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President of the Massachusetts Senate

The President of the Massachusetts Senate is the presiding officer. In the United States Congress, the Vice President of the United States is the ex officio President of the United States Senate. In Massachusetts, the President of the Senate is elected from and by the Senators; the President, therefore comes from the majority party, the President is the de facto leader of that party. The most recent President of the Massachusetts Senate was Harriette Chandler, a Democrat who served as acting President following Stan Rosenberg's decision in December 2017 to temporarily step down from his post while the Senate conducted investigations into allegations of sexual assault made against his husband, Bryon Hefner. Chandler moved from acting President to President of the Senate in February 2018, she relinquished that post on 26 July 2018, was succeeded by Karen Spilka. Democrats have had a majority in the Senate since 1959. A = American, D = Democratic, R = Republican, W = Whig The Massachusetts State House, p. 141-42.

Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Boston, 1953. Senate Rules

Love Child (TV series)

Love Child is an Australian television drama program that follows the lives of staff and residents of the fictional Kings Cross Hospital and Stanton House in Sydney, starting in 1969 and continuing into the 1970s. The program was created by Sarah Lambert and was first broadcast on the Nine Network on 17 February 2014; the program is based on the real life forced adoption in Australia for which former Prime Minister Julia Gillard offered a national apology to those affected in 2013. Love Child was renewed for a second series on 2 March 2014; the series was renewed for a third series on 23 February 2015. The series was renewed for a fourth series on 8 November 2016 at Nine's upfronts. In December 2017, it was announced that series would not be renewed for a fifth season and is cancelled, the series cast was notified in November 2017 that it wouldn’t be returning. On 8 April 2013, the Nine Network announced a new drama project from Playmaker Media named Love Child, an eight-part drama series by the creators of House Husbands.

Joint heads of drama at Nine, Andy Ryan and Jo Rooney, stated "Love Child is a compelling and uplifting series that will appeal to every generation. The stories of young women and men fighting an unjust system are as relevant today as they were in the colourful and liberating world of Kings Cross in 1969." Love Child was created by Sarah Lambert. It is directed by Geoff Bennett, Grant Brown, Shawn Seet and Shirley Barrett, with Tim Pye, Sue Seeary and Sarah Lambert serving as producers; the series is written by Lambert, Kym Goldsworthy, Cathryn Strickland, Giula Sandler, Matt Ford and Liz Doran. Jessica Marais, Jonathan LaPaglia and Mandy McElhinney were announced as the main castmembers in April 2013. Marais stars as Dr Joan Millar, a smart and sophisticated trainee obstetrician who returns home from London to take a job at the Kings Cross Hospital. LaPaglia stars as the charismatic head of obstetrics at Kings Cross Hospital. McElhinney stars as Frances Bolton, the tough matron who runs Stanton House, a home for unwed pregnant young women.

The remainder of the cast was announced on 11 February 2014, with Ryan Corr as Johnny Lowry, a 60s flower child. Corr made a guest appearance. Matthew Le Nevez, Lincoln Younes and Marshall Napier joined the cast for season two as Jim, Chris Vesty, Gregory respectively. Leah Purcell played a key character in the second half of season two. Jonathan Lapaglia did not return for the fourth season. Dan Hamill joined the cast along with Matt Day, Danielle Catanzariti, Darcie Irwin-Simpson, Sophia Forrest and Ronan Keating. Jessica Marais as Dr. Joan Millar Jonathan LaPaglia as Dr. Patrick McNaughton Mandy McElhinney as Matron Frances Bolton Ella Scott Lynch as Shirley Ryan Harriet Dyer as Patty Saunders Sophie Hensser as Viv Maguire Gracie Gilbert as Annie Carmichael Miranda Tapsell as Martha Tennant Ryan Johnson as Phillip Paige Ryan Corr as Johnny Lowry Matthew Le Nevez as Jim Marsh Tiarnie Coupland as Maggie Olivia O'Flynn as Liz Jeremy Lindsay Taylor as Leon Dan Hamill as Dr. Andrew Patterson Danielle Catanzariti as Elena Darcie Irwin-Simpson as Rita Sophia Forrest as Debbie Ronan Keating as Dr Lawrence Faber Notes Maya Stange as Eva McNaughton Ben Lawson as Colin Ryan Ben Toole as Pete Lincoln Younes as Chris Vesty Jessica June as Tania Andrew Ryan as Simon Bowditch Marshall Napier as Greg Matheson Ian Bolt as Bob Flannery Lucy Wigmore as Carol Aileen Beale as Mark Foy's saleswoman Charlotte Hazzard as Helen Anna Lawrence as Maggie Flanagan Jessica Donoghue as Faye Official website Love Child on IMDb List of Australian television series

