The president of the European Council is the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council, as well as a principal representative of the European Union on the world stage. This institution comprises the college of heads of state or government of EU member states as well as the president of the European Commission, provides political direction to the European Union. From 1975 to 2009, the head of the European Council was an unofficial position held by the head of state or government of the member state holding the semiannually rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union at any given time. However, since the 2007 Treaty of Lisbon, article 15 of Treaty on European Union states that the European Council appoints a full-time president for a two-and-a-half-year term, with the possibility of renewal once. Appointments, as well as the removal of incumbents, require a double majority support in the European Council. On 19 November 2009, the European Council agreed that its first president under the Lisbon Treaty would be Herman Van Rompuy.
Van Rompuy took office when the Lisbon Treaty came into force on 1 December 2009 with a term stretching until 31 May 2012. His term was extended with a second period ending on 30 November 2014; the second and previous officeholder is former Polish prime minister Donald Tusk. He was elected to serve a term from 1 December 2014 to 31 May 2017 and subsequently re-elected on 9 March 2017 to a second term running from 1 June 2017 until 30 November 2019. On 2 July 2019 the European Council elected Belgian prime minister Charles Michel as the successor to Donald Tusk as President of the European Council for the period from 1 December 2019 to 31 May 2022; the first meeting of all EU heads of state or government was held in 1961 as an informal summit, but only became formalised in 1974, when it was baptised "European Council" by the French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. The presidency of the European Council was based on the Presidency of the Council of the European Union, with it being hosted by the member state holding the council presidency, rotating every six months.
As the European Council is composed of national leaders, it was chaired by the head of state or government of the presidency state. The European Constitution, drafted by the European Convention, outlined the "president of the European Council" as a longer term and full-time chairmanship; the Constitution was rejected by voters in two Member States during ratification but the changes envisaged to the European Council presidency were retained in the Treaty of Lisbon, which came into force on 1 December 2009. The first president was expected to define the role for future office holders, as there was no clear idea of how the post would evolve. One body of thought was that the president would stick to the administrative role as outlined by the treaty, a standard bearer who would chair meetings and ensure the smooth running of the body and its policies; this would attract semi-retired leaders seeking a fitting climax to their career and would leave most work to the Commission rather than wield power within the institutions.
However another opinion envisaged a more pro-active president within the Union and speaking for it abroad. The office would hence be fashioned into a de facto "president of Europe" and, unlike the first model, would be seen on the world stage as speaking for the EU. Persons connected to this position would be more charismatic leaders; the appointment of Herman Van Rompuy indicated a desire to see the former style of president. The Treaty of Lisbon does not define a nomination process for the president of the Council and several official and unofficial candidates were proposed. At the final European Council meeting on the treaty in Lisbon, on 19 November 2007, French president Nicolas Sarkozy set off public speculation on candidates by naming Tony Blair, Felipe González and Jean-Claude Juncker, praising the three as worthy candidates with Blair in particular being a long time front runner for the post. However, he faced large scale opposition for being from a large state outside the eurozone and the Schengen Area as well as being a leader who entered the Iraq War which had split Europe.
Minor opposition to other leaders such as Juncker led to their rejection. On 19 November 2009, Herman Van Rompuy, at that time Prime Minister of Belgium, was appointed the first full-time president of the European Council; the formal decision on the appointment was made after the Treaty of Lisbon came into force on 1 December 2009. The British prime minister, Gordon Brown, said that he had unanimous backing from the 27 EU leaders at the summit in Brussels on the evening of 19 November 2009. Brown praised Van Rompuy as "a consensus builder" who had "brought a period of political stability to his country after months of uncertainty". At a press conference after his appointment, Van Rompuy commented: "Every country should emerge victorious from negotiations. A negotiation that ends with a defeated party is never a good negotiation. I will consider sensitivities. If our unity remains our strength, our diversity remains our wealth", he said, stressing the individuality of EU member states. Van Rompuy's first council meeting was an informal gathering in the Solvay Library in Leopold Park, rather than the more usual formal gathering in the Justus Lipsius building nearby.
