzee Amos Kaguta. Kaguta is the father of Museveni's brother Caleb Akandwanaho, popularly known in Uganda as Salim Saleh, sister Violet Kajubiri.
Museveni attended Kyamate Elementary School, Mbarara High School, Ntare School. In 1967, he went to the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. There, he studied economics and political science and became a Marxist, involving himself in radical pan-African politics. While at university, he formed the University Students' African Revolutionary Front activist group and led a student delegation to FRELIMO territory in Portuguese Mozambique, where he received guerrilla training. Studying under the leftist Walter Rodney, among others, Museveni wrote a university thesis on the applicability of Frantz Fanon's ideas on revolutionary violence to post-colonial Africa; the exile forces opposed to Amin invaded Uganda from Tanzania in September 1972 and were repelled, suffering heavy losses. In October and Uganda signed the Mogadishu Agreement that denied the rebels the use of Tanzanian soil for aggression against Uganda. Museveni broke away from the mainstream opposition and formed the Front for National Salvation in 1973.
In August of the same year, he married Janet Kataha. With the overthrow of Idi Amin in 1979 in the Uganda-Tanzania War and the contested election that returned Uganda's earlier president Milton Obote to power in 1980, Museveni returned to Uganda with his supporters to gather strength in their rural strongholds in the Bantu-dominated south and south-west to form the Popular Resistance Army, they planned a rebellion against the second Obote regime and its armed forces, the Uganda National Liberation Army. The insurgency began with an attack on an army installation in the central Mubende district on 6 February 1981; the PRA merged with former president Yusufu Lule's fighting group, the Uganda Freedom Fighters, to create the National Resistance Army with its political wing, the National Resistance Movement. Two other rebel groups, the Uganda National Rescue Front and the Former Uganda National Army, engaged Obote's forces; the FUNA was formed in the West Nile sub-region from the remnants of Amin's supporters.
The NRA/NRM developed a "Ten-point Programme" for an eventual covering: democracy. The Central Intelligence Agency's World Factbook estimates that the Obote regime was responsible for more 100,000 civilian deaths across Uganda. On 27 July 1985, subfactionalism within the Uganda People's Congress government led to a successful military coup against Obote by his former army commander, Lieutenant-General Tito Okello, an Acholi. Museveni and the NRM/NRA were angry that the revolution for which they had fought for four years had been "hijacked" by the UNLA, which they viewed as having been discredited by gross human rights violations during Obote II. Despite these reservations, the NRM/NRA agreed to peace talks presided over by a Kenyan delegation headed by President Daniel arap Moi; the talks, which lasted from 26 August to 17 December, were notoriously acrimonious and the resultant ceasefire broke down immediately. The final agreement, signed in Nairobi, called for a ceasefire, demilitarisation of Kampala, integration of the NRA and government forces, absorption of the NRA leadership into the Military Council.
These conditions were never met. While involved in the peace negotiations, Museveni was courting General Mobutu Sésé Seko of Zaire to forestall the involvement of Zairean forces in support of Okello's military junta. On 20 January 1986, several hundred troops loyal to Amin were accompanied into Ugandan territory by the Zairean military; the forces intervened following secret training in Zaire and an appeal from Okello ten days previously. By 22 January, government troops in Kampala had begun to quit their posts en masse as the rebels gained ground from the south and south-west. Museveni was sworn in as president on 29 January. "This is not a mere change of guard, it is a fundamental change," said Museveni, after a ceremony conducted by British-born Chief Justice Peter Allen. Speaking to crowds of thousands outside the Ugandan
Rebecca Alitwala Kadaga is a Ugandan lawyer and politician, Speaker of the Parliament of Uganda since 19 May 2011. She is the first woman to be elected Speaker in the history of the Parliament of Uganda, she succeeded Edward Ssekandi, who served as Speaker from 2001 to 2011. She is the current Member of Parliament for the Kamuli District Women's Constituency, Busoga sub-region, a position she has held since 1989, she was born in Kamuli District, Eastern Uganda, on 24 May 1956. Rebecca Kadaga attended Namasagali College for her high school education, she studied law at Makerere University, graduating with the degree of Bachelor of Laws, in 1978. She went on to obtain a Diploma in Legal Practice from the Law Development Center in Kampala in 1979. In 2000, she obtained a Diploma in Women's Law from the University of Zimbabwe. In 2003, she obtained the degree of Master of Arts, specialising in Women's Law from the University of Zimbabwe. Between 1984 and 1988, she was in private law practice. From 1989 to 1996, she served as the member of parliament for Kamuli District in the District Woman's Constituency.
