Timeline of the Portolá expedition
This Timeline of the Portolá expedition tracks the progress during 1769 and 1770 of the first European exploration of the Spanish possession of Alta California, present-day California, United States. Missionary Juan Crespi kept a diary detailing the group's daily progress and detailed descriptions of their location, allowing modern researchers to reconstruct their journey. Portions of other diaries by Gaspar de Portolá, engineer Miguel Costansó, missionary Junípero Serra, army officer Jose de Canizares, Sergeant José Ortega survived; when analyzed as a whole, they provide detailed daily information on the route traveled and camping locations, as well as descriptions of the country and its native inhabitants. The Portolá expedition was the brainchild of visitador in New Spain. On his recommendation, King Charles III of Spain authorized Gálvez to explore Alta California and establish the first permanent Spanish presence there. Gálvez was supported in the planning of an expedition by Carlos Francisco de Croix, Father Junípero Serra.
Gálvez and Serra met in 1768, to plan the expedition. The goals set were to establish nearby missions -- at San Diego and Monterrey; these places had been described and given names 166 years before by the maritime explorations of Sebastián Vizcaíno. In addition, the name San Carlos Borromeo was chosen for the mission at Monterrey. Gálvez placed Gaspar de Portolá appointed governor of Las Californias, in overall command of the expedition. Second in command was Captain Fernando Rivera y Moncada, commander of the Presidio at Loreto. Serra headed the Franciscan missionary contingent. Three ships were assigned: two to follow the land march up the coast and keep the expedition supplied from the naval depot at La Paz, another ship to connect La Paz with the mainland at San Blas; the expedition marched from Baja California to San Diego. Rivera led the first group, consisting of soldiers and engineers to prepare the road and deal with hostile natives. Portolá and Serra followed in a second group with the civilians and baggage.
Serra stayed with the new mission in San Diego while Rivera took a smaller group north. Led by Rivera's scouts, the road followed established native paths as much as possible, blazing new trails where necessary; the two main requirements for a camping place were an adequate supply of drinkable fresh water and forage for the livestock. For that reason, most of the campsites were near ponds or springs. All three of the main land expedition diaries give; as used at that time, one Spanish league equaled about 2.6 miles. A typical day's march covered 2–4 leagues, with frequent rest days; the following year, Portolá returned north as far as Monterrey to establish the second Presidio there and to establish a new provincial seat. Serra came north by sea to make the Mission San Carlos Borromeo del rio Carmelo his headquarters. Portolá's successor as governor, Pedro Fages, found an easier inland route in 1770 from Monterrey to San Francisco Bay, further explored the eastern side of the bay in 1772; the 1776 expedition of Juan Bautista de Anza used the official Portolá expedition report to follow in the footsteps of Portolá from Mission San Gabriel to Monterrey, taking the Fages route from Monterrey to San Francisco Bay.
Much of today's Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail in coastal California was the Portolá trail. Sixteen of the twenty-one Spanish Missions of California were established along the Portolá route; the Crespí diary is the most complete of the three land expedition accounts, because Crespí was the only diarist present during the entire expedition. It includes nearly all of the information found in the other two, plus many extra details about the country and the native peoples. Herbert Bolton annotated it with modern references. Bolton added information about the modern campsite locations. Bolton included maps with his "best guess" of the expedition's march routes, superimposed on modern California maps. In 2001, a new edition of the Crespí diary was published, with side-by-side Spanish and English text - both of Crespí's original field notes, his expanded rewrite for the official version. Vicente Vila, captain of the San Carlos — one of three ships supporting the expedition — kept a diary that has survived, but he only sailed as far as San Diego, never joined the expedition on land.