The meeting was called to reflect on long term structural economic problems facing Europe, but was overtaken by the Greek economic crisis. The role of President-in-Office of the assembled European Council was performed by the head of state or government of the member state holding the presidency of the
Kudafari is one of the inhabited islands of Noonu Atoll. Postal Code 04040, Maldives The island is 188.87 km north of the country's capital, Malé. "The'Integrated Multi-Tropical Aquaculture Project' was envisaged to initiate a community-led cause to revive coral reefs. Being from a small island such as Kudafari, we see the effects of climate change every day, but despite the odds, the project made me believe in a future that we all can achieve." Kudafari population: 807 D-6 Kudafaree has a school. As part of the government’s programme to improve the standard of education in the country, President Mohamed Nasheed launched the smart school programme. Kudafari School was inaugurated as the first Smart School under the programme. Smart schools make use of information and communication technology and multimedia resources in the classrooms, in order to cater to the needs of all the students of different academic levels
Red Yaguareté is a non-profit organization of Argentina devoted to the conservation of the jaguar or "yaguarete" and its natural habitats in that country. Its main goals are conservation management, protection, combating poaching and education and information programs, it is financed by donations from contributors from many countries. It does not accept donations from corporations to avoid compromises, it maintains a database of sightings, cases of illegal hunting. It is the only nongovernmental organization devoted to penalizing those, it spread across the north and center of the country. Nowadays the distribution is more limited, it is found only in six northern provinces: Salta, Chaco, Santiago del Estero and Misiones. Red Yaguareté calculates that there are around 250 live specimens in the remnants of subtropical forest of the country and considers that it is urgent to take measures to ensure its survival. Jaguar Conservation Fund Red Yaguareté Sanderson E. W. Redford K. H. Chetkiewitz C. B.
Medellin R. A. Rabinowitz A. R. Robinson J. G. y Taber A. B. 2002. Planning to Save a Species: the Jaguar as a Model. Conservation Biology 16, 58-72
John Dickson, was a railway contractor responsible for the promotion and operation of several railway lines in England and Wales in and around Swansea. His finances were never securely based and he was forced into bankruptcy on three occasions. Dickson was born in Berwick-on-Tweed in about 1819, he first appears in the historical record in Ireland in 1840 when he married Elizabeth McMurray of Drogheda. His first daughter Catherine was born the following year at Killyman in County Tyrone, he remained in Ireland until 1847, judging by the places of birth of subsequent children he was on the move all the time – Helen was born in County Sligo, James in Dublin and Anna in Drogheda. He appears to have been involved in some capacity under William Dargan on the construction of the Dublin and Drogheda Railway and the Great Southern and Western Railway. There is a possibility that he worked under Dargan on the Ulster Canal. In 1847 Dickson left Ireland and returned to England, settling at Wellington, for reasons that are still not clear, but where he quite established himself as a person of some influence in the still new field of railway engineering.
In 1852 he went into partnership with one McKensie and founded the Shropshire Works on a site adjacent to the Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway, between Wellington and Oakengates. According to a contemporary newspaper report, the Shropshire Works occupied a site of eight acres and possessed "appliances for making and constructing every article connected with a railway, from the simple block of wood that secure the rail to the sleepers, to the carriages which roll over them." Dickson and McKensie were said to have sunk £30,000 in the venture and some time before the publication of the report had completed 170 wagons for the Newport & Abergavenny Railway Company, "in a short space of two months," and were engaged on the production of "a large number of passenger carriages" for the Great Western Railway company. Early in his time at Wellington, Dickson made the acquaintance of Alfred Darby, a member of the celebrated Shropshire iron-founding dynasty and the manager of the family's Coalbrookdale Works.
It seems that one reason Dickson chose to settle at Wellington is that he had tendered for a portion of the Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway line between Shrewsbury and Oakengates, constructed during the years 1847-9. Two years after the opening of the S & BR, in February 1851, Dickson constructed at his own expense, a branch line from Waterloo sidings, east of Wellington, to the Ketley Ironworks and entered into an agreement with the latter to work all traffic, whether by rail or road, from the works to the S & BR. Dickson and McKensie worked on two further local railway contracts, the Madeley branch of the Shrewsbury and Birmingham Railway and the Ketley-Horsehay section of the Wellington and Severn Junction Railway; the latter contract undoubtedly owed much to Dickson's association with Darby and the Coalbrookdale Company, who were expected to subscribe to the line, indeed the alignment made use of, superseded, his earlier private railway to the Ketley ironworks for a short distance. Dickson had in fact surveyed the entire line from Ketley to Lightmoor, given evidence before the House of Lords committee that examined the Bill, but was only awarded the contract for the northern portion of the undertaking, work on, begun with much pomp and ceremony in August 1855.
In October 1855 it was reported that the works were in active progress and that the cost of building the line would be about £4,000 to £5,000 per mile, but at a shareholders' meeting in March 1860 the Chairman revealed that the actual cost had been much nearer £13,000 per mile. Dickson had tendered less than £10,000 for the entire contract, from which it appears that he had woefully underestimated the cost. Unsurprisingly, in January 1857 he was made a bankrupt for the first time. Work on the Ketley-Horsehay line was in a sufficiently advanced state for a trial run to be made by shareholders in February 1857, for it to be opened for goods and mineral traffic on 1 May of the same year. In addition to these works on his own doorstep, Dickson tendered unsuccessfully in 1855 for the Llanidloes and Newtown Railway. Under the aegis of the Shropshire Works, he operated a rolling stock business at this period and is known to have tendered for the supply of ballast wagons and wheels to the South Wales Railway in 1855 and to have supplied carriages to the Llanelly Railway in 1856 and wagons and brake vans to the Belfast and County Down Railway at much the same time.