She served as the Chairperson of the University Council for Mbarara University, between 1993 and 1996. During 1996, she served as Secretary General of the East African Women Parliamentarians Association. From 1996 to 1998, Rebecca Kadaga was the Ugandan Minister of State for Regional Cooperation, she served as Minister of State for Communication and Aviation from 1998 to 1999 and as Minister for Parliamentary Affairs from 1999 to 2000. She was elected as Deputy Speaker of Parliament in 2001, a position that she held until 19 May 2011, when she was elected Speaker of Parliament. Following the February 2016 general election, Kadaga was unanimously re-elected as Speaker of Parliament on 19 May 2016. Besides her duties as speaker of the Ugandan Parliament, she sits on the following parliamentary committees: Appointments Committee – The Committee reviews all Cabinet appointments by the President, may approve or reject an appointment: The Speaker chairs the committee The Parliamentary Commission – The Speaker chairs the Commission The Business Committee – The Speaker chairs the committee Kadaga vowed to pass the Uganda Anti-Homosexuality Bill through parliament by December 2012.
The bill – sometimes referred to as the "Kill the Gays bill" – at one time sought to make acts of homosexuality punishable by death or life imprisonment but removed the death penalty option from the bill. She says it will become law since most Ugandans "are demanding it". In December 2012, Kadaga was in Rome to give a speech at the Seventh Session of the Consultative Assembly of Parliamentarians for the International Criminal Court and the Rule of Law. Reports circulated. Soon after the news broke, Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi issued a statement that said: “relations with the delegation were not out of the ordinary and no blessing was given.” The group of Ugandan MPs greeted the Pope “just like any other individuals attending an audience with the Pope would” and this was “by no means a specific sign of approval of Kadaga’s actions or proposals.” Parliament of Uganda List of Speakers of the Parliament of Uganda Personal Website Website of the Parliament of Uganda Anti-Gay Bill
Parliament of Uganda
The unicameral Parliament of Uganda is the country's legislative body. The most significant of the Ugandan Parliament's functions is to pass laws which will provide good governance in the country; the government ministers are bound to answer to the people's representatives on the floor of the house. Through the various parliamentary committees, parliament scrutinises government programmes as outlined in the State of the Nation Address by the President; the fiscal issues of the government, such as, taxation and loans need the sanction of the parliament, after appropriate debate. The Ugandan parliament is composed of 238 Constituency Representatives, 112 District Woman Representatives, 10 Uganda People's Defense Forces Representatives, 5 Representatives of the Youth, 5 Representatives of Persons with Disabilities, 5 Representatives of Workers, 13 ex officio Members; the Ugandan Parliament was established in 1962, soon after the country's independence. This body was known as the Legislative Council.
It had 92 members and was presided over, as Speaker, by Sir John Bowes Griffin, a British lawyer and former Ugandan Chief Justice. During this period, Prime Minister Milton Obote abrogated the constitution and declared himself President of Uganda in 1966; this parliament witnessed the abolition of Uganda's traditional kingdoms and the declaration of Uganda as a republic. The Speaker during the Second Parliament was a Ugandan of Indian descent; this Parliament ended when Idi Amin overthrew Milton Obote's government in January 1971. Following the overthrow of Idi Amin in April 1979, a new legislative body known as the Uganda Legislative Council was established. With an initial membership of 30, the membership was increased to 120; this was chaired by Professor Edward Rugumayo. This legislative body continued to function until the general elections of December 1980; this period marked the return to power of Milton Obote and the Uganda People's Congress, following the disputed national elections of 1980.