Free online translations of both Vila's and Costansó's diaries are available. Fages wrote, in 1775, an after-the fact account of the 1769–70 expedition; the official report of the expedition is available online. Written by Carlos Francisco de Croix, marqués de Croix, the brief document drew on the diaries kept by the expedition participants. "Three Portolá Expedition Diaries". The Pacifica Historical Society website includes a useful formatting of the three most complete diaries side-by-side for each day of the expedition from July 14 on
Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia
The Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia was a military company of the Spanish Army serving in the Spanish colonial empire. The company was raised in Barcelona in 1767 for service in New Spain, as a part of an effort to improve the defenses of Spain's overseas empire, which in turn was part of the larger Bourbon Reforms of King Carlos III. Recruited from the 2nd Regiment of Light Infantry of Catalonia, the company was composed of four officers and one hundred enlisted men and was commanded by Captain Agustín Callis, a veteran of Spain's wars in Italy and Portugal; the Catalan Volunteers arrived in Guaymas, Sonora in May 1768 as a part of an expedition of some 1200 Spanish soldiers and native allies assembled to quell a revolt by Pima and Seri Indians. After years of active campaigning, the Volunteers returned to Mexico City in April 1771. In September 1768, Lieutenant Pedro Fages and a detachment of 25 Volunteers were ordered south to San Blas, Nayarit to form a part of the expedition of Gaspar de Portolà to establish a Spanish foothold in Alta California.
After 110 days at sea, the Volunteers arrived at San Diego Bay in April 1769. By this time, over half the soldiers and most of the crew were incapacitated with scurvy. Twelve Volunteers succumbed to illness while awaiting the arrival of the overland arm of the expedition under Captain Fernando Javier Rivera y Moncada, who arrived a month later. Still short of provisions, the lot of the soldiers improved little. Despite these privations, the Volunteers participated in the Portola expedition that established San Diego and Monterey, remained as the first garrison of the Presidio of Monterey, under Fages' command. Volunteers accompanied Fages on expeditions to explore the San Francisco Bay region in 1770 and 1772. In June 1770, command of the military forces in California passed from Portola to the short tempered and inexperienced Fages, his high handed treatment of soldiers and missionaries and his possible mishandling of the distribution of rations led to criticism from Father Junípero Serra, who petitioned Viceroy Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa for his removal.
Fages and the detachment of Volunteers left Monterey to rejoin their Company in July 1774. At least one of the Volunteers returned to retire in California. Jose Antonio Yorba settled in what is now Orange County, California to become the patriarch of an important Californio family; the city of Yorba Linda, California is named for the Yorba family. In Sonora, the Catalan Volunteers served alongside the Fusileros de Montaña, another independent company from Catalonia associated with the 2nd Regiment; as a part of new regulations promulgated in 1772, the two commands were merged and reorganized into two companies of 80 men and 3 officers each: The First Free Company of Volunteers of Catalonia, which included the detachment in California under Fages and remained under the command of Captain Callis, a Second Company under Captain Antonio Pol. Both companies were based in Guadalajara; as light infantry, the Volunteers were thought to be well suited for duty in the mountainous country of central Mexico.
Though based in Guadalajara, detachments of Volunteers were posted to the Presidio of Mesa del Tonati in the mountains of Nayarit, the Real del Monte near Mexico City, to serve as harbor guards at San Blas, the headquarters for Spanish naval operations in the Pacific. For the most part, this service was routine, except for occasional calls to quell disturbances. Fages, his reputation now rehabilitated, was promoted to Captain and assigned command of the Second Company in early 1776. At the urging of Teodoro de Croix, comandant general of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas and his new command were deployed to Sonora, arriving at Alamos in February 1777; the following April, the Volunteers of the Second Company were posted to the Presidio of El Pitic in response to renewed hostilities with the Seris, who surrendered. At the urging of Lt. Col Juan Bautista de Anza, the Company was posted at the Presidio of Santa Cruz de Terrenate, moved from its previous location to one on the San Pedro River north of modern Tombstone, Arizona, to reinforce the beleaguered garrison against the Apaches, arriving in the fall of 1778.