Rape during the Bosnian War

Violence assumed a gender-targeted form through the use of rape during the Bosnian War. While men from all ethnic groups committed rape, the great majority of rapes were perpetrated by Bosnian Serb forces of the Army of the Republika Srpska and Serb paramilitary units, who used rape as an instrument of terror as part of their programme of ethnic cleansing. Estimates of the number of women raped during the war range between 10,000 and 12,000; the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia declared that "systematic rape" and "sexual enslavement" in time of war was a crime against humanity, second only to the war crime of genocide. Although the ICTY did not treat the mass rapes as genocide, many have concluded from the organized, systematic nature of the mass rapes of the female Bosniak population, that these rapes were a part of a larger campaign of genocide, that the VRS were carrying out a policy of genocidal rape against the Bosnian Muslim ethnic group; the trial of VRS member Dragoljub Kunarac was the first time in any national or international jurisprudence that a person was convicted of using rape as a weapon of war.

The widespread media coverage of the atrocities by Serbian paramilitary and military forces against Bosniak women and children, drew international condemnation of the Serbian forces. Following the war, several award-winning documentaries and feature films were produced which cover the rapes and their aftermath. According to Amnesty International, the use of rape during times of war is not a by-product of conflicts, but a pre-planned and deliberate military strategy; the first aim of these mass rapes is to instill terror in the civilian population, with the intent to forcibly dislocate them from their property. The second aim is to reduce the likelihood of return and reconstitution by inflicting humiliation and shame on the targeted population; these effects are strategically important for non-state actors, as it is necessary for them to remove the targeted population from the land. The use of mass rape is well suited for campaigns which involve ethnic cleansing and genocide, as the objective is to destroy or forcefully remove the target population, ensure they do not return.

Historians such as Niall Ferguson have assessed a key factor behind the high-level decision to use mass rape for ethnic cleansing as being misguided nationalism. Since its inception, the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia had not been a platform for internal nationalist sentiment, individuals who sought to ignite tensions risked imprisonment, torture or execution. In 1989, Serbian president, Slobodan Milošević inflamed Serbian nationalist sentiment with the Gazimestan Speech which referred to the Battle of Kosovo. Feelings of victimhood and aggression towards Bosniaks were further stirred up with exaggerated tales about the role played by a small number of Bosniaks in the persecution of Serbs during the Ustaše genocide in the 1940s. Serb propaganda suggested that Bosniaks were descended from Turks. Despite the Serbian government-led hate campaigns, some Serbs tried to defend Bosniaks from the atrocities and had to be threatened, including instances when troops would announce by loudspeaker that "every Serb who protects a Muslim will be killed immediately".

Before the conflict began, Bosniaks in Eastern Bosnia had begun to be removed from their employment, to be ostracised and to have their freedom of movement curtailed. At the outset of the war, Serb forces began to target the Bosniak civilian population. Once towns and villages were secured, the military, the police, the paramilitaries and, sometimes Serb villagers continued these attacks. Bosniak houses and apartments were looted or razed to the ground, the civilian population were rounded up, some were physically abused or murdered during the process. Men and women were separated and held in concentration camps. Estimates of the number of women and girls raped range from 12,000 to 50,000, the vast majority of whom were Bosniaks raped by Bosnian Serbs. UNHCR experts have claimed 12,000 rapes; the European Union estimates a total of 20,000, while the Bosnian Interior Ministry claims 50,000. The UN Commission of Experts identified 1,600 cases of sexual violence. Serb forces set up "rape camps", where women were subjected to being raped, only released when pregnant.