The Speaker of the Fourth Parliament was a Harvard-trained lawyer. The Fourth Parliament ended when, General Bazillio Okello overthrew Obote and the UPC government in 1985. Known as the National Resistance Council, the Fifth Parliament was established following the end of the Ugandan 1981-1985 guerrilla war. Starting with 38 historical members of the National Resistance Movement and National Resistance Army, the legislative body was expanded to include representatives from around the country; the Speaker during the Fifth Parliament was Yoweri Museveni, who concurrently served as the President of Uganda. The Sixth Parliament was constituted during one-party rule. James Wapakhabulo served as Speaker from 1996 until 1998. From 1998 until 2001, Francis Ayume, a member of Parliament from Koboko District, served as Speaker; the Seventh Parliament was presided over as Speaker by Edward Ssekandi. The most controversial legislation passed during this period was the amendment of the Constitution to remove presidential term limits.
This was a continuation of the Seventh Parliament, with Edward Ssekandi as Speaker and Rebecca Kadaga as Deputy Speaker. The Ninth Parliament was presided over by Rebecca Kadaga as Speaker, Jacob Oulanyah as Deputy Speaker. In the Tenth Parliament, Rebecca Kadaga and Jacob Oulanyah remained in their posts as Speaker and Deputy Speaker respectively. List of Speakers of the Parliament of Uganda Politics of Uganda List of legislatures by country Official website
Prime Minister of Uganda
The Prime Minister of Uganda chairs the Cabinet of Uganda, although the President is the effective head of government. Ruhakana Rugunda has been the Prime Minister since 18 September 2014; the post of Prime Minister was created for the first time in 1962. In 1966, Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the Constitution, abolished the post of Prime Minister, declared himself President. In 1980, the post of Prime Minister was re-established; the headquarters of the office of the Prime Minister of Uganda are located in the Twin Towers on Sir Apollo Kaggwa Road, in the Central Division of Kampala, Uganda's capital and largest city. The coordinates of the headquarters are 0°18'58.0"N, 32°35'13.0"E. As of October 2016, the Office of the Prime Minister oversaw several cabinet ministries and sub-ministries, including: First Deputy Prime Minister: Moses Ali Minister in Charge of General Duties, Office of the Prime Minister: Mary Karooro Okurut Ministry for Karamoja Affairs: headed by Minister John Byabagambi Minister of State for Karamoja Affairs: Moses Kizige Ministry of Disaster Preparedness and Refugees: headed by Minister Hillary Onek Minister of State for Disaster Preparedness and Refugees: Musa Ecweru Government Chief Whip: Ruth Nankabirwa Minister of State for the Northern Region, Uganda: Grace Kwiyucwiny Minister of State for Luweero Triangle: Dennis Galabuzi Ssozi Minister of State for Teso Affairs: Agnes Akiror Minister of State for Bunyoro Affairs: Ernest Kiiza Uganda President of Uganda List of heads of state of Uganda Vice President of Uganda Politics of Uganda History of Uganda Political parties of Uganda World Statesmen – Uganda Rulers.org – Uganda
Visa policy of Uganda
Visitors to Uganda must obtain a visa on arrival to Uganda or from one of the Ugandan diplomatic missions, unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries. All visitors must hold a passport valid for 6 months. Citizens of the following countries can visit Uganda without a visa for up to 3 months: Holders of diplomatic or service passports issued to nationals of India and Namibia do not require a visa for 3 months. Uganda began issuing electronic visas on 1 July 2016. Passengers who have been issued an e-visa must travel with a printed e-visa confirmation. Citizens of all other countries except Somalia may obtain a visa for Uganda on arrival; as of 22 July 2016, the price is US $50. Electronic visas are expected to replace the visa on arrival facility; as a temporary measure, passengers who have not applied for an e-visa on line, will still be able to apply for their e-visa on arrival in Uganda. However, facilities will be limited and passengers may experience delays. Holders of consular, official, service or special passports of any country can obtain a visa on arrival for 3 months.