Though Fages, now a Lieutenant Colonel, was able to restore order and discipline to the presidio, the garrison proved unable to mount an effective counter-offensive. In December 1780, with the Second Company now down to half strength, Fages left Terrenate for Mexico City for new recruits. In his absence, the Presidio was ordered abandoned, the garrison moved to its previous location at Santa Cruz, believed to be more defensible and supplied; the Company was soon once again posted at El Pitic, where they were employed in putting down another rebellion by the Seris. In September 1781, Fages led an expedition that included 40 men of the Second Company to the Yuma Crossing to quell a rebellion by the Quechan and their allies. Though they were able to liberate Spanish captives, secure the remains of the slain Father Francisco Garcés and recover sacred vessels from the destroyed missions of Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción and Mission San Pedro y San Pablo de Bicuñer, Fages' command was unable to subdue the tribe.
Despite two subsequent expeditions by Fages and the Second Company over the next 2 years, the crossing would remain closed to Spain. During the third expedition in the Fall of 1783, Fages was appointed Governor of California, the Volunteers returned without him to Pitic. In subsequent years, the Volunteers of the Sec
History of the west coast of North America
The human history of the west coast of North America is believed to stretch back to the arrival of the earliest people over the Bering Strait, or alternately along a now-submerged coastal plain, through the development of significant pre-Columbian cultures and population densities, to the arrival of the European explorers and colonizers. The west coast of North America today is home to some of the largest and most important companies in the world, as well as being a center of world culture; as used in this article, the term "west coast of North America" means a contiguous region of that continent bordering the Pacific Ocean: all or parts of the U. S. states of Alaska, Washington and California. The eastern islands of the Pacific Ocean off the west coast, such as the coastal islands of the Californias, are important; the west coast of North America saw the first sustained arrival of people to the continent. Although there are other theories, most scientists believe that the first significant groups of people came from Asia, through today's Bering Strait area through modern Alaska, from there spread throughout North America and to South America.
Although the cultures on the west coast of today's Canada and United States are not known to have developed substantial urban centers and sophisticated writing or scientific systems, it is that, before European contact, the population density was higher than in the rest of the northern part of the continent. For example, it has been estimated that in 1492, one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in what is now California. In the western half of Mesoamerica, the oldest known settlements date to 2000 BCE. A succession of cultures started with the early Capacha culture, which appeared on the Pacific coast of modern Mexico about 1450 BC and spread into the interior; the following cultures developed into "high civilizations" in Mesoamerica, with extensive urban areas, writing and fine arts: Olmec Mixtec Maya and Aztec Farther south, Panama was home to some of the earliest pottery-making, such as the Monagrillo culture dating to about 2500–1700 BC. Each of these cultures rose and was conquered by a more militarily developed culture.
While not all of these civilizations had large settlements along the coast of the Pacific Ocean, their influence extended to the Pacific coast. Regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica—and along the west coast—have been the subject of considerable research. There is evidence of trade routes starting as far north as the Mexico Central Plateau, going down to the Pacific coast; these trade routes and cultural contacts went on as far as Central America. These networks operated along the west coast with various interruptions from pre-Olmec times and up to the Late Classical Period. In 1513, Spanish explorers were the first Europeans to reach the west coast of North America, on the Pacific coast of the Panama isthmus. From the point of view of European powers in the age of sailing ships, the west coast of North America was among the most distant places in the world; the arduous journey around Cape Horn at the tip of South America and north meant nine to twelve months of dangerous sailing. These practical difficulties discouraged all but the Spanish Empire from making regular visits and establishing settlements and ports until the second half of the 18th century—some 200 years after Europeans first reached the east coast of North America.
Explorers flying the flag of Spain reached the New World beginning in 1492 with the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus. Spanish expeditions colonized and explored vast areas in North and South America following the grants of the Pope and rights contained in the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas and 1529 Treaty of Zaragoza; these formal acts gave Spain the exclusive rights to colonize the entire Western Hemisphere, including all of the west coast of North America. The first European expedition to reach the west coast was led by the Spaniard Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who reached the Pacific coast of Panama in 1513. In an act of enduring historical importance, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean for the Spanish Crown, as well as all adjoining land and islands; this act gave Spain exclusive sovereignty and navigation rights over the entire west coast of North America. The held belief at the time was that the west coast of North America was in modest sailing distance of Asia to the west, or the two might physically connect.
