Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship- or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties. Those who engage in acts of piracy are called pirates, the earliest documented instances of piracy were in the 14th century BC, when the Sea Peoples, a group of ocean raiders, attacked the ships of the Aegean and Mediterranean civilizations. Narrow channels which funnel shipping into predictable routes have long created opportunities for piracy, as well as for privateering and commerce raiding. Historic examples include the waters of Gibraltar, the Strait of Malacca, the Gulf of Aden, a land-based parallel is the ambushing of travelers by bandits and brigands in highways and mountain passes. While the term can include acts committed in the air, on land, or in major bodies of water or on a shore. It does not normally include crimes committed against people traveling on the vessel as the perpetrator.
Piracy or pirating is the name of a crime under customary international law. They use larger vessels, known as ships, to supply the smaller motorboats. The international community is facing challenges in bringing modern pirates to justice. In the 2000s, a number of nations have used their naval forces to protect ships from pirate attacks. The English pirate is derived from the Latin term pirata and that from Greek πειρατής, brigand, in turn from πειράομαι, I attempt, from πεῖρα, the meaning of the Greek word peiratēs literally is one who attacks. The word is cognate to peril. The term is first attested to c, spelling was not standardised until the eighteenth century, and spellings such as pirrot and pyrat were used until this period. It may be reasonable to assume that piracy has existed for as long as the oceans were plied for commerce, the earliest documented instances of piracy are the exploits of the Sea Peoples who threatened the ships sailing in the Aegean and Mediterranean waters in the 14th century BC.
In classical antiquity, the Phoenicians and Tyrrhenians were known as pirates, the ancient Greeks condoned piracy as a viable profession, it apparently was widespread and regarded as an entirely honourable way of making a living. References are made to its perfectly normal occurrence many texts including in Homers Iliad and Odyssey, by the era of Classical Greece, piracy was looked upon as a disgrace to have as a profession. In the 3rd century BC, pirate attacks on Olympos brought impoverishment, among some of the most famous ancient pirateering peoples were the Illyrians, a people populating the western Balkan peninsula. Constantly raiding the Adriatic Sea, the Illyrians caused many conflicts with the Roman Republic and it was not until 229 BC when the Romans finally decisively beat the Illyrian fleets that their threat was ended
Fortifications are military constructions or buildings designed for the defense of territories in warfare, and used to solidify rule in a region during peace time. Humans have constructed defensive works for many thousands of years, in a variety of increasingly complex designs, the term is derived from the Latin fortis and facere. From very early history to modern times, walls have been a necessity for cities to survive in a changing world of invasion. Some settlements in the Indus Valley Civilization were the first small cities to be fortified, in ancient Greece, large stone walls had been built in Mycenaean Greece, such as the ancient site of Mycenae. A Greek Phrourion was a collection of buildings used as a military garrison. These construction mainly served the purpose of a tower, to guard certain roads, passes. Though smaller than a fortress, they acted as a border guard rather than a real strongpoint to watch. The art of setting out a camp or constructing a fortification traditionally has been called castramentation since the time of the Roman legions.
Fortification is usually divided into two branches, permanent fortification and field fortification, there is an intermediate branch known as semi-permanent fortification. Castles are fortifications which are regarded as being distinct from the fort or fortress in that they are a residence of a monarch or noble. Roman forts and hill forts were the antecedents of castles in Europe. The Early Middle Ages saw the creation of towns built around castles. Medieval-style fortifications were made obsolete by the arrival of cannons in the 14th century. Fortifications in the age of black powder evolved into much lower structures with greater use of ditches and earth ramparts that would absorb, Walls exposed to direct cannon fire were very vulnerable, so were sunk into ditches fronted by earth slopes. The arrival of explosive shells in the 19th century led to yet another stage in the evolution of fortification, steel-and-concrete fortifications were common during the 19th and early 20th centuries. However the advances in warfare since World War I have made large-scale fortifications obsolete in most situations.
Demilitarized zones along borders are arguably another type of fortification, although a passive kind, many military installations are known as forts, although they are not always fortified. Larger forts may be called fortresses, smaller ones were known as fortalices
Menard is a city in and the county seat of Menard County, United States. The population was 1,653 at the 2000 census, Menard is located at 30°55′10″N 99°47′4″W. It is situated along the banks of the San Saba River at the junction of U. S, highways 83 and 190, approximately 140 miles northwest of Austin and San Antonio in central Menard County. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.1 square miles. The first settlement at the site of what is now Menard was the Spanish Mission San Sabá, the presidio was replaced by the Presidio of San Sabá in 1761. Both were intended to protect New Spains northern frontier from marauding Comanches, due to the presidios isolation, it suffered repeated attacks, and was finally abandoned in 1770. Stones from the old walls were used by settlers to build homes and fences. The ruins of the old presidio were reconstructed in 1936, the community was first known as Menardville when the site was laid out in 1858, after the formation of Menard County.