The 90-day East African Tourist Visa is available on arrival, valid for Uganda and Rwanda if first used in the country that issued the visa. The fee for this visa is $100. Entry and transit is refused to nationals of Somalia if not holding a biometric passport if not leaving the aircraft and proceeding by the same flight. Visa requirements for Ugandan citizens
Uganda the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, to the south by Tanzania; the southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region. Uganda lies within the Nile basin, has a varied but a modified equatorial climate. Uganda takes its name from the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south of the country, including the capital Kampala; the people of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years ago, when Bantu-speaking populations migrated to the southern parts of the country. Beginning in 1894, the area was ruled as a protectorate by the UK, who established administrative law across the territory. Uganda gained independence from the UK on 9 October 1962; the period since has been marked by intermittent conflicts, including a lengthy civil war against the Lord's Resistance Army in the Northern Region led by Joseph Kony, which has caused hundreds of thousands of casualties.
The official languages are English and Swahili, although "any other language may be used as a medium of instruction in schools or other educational institutions or for legislative, administrative or judicial purposes as may be prescribed by law." Luganda, a central language, is spoken across the country, several other languages are spoken including Runyoro, Rukiga and Lusoga. The president of Uganda is Yoweri Kaguta Museveni, who came to power in January 1986 after a protracted six-year guerrilla war, he has since eliminated the presidential term limits and the presidential age limit, becoming president for life. The residents of Uganda were hunter-gatherers until 1,700–2,300 years ago. Bantu-speaking populations, who were from central Africa, migrated to the southern parts of the country. According to oral tradition, the Empire of Kitara covered an important part of the great lakes area, from the northern lakes Albert and Kyoga to the southern lakes Victoria and Tanganyika. Bunyoro-Kitara is claimed as the antecedent of the Buganda, Toro and Busoga kingdoms.
Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama of Bunyoro-Kitara. Arab traders moved inland from the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa in the 1830s, they were followed in the 1860s by British explorers searching for the source of the Nile. British Anglican missionaries arrived in the kingdom of Buganda in 1877 and were followed by French Catholic missionaries in 1879; the British government chartered the Imperial British East Africa Company to negotiate trade agreements in the region beginning in 1888. From 1886, there were a series of religious wars in Buganda between Muslims and Christians and from 1890, between ba-Ingleza Protestants and ba-Fransa Catholics; because of civil unrest and financial burdens, IBEAC claimed that it was unable to "maintain their occupation" in the region. British commercial interests were ardent to protect the trade route of the Nile, which prompted the British government to annex Buganda and adjoining territories to create the Uganda Protectorate in 1894.
In the 1890s, 32,000 labourers from British India were recruited to East Africa under indentured labour contracts to construct the Uganda Railway. Most of the surviving Indians returned home, but 6,724 decided to remain in East Africa after the line's completion. Subsequently, some took control of cotton ginning and sartorial retail. From 1900 to 1920, a sleeping sickness epidemic in the southern part of Uganda, along the north shores of Lake Victoria, killed more than 250,000 people. Uganda gained independence from Britain on 9 October 1962 with Queen Elizabeth II as head of state and Queen of Uganda. In October 1963, Uganda became a republic but maintained its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations; the first post-independence election, held in 1962, was won by an alliance between the Uganda People's Congress and Kabaka Yekka. UPC and KY formed the first post-independence government with Milton Obote as executive prime minister, with the Buganda Kabaka Edward Muteesa II holding the ceremonial position of president.