To the north was imagined a narrow Northwest Passage, known as the Strait of Anián, which some believed reached the Pacific Ocean at 42° north latitude and connected to the Atlantic Ocean at the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Confirmation of the land connection, discovery of this Strait of Anián, were key elements in Spain's efforts to establish direct trade routes with China and other countries in Asia
Charles III of Spain
Charles III was King of Spain, after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Augustus III of Poland and an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; as King of Spain, Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernising agriculture. He tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars, his previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable.
He did not achieve complete control over Spain's finances, was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses, but most of his reforms proved to be successful and his legacy lives on to this day. Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was the most successful European ruler of his generation, he had provided firm, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers.... Personal life had won the respect of the people." In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Under the terms of the treaty, the Spanish Empire retained its American territories, but ceded to Habsburg Austria the Southern Netherlands, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, the Duchy of Milan, the State of Presidi. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Menorca and the fortress at Gibraltar. In 1700, Charles' father a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V.
For the remainder of his reign, he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories. In 1714, after the death of the king's first wife, the Princess Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy, the Piacenzan Cardinal Giulio Alberoni arranged the marriage between Philip and the ambitious Elisabeth Farnese and stepdaughter of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid, he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers: the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, Ferdinand. Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and Piacenza for Charles, she sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de' Medici, giving Charles a claim to the title through that lineage.
The birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia. In 1718, Alberoni ordered the invasion of Sicily, ruled by the House of Savoy. In the same year Charles' first sister, Infanta Mariana Victoria was born on 31 March. In reaction to the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the Duke of Savoy joined the Alliance and went to war with Spain; this war led to the dismissal of Alberoni by Philip in 1719. The Treaty of The Hague of 1720 included the recognition of Charles as heir to the Italian Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Charles' half-brother, Infante Philip Peter, died on 29 December 1719, putting Charles third in line to the throne after Louis and Ferdinand, he would retain his position behind these two until they died and he succeeded to the Spanish throne. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720. Beginning in 1721, King Philip had been negotiating with the Duke of Orléans, the French regent, to arrange three Franco-Spanish marriages that could ease tense relations.
The young Louis XV of France would marry the three-year-old Infanta Mariana Victoria and thus she would become Queen of France. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth, the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans. In 1726 Charles met Philippine Élisabeth for the first time, they embraced affectionately and kissed one another, it appears to me that he does not displease her. Thus, since this evening they do not like to leave one another, she says a hundred pretty things. She has the mind of an angel, my son is only too happy to possess her... She has charged me to tell you that she loves you with all her heart, that she is quite content with her husband." And to the duchesse d'Orléans she writes: "I find her the most beautiful and most lovable child in the world. It is the most pleasing thing imaginable to se
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
San Diego is a city in the U. S. state of California. It is in San Diego County, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean in Southern California 120 miles south of Los Angeles and adjacent to the border with Mexico. With an estimated population of 1,419,516 as of July 1, 2017, San Diego is the eighth-largest city in the United States and second-largest in California, it is part of the San Diego–Tijuana conurbation, the second-largest transborder agglomeration between the U. S. and a bordering country after Detroit–Windsor, with a population of 4,922,723 people. The city is known for its mild year-round climate, natural deep-water harbor, extensive beaches, long association with the United States Navy, recent emergence as a healthcare and biotechnology development center. San Diego has been called "the birthplace of California". Home to the Kumeyaay people, it was the first site visited by Europeans on what is now the West Coast of the United States. Upon landing in San Diego Bay in 1542, Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area for Spain, forming the basis for the settlement of Alta California 200 years later.