Nearby Fort McKavett was deactivated in 1859, leaving the settlers with little protection from frequent Indian raids, the fort reopened after the Civil War. By 1867, Menardville had a store, a shop. The community served as a trading post and overnight stop on north, a county government was organized in 1871 and a two-story courthouse was built one year later. Menardville had approximately 150 residents by the mid-1880s, the San Saba River flooded in 1899, causing considerable damage to the community. An economic boom followed the arrival of the first train in 1911, the 1920 census recorded 1,164 people living in Menard. For many years, the served as the principal shipping point for Menard County. Although the community was affected by the Great Depression, both of its banks – the Menard National Bank and Bevans State Bank – remained open, menards population stood at 1,969 in 1930,2,375 in 1940, and 2,685 in 1950. That figure began to decline during the 1950s and 1960s, as improvements made travel.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railroad discontinued its service to Menard in 1972, the Menard County Historical Society began collecting artifacts in 1975 and dedicated the museum in 1978. By 1980,1,697 people were living in Menard, in 1990, the population fell slightly to 1,606 before rebounding to 1,653 in 2000
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western United States and the Mountain West states and it is the sixth largest and the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix, Arizona is one of the Four Corners states. It has borders with New Mexico, Nevada and Mexico, Arizonas border with Mexico is 389 miles long, on the northern border of the Mexican states of Sonora and Baja California. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the states to be admitted to the Union. Historically part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, after being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848. The southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase, Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff, Alpine, in addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, and national monuments.
To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like Arissona, the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the Oodham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area, There is a misconception that the states name originated from the Spanish term Árida Zona. See lists of counties, rivers, state parks, national parks, Arizona is in the Southwestern United States as one of the Four Corners states. Arizona is the sixth largest state by area, ranked after New Mexico, of the states 113,998 square miles, approximately 15% is privately owned. The remaining area is public forest and park land, state trust land, Arizona is well known for its desert Basin and Range region in the states southern portions, which is rich in a landscape of xerophyte plants such as the cactus. This regions topography was shaped by volcanism, followed by the cooling-off. Its climate has hot summers and mild winters. The state is well known for its pine-covered north-central portion of the high country of the Colorado Plateau.
Like other states of the Southwest United States, Arizona has an abundance of mountains, despite the states aridity, 27% of Arizona is forest, a percentage comparable to modern-day France or Germany. The worlds largest stand of pine trees is in Arizona
Cumberland Island is one of the Sea Islands of the southeastern United States and is the largest in terms of continuously exposed land. It is located on the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the U. S. state of Georgia and is part of Camden County, Cumberland Island constitutes the westernmost point of shoreline on the Atlantic Ocean in the United States. The island is 17.5 miles long, with an area of 36,415 acres, including 16,850 acres of marsh, there is no bridge to the island, most visitors reach the island by the Cumberland Ferry from St. Marys. The island has three major ecosystem regions, along the western edge of the island there are large areas of salt marshes. One will see gnarled live oak trees covered with Spanish moss, Cumberland Islands most famous ecosystem is its beach, which stretches over 17 miles. The island is home to many interesting animals, as well as non-native species. There are white-tailed deer, raccoons, nine-banded armadillos, wild boars, American alligators and it is famous for its feral horses roaming free on the island.
The first inhabitants were indigenous peoples who settled there as early as 4,000 years ago, inhabitants participated in the Savannah archaeological culture and spoke the Timucua language. Its inhabitants were part of the Mocama, a Timucua group who spoke the Mocama dialect, in the 17th century the island and the adjacent coast were controlled by the Tacatacuru chiefdom. During the 16th and 17th centuries, Cumberland Island was part of the Mocama missionary province of Spanish Florida, when the Spanish arrived in the 1550s, they named the island San Pedro. They built a garrison and mission, San Pedro de Mocama and it was one of the main mission centers, situated at a major Mocama site. Another Spanish mission on Cumberland was Puturiba, which operated from 1595–1597, an additional mission, San Phelipe, was relocated from the North Newport River to the northern end of Cumberland from 1670–1684. Historical records indicate that until 1681, there were approximately 300 natives, in 1683, French pirates attacked Cumberland Island and burning many of the buildings.
