The president of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union. The president of the Commission leads a cabinet of commissioners, referred to as the college, collectively accountable to the European Parliament; the president is empowered to allocate portfolios amongst, reshuffle or dismiss commissioners as necessary. The college directs the Commission's civil service, sets the policy agenda and determines the legislative proposals it produces; the president of the Commission represents the EU abroad, together with the president of the European Council and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The post was established in 1958; each new president is nominated by the European Council and formally elected by the European Parliament, for a five-year term. In July 2019, the European Council nominated Ursula von der Leyen to succeed Jean-Claude Juncker, she was elected the 13th president of the European Commission by the European Parliament on 16 July.
Von der Leyen assumed office on 1 December 2019, following the approval of her college of commissioners by the European Parliament. The present Commission was established by the Treaty of Rome in 1957; the Commission's first president was Walter Hallstein who started consolidating European law and began to impact on national legislation. National governments at first took little heed of his administration, with the president having to stamp the Commission's authority early on. With the aid of the European Court of Justice, the Commission began to be taken more seriously. In 1965, Hallstein put forward his proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy, which would give the Community its own financial resources while giving more power to the Commission and Parliament and removing the veto power over Agriculture in the Council; these proposals led to an immediate backlash from France. Hallstein knew the proposals would be contentious, took personal charge of drafting them, over-riding the Agriculture Commissioner.
However he did gain the support of Parliament through his proposals to increase its powers, he presented his policy to Parliament a week before he submitted them to the Council. He aimed to demonstrate how he thought the Community ought to be run, in the hopes of generating a wave of pro-Europeanism big enough to get past the objections of member states. However, in this it proved that, despite its past successes, Hallstein was overconfident in his risky proposals. In reaction to Hallstein's proposals and actions, then-French president Charles de Gaulle, sceptical of the rising supranational power of the Commission, accused Hallstein of acting as if he were a head of state. France withdrew its representative from the Council, triggering the notorious "empty chair crisis". Although this was resolved under the "Luxembourg compromise", Hallstein became the scapegoat for the crisis; the Council refused to renew his term, despite his being the most'dynamic' leader until Jacques Delors. Hallstein's work did position the Commission as a substantial power.
The presidents were involved in the major political projects of the day in the 1970s, such as the European Monetary Union. In 1970, President Jean Rey secured the Community's own financial resources, in 1977, President Roy Jenkins became the first Commission president to attend a G7 summit on behalf of the Community. However, owing to problems such as the 1973 oil crisis and the 1979 energy crisis, economic hardship reduced the priority of European integration, with only the president trying to keep the idea alive; the member states had the upper hand, they created the European Council to discuss topical problems, yet the Council was unable to keep the major projects on track such as the Common Agricultural Policy. The Community entered a period of eurosclerosis, owing to economic difficulties and disagreements on the Community budget, by the time of the Thorn Commission the president was unable to exert his influence to any significant extent. However, the Commission began to recover under President Jacques Delors' Commission.
He is seen as the most successful president, being credited with having given the Community a sense of direction and dynamism. The International Herald Tribune noted the work of Delors at the end of his second term in 1992: "Mr. Delors rescued the European Community from the doldrums, he arrived. Although he was a little-known finance minister and former MEP, he breathed life and hope into the EC and into the dispirited Brussels Commission. In his first term, from 1985 to 1988, he rallied Europe to the call of the single market, when appointed to a second term he began urging Europeans toward the far more ambitious goals of economic and political union."But Delors not only turned the Community around, he signalled a change in the Presidency. Before he came to power, the Commission president still was a position of first among equals, his tenure had produced a strong Presidency and a strong Commission as the president became more important. Following treaties cemented this change, with the president being given control over the allocation of portfolios and being able to force the resignation of Commissioners.
