The Presidio of San Francisco is a park and former U. S. Army military fort on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Francisco, is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, it had been a fortified location since September 17, 1776, when New Spain established the presidio to gain a foothold in Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848; as part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment and Closure process, Congress voted to end the Presidio's status as an active military installation of the U. S. Army. On October 1, 1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the park's lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013.
The Presidio achieved the goal in 2005, eight years ahead of the scheduled deadline. The park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean, it was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962. The visitor centers are operated by the National Park Service: Presidio Visitor Center: offers changing exhibits about the Presidio, information about sights and activities in the park, a bookstore; the Presidio Transit Center is located adjacent to this visitor center and is served by the PresidiGo Shuttle and Muni bus routes. Battery Chamberlin: seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904. Fort Point: 1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge; the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center: This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, is located in a historic Coast Guard Station at the west end of Crissy Field.
The building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion: opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Pavilion is the first visitor center in the history of the Golden Gate Bridge, it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Hidden Presidio Outdoor Track: begins at Julius Kahn Playground and encircles the valley just below it.75 miles of dirt trails, wooden stairs, various altitudes. To view track course see Crissy Field Center is an urban environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps, more; the Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and overlooks a restored tidal marsh. The facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore; the landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves. The project restored a functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were not in evidence on the site.
It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a culturally significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a broader number of Presidio residents and visitors. A major planned component of the Presidio's park attractions is the Tunnel Tops project, which would construct a 14-acre park on top of the tunneled portions of Doyle Drive; the park would contain several meadows and walking trails, along with viewpoints for major landmarks such as the Golden Gate Bridge. Negotiations between Caltrans, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, the Presidio Trust to finalize the land transfer for the park lasted from 2015 to 2018; the budget for the park is $100 million, funded with public funds from the Presidio Trust along with private contributions. Construction for the park is planned to start in October 2018 and the park is slated to be open for public use in 2021.
Pre-1776: The area was Ohlone land. 1776: Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers and children on a trek from present day Tubac, Arizona, to San Francisco Bay. September 17, 1776: The Presidio began as a Spanish garrison to defend Spain's claim to San Francisco Bay and to support Mission Dolores. 1794: Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today. 1776–1821: The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains. In 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers' duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, farming and hunting in order to supply themselves and their families. Support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was limited. 1821: Mexico became independent of Spain. The Presidio received less support from Mexico. Residents of Alta California, which included the Presidio, debated separating from Mexico.
1827, January: Minor earthquake in San Francisco, some build
Robert Harvey Rines was an American lawyer, inventor and composer. He is best known for his efforts to find and identify the Loch Ness Monster. Rines was born August 1922 in Boston, Massachusetts, he received a Bachelor of Science degree from MIT in 1943, a Juris Doctor from Georgetown University in 1946, a Ph. D. from National Chiao Tung University in Taiwan in 1972. During World War II Rines served as an Army Signal Corps officer and helped develop the Microwave Early Warning System, he held numerous U. S. patents on a wide variety of subjects. Although various on-line sources give their number as 80, 100, 200, the list published by the Franklin Pierce Law Center gives their number as 81, 3 additional ones can be found in the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office records. However, 12 of those in the larger list are referred to as "applications only", leaving 72 issued U. S. patents. He was a renowned intellectual property lawyer, in March 2004 received the Boston Patent Law Association "Lifetime Achievement Award" for his contributions in the field of intellectual property.
Rines was inducted as member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1994 and the U. S. Army Signal Corps Wall of Fame, he was the founder of the Franklin Pierce Law Center, a private law school located in Concord, New Hampshire, the Academy of Applied Science, a Massachusetts and New Hampshire based organization dedicated to stimulating the interest of high school students in science and inventions. He was a lecturer at Harvard University and MIT and a member of the Technical Advisory Board of the U. S. Department of Commerce. In the early 80's Mr. Rines founded NEFFE, New England Fish Farming Enterprises, a Bristol,New Hampshire commercial Salmon farming operation. Rines was an accomplished musician and composer. At age eleven he played a violin duet with Albert Einstein at a summer camp in Maine; as a composer he wrote music for both Broadway and off-Broadway shows, including Blast and Bravos, a musical based on the life of H. L. Mencken, he composed scores for O'Casey's Drums Under the Windows, O'Neill's Long Voyage Home, Strindberg's Creditors.