Many of the natives and the Spanish missionaries fled the island, an attack in 1684 by the Spanish pirate Thomas Jingle led to the final abandonment of the island. The Tacatacuru relocated closer to St. Augustine, and Cumberland Island was thereafter occupied by the Yamasee, most of the Mocama had converted to Christianity before the island was abandoned. During the colonial years, many died of introduced infectious diseases. Survivors retreated to St. Augustine to the south, English General James Oglethorpe arrived at the Georgia coast in 1733. Oglethorpe established a lodge called Dungeness, named after a headland in Kent
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U. S. state of Florida. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 51,923. Pensacola is the city of the Pensacola metropolitan area, which had an estimated 461,227 residents in 2012. Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay, which is protected by the island of Santa Rosa. The main campus of the University of West Florida is situated north of the city center, the area was originally inhabited by Muskogean peoples. The Pensacola people lived there at the time of European contact, Spanish explorer Tristán de Luna founded a short-lived settlement in 1559. In 1698 the Spanish established a presidio in the area, from which the city gradually developed. The area changed several times as European powers competed in North America. During Floridas British rule, fortifications were strengthened, other nicknames include Worlds Whitest Beaches, Cradle of Naval Aviation, Western Gate to the Sunshine State, Americas First Settlement, Emerald Coast, Red Snapper Capital of the World, and P-Cola.
The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay area were Native American peoples, at the time of European contact, a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola lived in the region. This name was not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appears to be the source of the name Pensacola for the bay and thence the city. Creek people, Muskogean-speaking, came regularly from present-day southern Alabama to trade, so the peoples were part of a broader regional and even continental network of relations. The best-known Pensacola culture site in terms of archeology is the Bottle Creek site and this site has at least 18 large earthwork mounds, five of which are arranged around a central plaza. Its main occupation was from 1250 AD to 1550 and it was a ceremonial center for the Pensacola people and a gateway to their society. This site would have had access by a dugout canoe. The areas written recorded history begins in the 16th century, with documentation by Spanish explorers who were the first Europeans to reach the area.
The expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539 both visited Pensacola Bay, the latter of which documented the name Bay of Ochuse. In 1559, Tristán de Luna y Arellano landed with some 1,500 people on 11 ships from Veracruz, Mexico
San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populated city in the United States and the second-most populous city in the state of Texas, with a population of 1,409,019. It was the fastest growing of the top 10 largest cities in the United States from 2000 to 2010, the city straddles South Texas and Central Texas and is on the southwestern corner of an urban megaregion known as the Texas Triangle. San Antonio serves as the seat of Bexar County, recent annexations have extended the citys boundaries into Medina County and, though for only a very tiny area near the city of Garden Ridge, into Comal County. Due to its placement, the city has characteristics of other urban centers in which there are sparsely populated areas. San Antonio is the center of the San Antonio–New Braunfels Metropolitan Statistical Area, growth along the Interstate 35 and Interstate 10 corridors to the north and east make it likely that the metropolitan area will continue to expand. San Antonio was named for Saint Anthony of Padua, whose feast day is on June 13, the city contains five 18th-century Spanish frontier missions, including The Alamo and San Antonio Missions National Historical Park, which were designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites in 2015.
Other notable attractions include the River Walk, the Tower of the Americas, the Alamo Bowl, the city is home to the five-time NBA champion San Antonio Spurs and hosts the annual San Antonio Stock Show & Rodeo, one of the largest such events in the country. The U. S. Kelly Air Force Base operated out of San Antonio until 2001, the remaining portions of the base were developed as Port San Antonio, an industrial/business park and aerospace complex. San Antonio is home to six Fortune 500 companies and the South Texas Medical Center, at the time of European encounter, Payaya Indians lived near the San Antonio River Valley in the San Pedro Springs area, calling the vicinity Yanaguana, meaning refreshing waters. In 1691, a group of Spanish Catholic explorers and missionaries came upon the river and Payaya settlement on June 13 and they named the place and river San Antonio in his honor. It was years before any Spanish settlement took place, father Antonio de Olivares visited the site in 1709, and he was determined to found a mission and civilian settlement there.