Gang rape and public rapes in front of villagers and neighbors were not uncommon. On 6 October 1992, the United Nations Security Council established a Commission of Experts chaired by M. Cherif Bassiouni. According to the commission's findings, it was apparent that rape was being used by Serb forces systematically, had the support of commanders and local authorities; the commission reported that some perpetrators said they were ordered to rape. Others said that the use of rape was a tactic to make sure the targeted population would not return to the area; the assailants told their victims. Pregnant women were detained. Victims were told they would be killed should they report what had transpired; the commission concluded that: "Rape has been reported to have been committed by all sides to the conflict. However, the largest number of reported victims have been Bosniaks, the largest number of alleged perpetrators have been Bosnian Serbs. There are few reports of rape and sexual assault between members of the same ethnic group."The team of European Community investigators, including Simone Veil and Anne Warburton concluded in their 1993 report that rape carried out by the Bosnian Serb forces was not a secondary effect of the conflict but part of a systematic policy of ethnic cleansing and was "perpetrated with the conscious intention of demoralizi

Nicholas Garaufis

Nicholas George Garaufis is a Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York. Born in Paterson, New Jersey, Garaufis graduated from Columbia College of Columbia University in 1969 with a Bachelor of Arts degree and received his Juris Doctor from Columbia Law School in 1974, he taught in the New York City public schools prior to receiving his Juris Doctor. Garaufis began his legal career in 1974 as an associate of Parke, he served as an Assistant Attorney General in the Litigation Bureau of the New York State Attorney General’s office under Attorney General Louis J. Lefkowitz and has practiced law in Queens County, New York. Garaufis served for more than five years as the Chief Counsel of the Federal Aviation Administration in Washington, D. C. overseeing a staff of 200 attorneys. Prior to his appointment to the Clinton Administration in June, 1995, Garaufis served for nine years as counsel to Queens Borough President Claire Shulman in New York City.

Upon the recommendation of United States Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Garaufis was nominated by President Clinton on February 28, 2000, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York vacated by Charles P. Sifton and confirmed by unanimous consent by the United States Senate on May 24, 2000. Garaufis received his commission on May 25, 2000 and entered service on August 28, 2000. Garaufis took senior status on October 1, 2014. In 2007, the United States Department of Justice, joined by the Vulcan Society, an organization of black firefighters, three individual applicants, filed a lawsuit against New York City alleging that the city’s written firefighter entrance exam excluded a disproportionate number of black and Hispanic applicants. At that time, just three percent of the department’s 11,000 firefighters were black and 4.5 percent were Hispanic despite the fact that over half the population of New York City was black or Hispanic. On October 5, 2011, Garaufis ruled that a court-appointed monitor would be installed to oversee the New York City Fire Department’s efforts to hire and retain more minorities.

While the ruling did not impose racial quotas, it explained that a systemic effort by the Fire Department was required. On September 28, 2012, Garaufis approved a new entrance exam for firefighters after the city submitted data showing that the test did not discriminate; the first class of recruits after the ruling included some recruits that were older than had been typical of previous classes. Injuries in that class were higher and the dropout rate 10 percent, was 24 percent for that class. On May 14, 2013, an appeals court disagreed with Garaufis’s finding that the discrimination was intentional; the appeals court determined that the question of intentionality, relevant to the amount of damages the city might have to pay, should go to trial under a different judge. After the appeals court’s ruling, the parties settled the remaining claims in the case, the entire case was referred to Garaufis for oversight of the settlement; the number of minority firefighters in the department doubled to 1,230 between 2002 and 2013.

In June 28, 2018, the Fire Department reported that forty-three percent of the nearly 2,300 top scorers on its most recent entrance exam were black or Hispanic. In October 2018, people of color comprised more than 40 percent of the class graduating from the training academy. On May 11, 2017, Garaufis sentenced Bryant Neal Vinas to time served for providing material support for terrorism, giving the cooperative informant three months more in prison before beginning a life on probation. In 2016, Martín Batalla Vidal, a recipient of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals, filed a federal lawsuit in the Eastern District of New York challenging the Department of Homeland Security ’s decision to revoke his work permit in connection with the nationwide injunction issued by the Southern District of Texas; the Texas case sought to block the implementation of the Deferred Action for Parents of Americans Lawful Permanent Residents and an expansion of DACA. On September 29, 2016, the advocacy organization Make the Road New York joined Batalla Vidal’s lawsuit.

On February 13, 2018, Garaufis issued a nationwide preliminary injunction enjoining rescission of the DACA program. Garaufis found; the government appealed Garaufis’s decision to the Second Circuit, which heard oral argument on January 25, 2019. Nicholas Garaufis at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Civil War Defenses of Washington

The Civil War Defenses of Washington were a group of Union Army fortifications that protected the federal capital city, Washington, D. C. from invasion by the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The sites of some of these fortifications are within a collection of National Park Service properties that the National Register of Historic Places identifies as the Fort Circle; the sites of other such fortifications in the area have become parts of state, county or city parks or are located on owned properties. Parts of the earthworks of some such fortifications still exist. Other such fortifications have been demolished; the Washington area had 68 major enclosed forts, as well as 93 prepared batteries for field guns, seven blockhouses surrounding it during the American Civil War. There were twenty miles of rifle pits and thirty miles of connecting military roads; these were Union forts, the Confederacy never captured one. Indeed, most never came under enemy fire; these were used to house soldiers and store artillery and other supplies.