When President Romano Prodi took office with the new powers of the Treaty of Amsterdam, he was dubbed by the press as Europe's first Prime Minister. President Delors' work had increased the powers of the Parliament; however Commissions did not enjoy the same support, in 1999, th
16 Cephei is a single star located about 119 light years away from the Sun in the constellation of Cepheus. It is visible to the naked eye as a faint, yellow-white hued star with an apparent visual magnitude of 5.036. The star has a high proper motion, traversing the celestial sphere at the rate of 0.174 arc seconds per annum. It is moving closer to the Earth with a heliocentric radial velocity of −21 km/s; this is an ordinary F-type main-sequence star, somewhat hotter than the sun, with a stellar classification of F5 V. It is around two billion years old with a projected rotational velocity of 26.4 km/s. The star has 1.38 times the mass of 2.77 times the Sun's radius. It is radiating 11 times the luminosity of the Sun from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 6,238 K; the star is a source of X-ray emission. There are several 11th and 12th magnitude stars within a few arc-minutes of 16 Cephei, all of them distant background objects. Only one of these is listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog and Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars as a companion
The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia is one of the largest universities in Russia. Located in Saint Petersburg, it operates more than 100 departments. Embroidered in its structure are the Institute of Pre-University Courses, the Institute of Continuous Professional Development, the Pedagogical Research Center; the university is named after philosopher Alexander Herzen. The university dates its creation to 13 May 1797, when Emperor Paul I of Russia gave an independent status to the Saint Petersburg foundling house established by Ivan Betskoy and put it under the patronage of Empress Maria Feodorovna; the Imperial Foundling House developed into the modern Pedagogical University. Betskoy's humanistic ideas furnished the basic principles of the foundling house; the strong pedagogical traditions and consistency in education were passed from one generation to the next and were inherited by The State Russian Herzen Pedagogical University. The foundling house was based in a unique architectural complex: the palaces of the earl Kirill Razumovsky and Aleksey Grigorievich Bobrinsky on the Moyka in present-day Saint Petersburg.
The Imperial Foundling House developed as a complex educational establishment carrying progressive ideas of upbringing based upon charity and patronage. It took in destitute and deprived children: foundling orphans, disabled children, children from failed marriages. Besides being an educational establishment and a center for childcare, the foundling house had an operating hospital. Surrounding village districts had for the first time access to free pediatric care; the foundling house laid the basis for women's pedagogical education across the country. In 1837, the "Women's Foundling Institute" was established on the basis of the House's higher classes. After 1885 it was called Nicholas' Foundling House, its graduates were taught by a music and dancing pedagogue and a French language teacher. The vast experience of the Nicholas' Foundling house gave rise to the establishment of the first institution for pedagogical higher education: the Women's Pedagogical Institute, established in 1903. Concerned with the foundling house is the onset of Russian applied correctional pedagogy.
In 1806, a new unit appeared in the structure of the house. It was a college for the first educational establishment for disabled children in Russia. Here, the first Russian pedagogues for deaf children were educated and their first works on the subject were created. In 1864, a pedagogical seminary was created for countryside students who were to become teachers of public schools and colleges. Four years a women's college was established that granted specialisations of a trained nurse, village school and kindergarten children; this set the basis for Russian pre-school education. During these years, kindergartens were set up in the district of the foundling house; the graduates of the House worked in the new establishments for children. In the Mariininsky department, a reorganised foundling house, famous pedagogues like M. V. Chistyakov worked, the editor-in-chief of "Children's magazine" and the author of numerous books for children, V. A. Zolotov, an active adherent of the "sound method" of teaching reading and writing and an author of a lot of textbooks for public colleges.
K. D. Ushinsky's pedagogical ideas rendered immense influence on restructuring the departments of the foundling house. Thanks to the work of Mariininsky department and its foundling house, the pace of pedagogical education in Saint Petersburg in the beginning of the 20th century took an unusual course. A whole system of establishments dealing with a range of questions concerning birth, pre-school, high-school, higher education, correctional pedagogics was set, giving rise to a prototype of the prospective university. In 1918, the consolidation process of Mariinsky department and foundling house-related establishments started. In the same year, the Women's Pedagogical University was renamed the First Pedagogical Institute. Based on the Teachers' Board, the second Pedagogical Institute was established. On 17 October 1918, the third Pedagogical Institute was created. In 1918, the foundling house-related establishments were reorganized into the Pre-school Education Institute and Social Education Institute.
These were the first higher education facilities in Russia that specialized in pre-school and primary school education and defectology. In the period between 1922 and 1925, the first and third Pedagogical Universities, the Pre-school education Institute, the Social Education Institute, the Psychoneurological Institute were merged; the united establishment was named State Leningrad Herzen Pedagogical Institute. Over the years, the university has been the workspace for outstanding scientists and professors. Many of them initiated worldwide known scientific schools, thus making a valuable input in development of Russian science. Anan'ev B. G, psychologist Aleksandra Andreevna Antonova and writer Alexander Kushner, poet Berg, R. L. geneticist Bykov K. M. physiologist Nina Dyakonova, English literature historian Efim Etkind and Western literature historian Alexander Fersman, geologist Grigorii Fichtenholz, mathematician Ginzberg A. S. geologist Boris Grekov, historian Hvolson O. D. physicist Ivanov I. P. pedagogue Knipovich N. M. zoologist Komarov V. L. botanist Kon I. S. sociologist and sexologist.
Igor Kurchatov, physicist Mikhlin S. G. mathematician Orbeli L. A. physiologist Pinkevich A. M. pedagogue Rubinstein S. L. psychologist Lat, B. pedagogue Semenov-Tj