In 1854 Dickson, in partnership with J. G. McKenzie, won his first contract in south Wales, an area, to become his home for most of the rest of his life; this was for the Gyfylchi Tunnel on the South Wales Mineral Railway. The financial position of the railway company prevented an immediate start being made until 1856 when he was additionally offered a contract to construct the entire line, he started work in April 1856 but made little progress and in September 1856 Brunel, the engineer of the SWMR, was instructed to pay off Dickson and re-let the contract. In July 1855 Dickson won a contract from the Swansea Harbour Trust for various work connected with the town's North Dock; this was followed by a number of further contracts in 1855-6 for related work. Most of the work was still uncompleted when he was declared bankrupt on 20 January 1857, he was described as'Builder and Timber merchant and Contractor for Public Works'. The period between Dickson's first and second bankruptcies was the most active and successful of his c
Joseph Frank was an American literary scholar and leading expert on the life and work of Russian novelist Fyodor Dostoevsky. Frank's five-volume biography of Dostoevsky is cited among the major literary biographies of the 20th century. Joseph Frank was born Joseph Nathaniel Glassman on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in 1918, his father died when he was young, his mother remarried William Frank, the family moved to Brooklyn. Frank attended classes at New York University in the 1930s and the University of Wisconsin–Madison in the early 1940s, but never earned a Bachelor's degree. Frank went to Paris on a Fulbright Scholarship in 1950, in 1952 he was accepted by the Committee on Social Thought at the University of Chicago, where he earned a Ph. D. In 1953, he married mathematician Marguerite Frank, he taught at the University of Minnesota and Rutgers, was a professor of comparative literature at Princeton from 1966 to 1985. He finished his teaching career at Stanford. Frank died of pulmonary failure in 2013, survived by their two daughters.
Frank began work on his Dostoevsky biography in the 1970s. Conceived as a single volume, it grew to five volumes totaling more than 2,400 pages. A single condensed version of the five volumes was published in 2010 under the title Dostoevsky: A Writer in His Time, it has been called the best biography of Dostoevsky including Russian. As a scholar of comparative literature, Frank earned honors including the Modern Language Association's James Russell Lowell Prize and the Distinguished Contributions Award of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies
Yamahibiki stable is a stable of sumo wrestlers, part of the Dewanoumi ichimon or group of stables. It was set up in 1985 as Kitanoumi stable by former yokozuna Kitanoumi, who branched off from Mihogaseki stable, it absorbed Hatachiyama stable in 2006, following the death of its head coach, former ōzeki Hokuten'yū. In May 2010 it absorbed Kise stable, forced to close after its stablemaster, former maegashira Higonoumi, was implicated in the selling of tournament tickets to yakuza members; as a result of this move the stable had 46 wrestlers, making it by some margin the largest stable in sumo at this time. It was the first stable to have over 40 wrestlers since Futagoyama stable in 1998, had difficulty in finding room for so many; as a result, Kise was allowed to reestablish the stable in April 2012, all former members of Kise stable, as well as newcomers Jōkōryū and Sasanoyama, recruited by Kise-oyakata, joined the reconstituted stable again. Stablemaster Kitanoumi died of colorectal cancer and multiple organ failure on the evening of November 20, 2015.
Former maegashira Ganyū, serving as a coach at the stable, inherited it. The stable was renamed Yamahibiki, the elder name used by Ganyū, since the Kitanoumi name could not be inherited, due to it being a one-generation elder stock or ichidai-toshiyori; as of January 2020, Yamahibiki stable had 14 wrestlers. Following the demotion of Kitataiki after July 2017 Bashō and Kitaharima after September 2017 Bashō, it had no sekitori for the first time since May 2003. A few wrestlers at this stable take ring names or shikona that begin with the character 北, meaning north, in deference to the stable's former owner, Kitanoumi; some examples are Kitaharima and Hokuseikai. 2015–present: Yamahibiki Kenji 1985-2015: Kitanoumi Onogawa Akeyoshi Kitaharima Nionoumi Hakurozan Kitazakura Kiyoseumi Kitataiki Ōrora Kimura Kankurō Tasuke Sōichi Hiromasa Tokoasa Tokyo, Kōtō ward, Kiyosumi 2-10-11 3 minute walk from Kiyosumi-shirakawa Station on the Hanzōmon Line and Ōedo Line List of sumo stables List of active sumo wrestlers List of past sumo wrestlers Glossary of sumo terms Japan Sumo Association profile of Yamahibiki beya Article on Kitanoumi beya Home Page