In the District of Columbia, the Union Army built the following forts in areas which had remained rural on the limits of the city. Most of the land was owned and taken over by the military at the beginning of the Civil War. Here are some examples: Fort Slemmer: The 24 acres land was owned by Henry Douglas, a florist. Flowers, 1,970 fruit trees, vines and other plants were destroyed to complete the fort; this made the land owner unable to work in this trade. Fort Reno: The land belonged to Giles and Miles Dyer; the famehouse was used by the Army as the headquarters for various commands encamped in the area. The fortification covered 20 acres of land. 50 additional acres were used for barracks, a parade ground. Forts Chaplin and Craven: These forts were built on land belonging to Selby B. Scaggs, he owned a farm there totaling 400 acres and worth $52,000. Four laborers lived there. Fort DeRussy: The fort was built on land owned by Bernard S. Swart, a clerk, he lived there with three children and two farmhands.

Today his land is part of Rock Creek Park. Fort DuPont: The fort was built on the land owned by 60-year old Michael Caton, worth $5,000 in 1860, he lived there with his wife, five children, one domestic. Fort Slocum: The fort was in part built on the land owned by John F. Callan a clerk, he lived there with their eight children. Fort Bayard: The fort was built on land belonging to a farmer named Philip J. Buckey, who lived there with his wife, four children and two servants. Battery Kemble and part of Fort Gaines: The land was owned by William A. T. Maddox, a US Marine Corps Captain stationed in Philadelphia. Fort Stevens: The land belonged to Emory Methodist Church as well as some land may have belonged to Elizabeth Thomas, a free black woman, her house was demolished in the process. Documentation for her ownership was never discovered but the story has become part of the local folklore; the forts in the District of Columbia were temporary structures. They were in most part built of earthen embankments, timber with limited masonry and were surrounded by trenches and flanked with abatis.

They were not designed to serve beyond the Civil War as the land was intended to be returned to their owner at that time. Most of these owners lost possession of their land for the duration of the war and were unable to receive income from it. Only a few received rent from the land during the war; as early as 1898, an interest in connecting the forts by a road was proposed. Known as the Fort Drive, it would connect all the forts from the east of the city to the west. In 1919 the Commissioners of the District of Columbia pushed Congress to pass a bill to consolidate the aging forts into a "Fort Circle" system of parks that would ring the growing city of Washington; as envisioned by the Commissioners, the Fort Circle would be a green ring of parks outside the city, owned by the government, connected by a "Fort Drive" road in order to allow Washington's citizens to escape the confines of the capital. However, the bill allowing for the purchase of the former forts, turned back over to private ownership after the war, failed to pass both the House of Representatives and Senate.

Despite that failure, in 1925 a similar bill passed both the House and Senate, which allowed for the creation of the National Capital Parks Commission to oversee the construction of a Fort Circle of parks similar to that proposed in 1919. The NCPC was authorized to begin purchasing land occupied by the old forts, much of, turned over to private ownership following the war. Records indicate that the site of Fort Stanton was purchased for a total of $56,000 in 1926; the duty of purchasing land and constructing the fort parks changed hands several times throughout the 1920s and 1930s culminating with the Department of the Interior and the National Park Service taking control of the project in the 1940s. During the Great Depression, crews from the Civilian Conservation Corps embarked on projects to improve and maintain the parks, which were still under the control of District authority at that time. At Fort Stanton, CCC members trimmed trees and cleared brush, as well as maintaining and constructing park buildings.

Various non-park buildings were discussed for the land. The City Department of Education proposed building a school on park land, while authorities from the local water utility suggested the construction of a water tower would be suitable for the tall hills of the park; the Second World War interrupted these plans, post-war budget cuts instituted by President Harry S. Truman p

Arnold Ziffel

Arnold Ziffel was a pig featured in Green Acres, an American situation comedy that aired on CBS from 1965 to 1971. The show is about a fictional lawyer, Oliver Wendell Douglas, his wife, Lisa - city-dwellers who move to Hooterville, a farming community populated by oddballs. Arnold is a pig of the Chester White breed, but is treated as the son of farmer Fred Ziffel and his wife, Doris, a childless couple. Everyone in Hooterville accepts this without question. Arnold's first TV appearance was in the second season of Petticoat Junction in the episode "A Matter of Communication"; the humor that surrounds the character of Arnold comes from his human-like abilities and lifestyle, from the way the people of Hooterville insist on thinking of him as a fellow human. They invite him to town meetings, they play checkers with him, they speak English to him and can understand him when he speaks with pig squeals and grunts. New resident Oliver Douglas is the lone holdout, he tries to explain to people that Arnold is just a pig.