Uganda's immediate post-independence years were dominated by the relationship between the central government and the largest regional kingdom – Buganda. From the moment the British created the Uganda protectorate, the issue of how to manage the largest monarchy within the framework of a unitary state had always been a problem. Colonial governors had failed to come up with a formula; this was further complicated by Buganda's nonchalant attitude to its relationship with the central government. Buganda never sought independence, but rather appeared to be comfortable with a loose arrangement that guaranteed them privileges above the other subjects within the protectorate or a special status when the British left; this was evidenced in part by hostilities between the British colonial authorities and Buganda prior to independence. Within Buganda there were divisions – between those who wanted the Kabaka to remain a dominant monarch, those who wanted to join with the rest of Uganda to create a modern secular state.
The split resulted in the creation of two dominant Buganda based parties – the Kabaka Yekka KY, the Democratic Party that had roots in the Catholic Church. The bitterness between these two parties was intense especiall
Ruhakana Rugunda is a Ugandan politician, Prime Minister of Uganda since 2014. A physician by profession, he held a long series of Cabinet posts under President Yoweri Museveni beginning in 1986, he served as Uganda's Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1994 to 1996 and as Minister of Internal Affairs from 2003 to 2009. Subsequently, he was Permanent Representative to the United Nations from 2009 to 2011 and Minister of Health from 2013 to 2014, he was appointed as Prime Minister on 18 September 2014. He replaced Amama Mbabazi, dropped from the Cabinet. Rugunda was born in Kabale District on 7 November 1947; as a young boy, he would sit and read the newspapers to his father Surumani Rugunda, it is these experiences at an early age that sparked his interest in politics. Rugunda attended Kigezi High School and Busoga College Mwiri where he served as head prefect, before joining the Makerere University Medical School and the University of Zambia where he studied medicine, graduating a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery.
He studied at the University of California and obtained a Master of Science in public health. Before joining Ugandan politics, Rugunda worked as medical officer in Zambia, as a physician at the District of Columbia General Hospital in Washington, D. C. and at Kenyatta National Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. While attending Makerere University in Uganda, Rugunda referred to as "Ndugu" by friends, served as President of the National Union of Students of Uganda, a politically vibrant youth movement; as a young political activist, Rugunda was part of the Uganda People's Congress and was said to be close to President Apollo Milton Obote. Rugunda was one of a few, seen by Obote as future leaders of the party and country. In one of the last interviews before his death, Obote lamented as to why the brilliant Rugunda had gotten himself entangled with Yoweri Museveni and the National Resistance Movement. In 1985 he met with the leaders of the Ugandan National Resistance Movement at the inn "Zum grünen Jäger" in Unterolberndorf, for a conspirative conference to elaborate a political programme for the liberated Uganda.
After Museveni took power in 1986, Ruganda held a long series of Cabinet posts: he was Minister of Health from 1986 to 1988, Minister of Works and Communication from 1988 to 1994, Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1994 to 1996, Minister of Information from 1996 to 1998, Minister at the Presidency from 1998 to 2001, Minister of Water and Environment from 2001 to 2003, Minister of Internal Affairs from 2003 to 2009. He served as Chairman of the NRM Electoral Commission, as Member of Parliament for Kabale Municipality, as President of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Program. In July 2006, Rugunda led a Ugandan government negotiating team to Juba, Sudan to hold peace talks with the Lord's Resistance Army. In January 2009, he was appointed as Uganda's Permanent Representative to the United Nations. At the same time, the position was elevated to Cabinet Ministerial level in Uganda, he twice served as the President of the Security Council in July 2009 and in October 2010 during Uganda's two-year stint on the Security Council.
In the cabinet reshuffle of 27 May 2011, he was instead appointed as Minister of Information and Communication Technology. In May 2013, he was moved to the post of Minister of Health, replacing Christine Ondoa, who became an advisor to the President of Uganda on public health matters. Rugunda was appointed as Prime Minister on 18 September 2014. Rugunda is married to Jocelyn Rugunda and together they are the parents of four sons, he enjoys playing tennis and chess in his spare time. Parliament of Uganda Cabinet of Uganda Kabale District Full List of Cabinet Ministers May 2011 Museveni’s New Cabinet List At 6 June 2016