He directed Martin de Alarcón, the governor of Coahuila and Texas, differences between Alarcón and Olivares resulted in delays, and construction did not start until 1718. The families who clustered around the presidio and mission formed the beginnings of Villa de Béjar, on May 1, the governor transferred ownership of the Mission San Antonio de Valero to Fray Antonio de Olivares. On May 5,1718 he commissioned the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar on the west side of the San Antonio River, one-fourth league from the mission. On February 14,1719, the Marquis of San Miguel de Aguayo proposed to the king of Spain that 400 families be transported from the Canary Islands, Galicia, or Havana to populate the province of Texas. By June 1730,25 families had reached Cuba, and 10 families had sent to Veracruz before orders from Spain came to stop the re-settlement. Under the leadership of Juan Leal Goraz, the group marched overland from Veracruz to the Presidio San Antonio de Béxar, due to marriages along the way, the party now included 15 families, a total of 56 persons.
They joined the community established in 1718
Fort Caroline was one of the first French colonies in the present-day United States, located on the banks of the St. Johns River in what is now Jacksonville, Florida. It was established under the leadership of René Goulaine de Laudonnière on June 22,1564, as a new territorial claim in French Florida, the Spanish continued to occupy the site as San Mateo until 1569. The exact location where the fort stood is unknown. In 1953 the National Park Service established the Fort Caroline National Memorial along the bank of the St. Johns River near the point that commemorates Laudonnières first landing. This is generally accepted by scholars as being in the vicinity of the original fort, the memorial is now managed as a part of the Timucuan Ecological and Historic Preserve although it remains a distinct National Park Service entity. Ribault traveled to present-day South Carolina and with twenty-eight men built a settlement known as Charlesfort, without supplies or leadership, and beset by hostility from the native populations, all but one of the colonists sailed back to Europe after only a year.
During their voyage in a boat, they were reduced to cannibalism before the survivors were rescued in English waters. Johns Bluff on June 22,1564, the fort was named for King Charles IX of France. For just over a year, this colony was beset by hunger, Indian attacks, and mutiny, the ship and provisions gained from Hawkins enabled the French to survive and prepare to move back to France as soon as possible. As Laudonnière writes, I may saye that wee receaved as manye courtesies of the Generall, wherein doubtlesse hee hath wonne the reputation of a good and charitable man, deserving to be esteemed as much of us all as if hee had saved all our lives. The French introduced Hawkins to tobacco, which all were using. After a brief skirmish between Ribaults ships and Menéndezs ships, the latter retreated 35 miles southward, where they established the settlement of St. Augustine. Ribault pursued the Spanish with several of his ships and most of his troops, Menéndez launched an assault on Fort Caroline by marching his forces overland during the storm, leading a surprise dawn attack on Fort Caroline on September 20.
At this time, the garrison contained 200 to 250 people, the only survivors were about 50 women and children who were taken prisoner and a few defenders, including Laudonnière, who managed to escape, the rest were massacred. As for Ribaults fleet, all of the ships sank or ran aground south of St. Augustine during the storm. Ribault and his marooned sailors marched northwards and were located by Menéndez with his troops. Apparently believing that his men would be treated, Ribault capitulated. Menéndez executed Ribault and several hundred Huguenots as heretics at what is now known as the Matanzas Inlet, the atrocity shocked Europeans even in that bloody era of religious strife
State of the Presidi
The State of the Presidi was a small state in Italy between 1557 and 1801. Always a separate entity attached to the Kingdom of Naples, the Presidi went through three distinct historical periods, by the Treaty of Florence of 28 March 1801, the king of Naples ceded the Presidi to the France, which ceded them to the new Kingdom of Etruria. After the downfall of the France in 1814 and the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Presidi were originally certain strategic coastal territories of the Republic of Siena that were retained by Spain after the conquest of the Republic. Duke Cosimo I de Medici of Tuscany overran Siena in 1555 during the last Italian War, Cosimo received military support from the Emperor Charles V, King of Spain, and his son, Philip II, who was king of Naples. Since 1548, Cosimo had been in occupation of the Lordship of Piombino, on 29 May 1557, Philip signed a treaty in London with Lord Iacopo VI Appiani of Piombino. In April 1558, the French, who still held Talamone, made an assault on Orbetello and in September of the same year.