The Presidio and Mission San Diego de Alcalá, founded in 1769, formed the first European settlement in what is now California. In 1821, San Diego became part of the newly independent Mexico, which reformed as the First Mexican Republic two years later. California became part of the United States in 1848 following the Mexican–American War and was admitted to the union as a state in 1850; the city is the seat of San Diego County and is the economic center of the region as well as the San Diego–Tijuana metropolitan area. San Diego's main economic engines are military and defense-related activities, international trade, manufacturing; the presence of the University of California, San Diego, with the affiliated UCSD Medical Center, has helped make the area a center of research in biotechnology. The original inhabitants of the region are now known as the San La Jolla people; the area of San Diego has been inhabited by the Kumeyaay people. The first European to visit the region was explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, sailing under the flag of Castile but born in Portugal.
Sailing his flagship San Salvador from Navidad, New Spain, Cabrillo claimed the bay for the Spanish Empire in 1542, named the site "San Miguel". In November 1602, Sebastián Vizcaíno was sent to map the California coast. Arriving on his flagship San Diego, Vizcaíno surveyed the harbor and what are now Mission Bay and Point Loma and named the area for the Catholic Saint Didacus, a Spaniard more known as San Diego de Alcalá. On November 12, 1602, the first Christian religious service of record in Alta California was conducted by Friar Antonio de la Ascensión, a member of Vizcaíno's expedition, to celebrate the feast day of San Diego. Permanent colonization of California and of San Diego began in 1769 with the arrival of four contingents of Spaniards from New Spain and the Baja California peninsula. Two seaborne parties reached San Diego Bay: the San Carlos, under Vicente Vila and including as notable members the engineer and cartographer Miguel Costansó and the soldier and future governor Pedro Fages, the San Antonio, under Juan Pérez.
An initial overland expedition to San Diego from the south was led by the soldier Fernando Rivera and included the Franciscan missionary and chronicler Juan Crespí, followed by a second party led by the designated governor Gaspar de Portolà and including the mission president Junípero Serra. In May 1769, Portolà established the Fort Presidio of San Diego on a hill near the San Diego River, it was the first settlement by Europeans in. In July of the same year, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Franciscan friars under Serra. By 1797, the mission boasted the largest native population in Alta California, with over 1,400 neophytes living in and around the mission proper. Mission San Diego was the southern anchor in Alta California of the historic mission trail El Camino Real. Both the Presidio and the Mission are National Historic Landmarks. In 1821, Mexico won its independence from Spain, San Diego became part of the Mexican territory of Alta California. In 1822, Mexico began its attempt to extend its authority over the coastal territory of Alta California.
The fort on Presidio Hill was abandoned, while the town of San Diego grew up on the level land below Presidio Hill. The Mission was secularized by the Mexican government in 1834, most of the Mission lands were granted to former soldiers; the 432 residents of the town petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. However, San Diego had been losing population throughout the 1830s and in 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because its size dropped to an estimated 100 to 150 residents. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy. Americans gained increased awareness of California, its commercial possibilities, from the writings of two countrymen involved in the officially forbidden, to foreigners, but economically significant hide and tallow trade, where San Diego was a major port and the only one with an adequate harbor: William Shaler's "Journal of a Voyage Between China and the North-Western Coast of America, Made in 1804" and Richard Henry Dana's more substantial and convincing account, of his 1834–36 voyage, the classic Two Years Before the Mast.
In 1846, the United States went to war against Mexico and sent a naval and land expedition to conquer Alta California. At firs
Civil Affairs Staging Area
The Civil Affairs Staging Area known as the Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area was a combined U. S. Army, U. S Navy military formation authorized by the Joint Chiefs of Staff on June 18, 1944 during World War Two for military government theater planning and provision of military government personnel to areas of the Far East liberated from the Empire of Japan, including East China and Korea. CASA had two divisions: The Operations and Training Division focused on language instruction and execution of civil affairs duties at a local level; these duties varied and, as an example, included mass feeding of civilians, camp sanitation, provision of medical supplies, containment of epidemic diseases, labor relations and rodent control. The Theatre Planning & Research Division developed plans for military government at a national level such as control of Japan's economic institutions, control of Japan's education system and methods for increasing the overall supply of food throughout, not only Japan, but previously occupied areas like East China.