On the contrary, they are suspicious of Oliver, because of his inability to communicate with Arnold. This dynamic is part of a larger theme of Green Acres, that Oliver's sense of logic is meaningless in the Hooterville universe. Arnold can do pretty much anything a human can, he can write his change channels on the television. He watches the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite to keep up with the issues, he signs checks and can adjust the TV antenna, he is the smartest student at the local grade school. He carries his lunchbox in his mouth, plays practical jokes on the other students. Arnold is artistically talented: he is working on a novel, he plays the piano, he is an accomplished abstract painter, dubbed "Porky Picasso", whose piece titled "Nude at a Filling Station" wins first prize out of two thousand entries in a student art contest, he works as a "paper pig" delivering newspapers, although he has a bad habit of throwing copies so hard and so badly aimed that he sometimes breaks windows.

Arnold is lucky. He wins a trip to Hawaii in one episode, a trip to Hollywood in another. After a Hollywood screen test, he is cast in a role intended for a horse, but after the horse, implied to be Mr. Ed, explains to Arnold that he needs the job to send his son to Stanford, Arnold's deliberate bad behavior leads to him being fired and the horse getting his job back, he wins a prize at the Pixley Bijou movie theater for having the most original costume... the theater manager says that Arnold has the best looking pig costume he has seen. At one point, Arnold falls in love with Mr. Haney's prized Basset Hound "Cynthia", but in a scene full of pig grunts and dog barks, subtitles explain that they realize their love can never be. Mr. Haney threatens to sue Arnold's "father" Fred Ziffel, claiming that Arnold has ruined Cynthia for dog shows since she has begun to grunt like a pig, too. One storyline has Arnold inheriting millions of dollars as the sole descendant of the favorite pig of a pork-packing magnate, distinguished by his ability to predict the weather with his tail.

Some doubt exists as to Arnold's weather prediction skills when, during the claims process for the money, his tail predicts snow in the middle of warm weather. This prediction is disbelieved and Oliver finds himself in a difficult situation checking out of an expensive hotel, because he has to deal with Arnold's expensive bill being deemed Arnold's "Pig Lawyer" by the town of Hooterville. However, during this difficulty, Arnold's impossible prediction proves accurate when a freak snowstorm buries the city. So the hotel welcomes Arnold back with open arms. Arnold's trainer was Frank Inn, who trained all of the animals seen in the rural television comedies of the time period, including Petticoat Junction and Beverly Hillbillies. Frank said. Unlike other animals, he explained, a trainer can never force a pig to do anything or reprimand them, or else they will come to dislike the trainer and will not perform for them or take food from them. Arnold won three Patsy Awards for Inn during the 1960s. Arnold was played by a piglet, since piglets grow into adult pigs, at least one piglet per year had to be trained for the role of Arnold during the six years that the show was in production.

In most episodes, Arnold was played by a female piglet. The piglet had a union contract. Arnold received a great deal of fan mail from children as well as adults. A class of sixth-graders from Ohio wrote with a pledge to stop eating pork chops. One of the Arnolds is buried with Frank Inn at Forest Lawn Memorial Park. A popular urban legend circulated during the era of the show's greatest popularity to the effect that the cast and crew of Green Acres ate Arnold; the story is false. In the 1994 film Pulp Fiction, the character Jules refers to Arnold, saying a pig would have to be "ten times more charming" than Arnold for him to cease considering it a filthy animal; the 1995 theatrical film Gordy was conceived in the early 1970s by Green Acres creator Jay Sommers and writer Dick Chevillat as a vehicle for the Arnold Ziffel character. Both are given writing credit for the film, although Sommers had died some 10 years before the release of Gordy. In the 1995-1999 American sitcom NewsRadio the central character, news director Dave Nelson, was a fan of Green Acres and of Arnold in particular.

The band Anthrax dedicated their cover of Black Sabbath's "Sabbath Bloody Sabbath" to Arnold Ziffel o