Control of the Presidi allowed the Spanish to monitor maritime traffic between Genoa and Naples, since in the 16th century ships kept close to the coast, during the Eighty Years War, the Presidi served as a stopover on the so-called Cammino di Fiandra. Italian soldiers were massed in Naples and moved in stages to the Spanish Netherlands, if they took ship in Naples, they usually stopped to revictual in the Presidi before moving on to Genoa, otherwise they marched overland from Naples to the Presidi and took ship there. In the 16th century, the Presidi provided pasture for Tuscan shepherds, the Tuscan authorities even taxed the head of sheep as their shepherds brought them to the coast, an act which provoked some complaints to the Spanish authorities. Construction of Fort San Giacomo at Porto Longone began in March 1605 and it had barracks for 2,000 men. The Prince of Piombino, who shared sovereignty over Elba with the Duke of Tuscany and this was the only case of territorial expansion in the history of the Presidi.
From May to July 1646, Orbetello resisted successfully a siege by troops sent by the French royal minister Mazarin in an attempt to dislodge the Spaniards from Italy, French efforts to bring Grand Duke Ferdinand II of Tuscany out of his alliance with Spain failed. He refortified his own coast and raised a militia of 10,000 to observe the Franco-Spanish conflict across the border, in June, the Spanish gained a naval victory over the French off Porto Ercole. In September of the year, after conquering Piombino, the French managed to capture Porto Longone. The Spanish garrison, which consisted of merely 80 men, held out for two weeks, the Spaniards recaptured both Piombino and Porto Longone during the summer of 1650, at a time when France was in the throes of the Fronde, a domestic uprising. Piombino fell quickly to a Neapolitan force, while Porto Longone, garrisoned by 1,500 Frenchmen, because of subsequent pirate attacks and to defend against any future attacks by the French, the Spanish Crown decided to build another fortress on the bay of Longone, Fort Focardo.
During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Presidi were claimed by the Emperor Charles VI, in Article 30 of the Treaty of Rastatt of 7 March 1714, France recognised Charles claim, but no peace with Spain was forthcoming. The chief opponent of peace was Elisabeth Farnese, queen of Philip V of Spain
The Sonoma Barracks is a two-story, wide-balconied, adobe building facing the central plaza of the City of Sonoma, California. It was built by order of Lieutenant Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo to house the Mexican soldiers that had transferred from the Presidio of San Francisco in 1835. The Presidio Company and their commander, Lieutenant Vallejo, were responsible for controlling the Native Americans living on the northern border of Mexican California. On June 14,1846 the Pueblo of Sonoma was taken over by a group of American immigrants seeking to establish their own California Republic, the Barracks became the headquarters this short-lived insurrection known as the Bear Flag Revolt. Believing that war with Mexico had been declared, ships of the U. S, pacific Squadron took over Monterey on July 7 and Yerba Buena on July 9,1846. The U. S. flag was raised at the Barracks that same day - ending the California Republic, after that, the Barracks was used by a succession U. S. forces until 1852. Throughout the Mexican–American War and the subsequent California Gold Rush these forces continued to confront Native Americans hostile to invaders occupying their lands, when the military left, the building was used for a number of civilian purposes until being acquired by the State of California in 1957.
The Sonoma Barracks is now part of Sonoma State Historic Park, soldiers of the Company of the National Presidio at San Francisco moved to the site of the recently secularized Mission San Francisco Solano in 1835. An immediate concern was further eastward movement of the Russian America Company from their settlements on the California coast. Construction of the Barracks was episodic, digging the foundation began in 1837, construction of the walls in 1839. Until the building was habitable the troops were housed in the buildings of the old Mission, while the barracks was built to house troops, most of the space was used as a headquarters and for supply and weapons storage. Vallejos approach to controlling the region combined direct military action, treaties with native groups. While based in Sonoma, the Company participated in over 100 activities to control over the areas Native peoples. Bancroft opines that “…Vallejo’s Indian policy must be regarded as excellent and effective when compared to any other policy ever followed in California.
”The Company did receive support in money and materiel from the Mexican and California governments but Vallejo absorbed the deficits out of his own funds. All the other companies in Alta California had been replaced by civilian militias by the time the San Francisco Company moved to Sonoma. Lieutenant Colonel Vallejo disbanded the Presidial Company on November 28,1844 with the plea that he could not longer afford paying for them, among his other reasons may have been avoiding being drawn into a rebellion against Governor Micheltorena by his nephew Juan Alvarado and childhood friend José Castro. After releasing the soldiers, Vallejo retained the weapons and military supplies stored in the Barracks for the use of the civilian militia and they next determined to seize the Pueblo of Sonoma to deny the Californians a rallying point north of San Francisco Bay. Capturing the arms and military materiel and Lieutenant Colonel Vallejo would delay any military response from the Californians, before dawn on Sunday, June 14,1846 thirty-three of the American rebels arrived in Sonoma