He shared a New York Emmy Award with playwright Paul Shyre in 1987 for the television and Broadway play Hizzoner! His philanthropic activities included establishing the GREAT Fund, providing educational grants for a large extended family in perpetuity. In May 2008 Rines retired from his position at MIT after 45 years, he died November 1, 2009 at the age of 87. During a visit to Scotland in 1972, Rines reported seeing "a large, darkish hump, covered... with rough, mottled skin, like the back of an elephant" in Loch Ness. Over the next 35 years he mounted numerous expeditions to the loch and searched its depths with sophisticated electronic and photographic equipment of his own design. While his investigations produced multiple theories and several tantalizing photographs, he was unable to produce sufficient evidence to convince the scientific community of the existence of the fabled monster. For this he received the Dinsdale Memorial Award in 2004. Martin, Douglas. "Robert Rines and Monster Hunter, Dies at 87".
The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2009. Robert H. Rines. Invent Now. Accessed on September 24, 2005. Dr. Robert H. Rines. Lord Corporation. Accessed on September 24, 2005. Money Magazine, they Saved Small Business. Accessed on August 28, 2008. MIT. Dr. Robert H. Rines: An Appreciation. Accessed on October 9, 2008. Inventors Digest. "Robert H. Rines 1922–2009". Accessed on November 2, 2009. Robert Rines - Daily Telegraph obituary Archival Recordings of Bob Rines Teaching at MIT, 1974 - Contributed by Christopher E. Strangio Academy of Applied Science - History of the Academy of Applied Science
The Adelaide Rift Complex is a major geological province in central South Australia. It stretches from the northernmost parts of the Flinders Ranges, narrowing at the Fleurieu Peninsula and extending into Kangaroo Island, composes the two major mountain ranges of the State: the Flinders Ranges and the Mount Lofty Ranges; the sediments in the rift complex were deposited between about 870 Ma to ~500 Ma. They consist of a thick pile of sedimentary rocks and minor volcanic rocks that were deposited on the eastern margin of Australia during the time of breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. A number of authors have noted the similarity in these sedimentary rocks with rocks found in western North America and have suggested that they were adjacent to each other in Rodinia; this is one major correlation in the so-called SWEAT reconstruction of Rodinia. The Adelaide Rift Complex is a great belt of sediments, deposited in a depression during a time of lithospheric stretching in an arc a thousand kilometres long and several hundred kilometres wide.
The thickest parts of the belt are 24,000 m thick. Limestones and sandstones indicate a predominantly marine environment; this sedimentation ended towards the Cambrian, when plate movements changed and the area experienced an orogeny extending into the Ordovician. Foden et al. suggest. This event is called the Delamerian Orogeny, named after Delamere, a small town on the Fleurieu Peninsula where evidence was found for the event; the orogeny caused substantial folding and faulting of the strata, resulted in the creation of a major mountain range, the eroded stumps of which can today be seen as the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges. Accompanying this folding and faulting were several intrusions: the granites at Victor Harbor were intruded at this time, as were those at Palmer in the eastern South Mount Lofty Ranges. Not all of the Rift Complex experienced tectonic activity. Fossils are to be found in the Geosyncline, they date from the end of the Neoproterozoic, in 2004 the location gave its name to the last geological period of the era, the Ediacaran.
The ranges formed during the Delamerian orogeny continue to erode, intra-plate subsidence is occurring. In the South Mount Lofty Ranges this has resulted in rifting and the formation of graben structures, creating the long parallel faults which shape the Adelaide Plains. Geology of Australia Atlas of South Australia Geoscience Australia