CASA provided comprehensive training and planning in civil affairs administration to officers coming from six schools of military government established at various universities throughout the United States. Army & Navy personnel trained by CASA numbered in the thousands, with more than 1,000 officers assigned to a wide variety of civil affairs positions for the initial occupation of Japan alone; the goal of the U. S. Army's Civil Affairs Division in the creation of CASA was to replicate the same success in the Far East experienced by the Civil Affairs Division in the European Theatre. General John H. Hilldring ordered Colonel Hardy C. Dillard, Commander of the Civil Affairs Training Division for the European Theater of Operations, to take command of CASA from Colonel William A. Boekel and implement the European Civil Affair's planning and training program. Colonel Dillard was relieved of command on 20 July 1945 by Brigadier General Percy L. Sadler. Shortly after the establishment of a Civil Affairs Division in the War Department in March 1943, a circular letter was sent to the commanding generals of all theaters offering the services of the Civil Affairs Division and of trained Civil Affairs officers.
In response to a request from the Commanding General, United States Army Forces, China Burma India Theatre, Colonel William A. Boekel and Colonel Mitchell Jenkins were ordered to New Delhi, where they arrived 4 May and 14 May respectively, their first month was spent familiarizing themselves with the general situation in the countries of Southeast Asia. The American Civil Affairs officers received the distinct impression that the British officers regarded Burma and other British territory as a British Civil Affairs area, with which the Americans should have no concern; as a result of policy conferences, this attitude was translated into a formal statement of basic policy, approved by American and British headquarters. Once established, this policy left American Civil Affairs officers no function except that of liaison with British agencie Colonel Boekel and Lt. Colonel Jenkins continued their studies of the countries of Southeast Asia, as well as the question of United States Civil Affairs activities in Japan proper, China and Manchukuo.
Their work resulted in the formulation of certain tentative plans for the military government of Japan, for the procurement and organization of Civil Affairs officers for the Far East. Their conclusions were embodied in a series of letters, of 26 August, 19 October, 6 November 1943; the recommendations contained in these letters were approved by the Commanding General, China Burma India Theater, transmitted by him to the War Department. In the preparation of the last two letters, assistance was given by Mr. John Davies, Political Adviser to Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stillwell, by Mr. Monroe Kail, member of the American Mission in New Delhi. Both of these gentlemen concurred with the plans and recommendations contained in the letters. Colonel Boekel was ordered, December 1943 to duty with the Civil affairs Division at Washington, although he was technically still assigned to Headquarters, USAF, CBI Theater. Upon reporting to Major General John H. Hilldring, Civil Affairs Division, Colonel Boekel was directed to assist the General in Civil Affairs planning and training for the Far East.
The Civil Affairs Division directed its primary effort toward procuring a State Department, War Department. Such a statement was dependent, in large measure, upon certain long-range policy decisions within the State Department. General Hilldring wrote to the Chief, Naval Office for Occupied Areas, 25 January 1944: "It is anticipated that at an early date the State Department will issue written decisions of policy defining the current and postwar interests of the American Government in the above referred to areas. Upon receipt thereof, appropriate directives will be issued to the several military commanders in these areas... No definitive statement has thus far been made by the Army with reference to Korea and Manchukuo because the question as to whether or not there will be American participation in the administration of these areas is one which still awaits State Department determination." The Civil Affairs Division's project, that of bringing together the various agencies involved in arriving at a joint decision, progressed satisfactorily.
After four months in Washington, Colonel Boekel was able to report that,"On 13 May 1944 J,C,S.. Paper 819/2 was issued by the J. C. S. Approving certain basic assumptions for Civil Affairs planning purp