Historic districts in the United States
Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are normally divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts greatly vary in size, some have hundreds of structures, the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, state-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level, local districts are generally administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, Charleston city government designated an Old and Historic District by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it.
New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission, other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955. The Supreme Court case validated the protection of resources as an entirely permissible governmental goal. In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from rootlessness. By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts, Historic districts are generally two types of properties and non-contributing. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context, in addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories. They are, structure, site and object, all but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register.
A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district, the Register is an honorary status with some federal financial incentives. The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, a district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines generally begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, the National Register is the official recognition by the U. S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, if the federal government is not involved, the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected, a federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation.
Usually, the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, however, if a property falls into one of those categories and are integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic district listings, like all National Register nominations, can be rejected on the basis of owner disapproval, in the case of historic districts, a majority of owners must object in order to nullify a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places
Mission San Juan Capistrano
Mission San Juan Capistrano was a Spanish mission in colonial Las Californias. Its ruins are located in present-day San Juan Capistrano, Orange County, the mission was founded in 1776, by Spanish Catholics of the Franciscan Order. Known alternately as Serras Chapel and Father Serras Church, it is the extant structure where it has been documented that Junipero Serra celebrated Mass. One of the best known missions in Alta California, and one of the few missions to have actually been founded twice—others being Mission San Gabriel Arcángel and Mission La Purísima Concepción. The site was consecrated on October 30,1775, by Fermín Lasuén. The success of the population is evident in its historical records. Prior to the arrival of the missionaries, some 550 indigenous Acjachemen peoples lived in area of their homeland. By 1790, the number of Indian reductions had grown to 700 Mission Indians,1,649 baptisms were conducted that year alone, out of the total 4,639 people converted between 1776 and 1847. More than 69 former inhabitants (mostly Juaneño Indian marked graves in the Missions cemetery, the Criolla or Mission grape, was first planted at San Juan Capistrano in 1779, and in 1783 the first wine produced in Alta California was from the Missions winery.
The Mission entered a period of gradual decline after Mexican government secularization in 1833. After 1850 U. S. statehood, numerous efforts were made over the latter 19th century to restore the Mission to its former state, restoration efforts continue, and Serras Chapel is still used for religious services. Over 500,000 visitors, including 80,000 school children, Mission San Juan Capistrano has served as a favorite subject for many notable artists, and has been immortalized in literature and on film numerous times, perhaps more than any other mission. In 1984, a church complex was constructed just north. Today, the compound serves as a museum, with the Serra Chapel within the compound serving as a chapel for the mission parish. The natives often ate acorns that they turned into soups and their language was related to the Luiseño language spoken by the nearby Luiseño tribe. The bulk of the population occupied the outlets of two creeks, San Juan Creek and San Mateo Creek. The highest concentration of villages was along the lower San Juan, the Acjachemen resided in permanent, well-defined villages and seasonal camps.
Village populations ranged from between 35 and 300 inhabitants, consisting of a lineage in the smaller villages
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Felipe de Neve
Felipe de Neve was fourth governor of Alta California, from 1775 to 1782. Neve is considered a founder of Los Angeles and helped to settle towns of Santa Barbara, Felipe de Neve was appointed governor of the Californias in 1775. For two years he was based at Loreto, Baja California, moved to Monterey, Moraga is known as the founder of El Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe, the present day city of San Jose, California. On 29 November 1777, Moraga founded San José on orders from Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa and it was the first Spanish colonial pueblo in the northern region of Las Californias Province, which became its own Alta California Province in 1804. The city served as a community to support the Presidio of San Francisco. In 1781, in Neves tenure, he founded the Pueblo de Los Ángeles, Neve had applied to Viceroy Bucareli for permission to establish a settlement near the Los Angeles River, where Father Juan Crespí had met local Tongva Indians. During his tenure four missions were founded, Mission San Francisco de Asís called Mission Dolores, Mission San Juan Capistrano, Mission Santa Clara de Asís and he held that position until his death in 1784.
History of Los Angeles Clyde Arbuckle, Clyde Arbuckles History of San Jose. The Town of Our Lady Reina of the Angels on the Porciúncula river, Edwin A. Felipe de Neve, First Governor of California. San Francisco, California Historical Society,1971, USC Libraries, Felipe de Neve California History - Felipe de Neve
By population, Spain is the sixth largest in Europe and the fifth in the European Union. Spains capital and largest city is Madrid, other urban areas include Barcelona, Seville, Bilbao. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago, in the Middle Ages, the area was conquered by Germanic tribes and by the Moors. Spain is a democracy organised in the form of a government under a constitutional monarchy. It is a power and a major developed country with the worlds fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP. Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the span is the Phoenician word spy. Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean the land where metals are forged, two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel and Solomon ibn Verga, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem.
This man was a Grecian by birth, but who had given a kingdom in Spain. He became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, Heracles renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, from whom the country of España took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c.350 BCE, Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians and Celts. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians who founded Western Europe´s most ancient cities Cadiz, Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire, becoming a major theater of the Punic Wars against the expanding Roman Empire. After an arduous conquest, the peninsula came fully under Roman Rule, during the early Middle Ages it came under Germanic rule but later, much of it was conquered by Moorish invaders from North Africa. In a process took centuries, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula.
The last Moorish kingdom fell in the same year Columbus reached the Americas, a global empire began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for a century and a half, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries. Continued wars and other problems led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic invasions of Spain led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire, eventually democracy was peacefully restored in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a renaissance and steady economic growth
Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment structures built of stone, adobe mud and these structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. The rooms were only through ladders lowered by the inhabitants, thus protecting them from break-ins. Larger pueblos were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people, several different federally recognized tribes have traditionally resided in pueblos of such design. The word pueblo is the Spanish word for town or village and it comes from the Latin root word populus meaning people. The demands of agrarian routine and the need for defense, the desire for human society in the vast solitude of. Nowadays the pueblo might have a running into thousands. Doubtless they were smaller in the early middle ages. There are 21 federally recognized Pueblos that are home to Pueblo people and their official federal names are as follows, Pre-Columbian towns and villages in the Southwest, such as Acoma, were located in defensible positions, for example, on high steep mesas.
Anthropologists and official documents refer to ancient residents of the area as pueblo cultures. For example, the National Park Service states, The Late Puebloan cultures built the large, the people of some pueblos, such as Taos Pueblo, still inhabit centuries-old adobe pueblo buildings. Contemporary residents often maintain other homes outside the historic pueblos and light construction methods resembling adobe now dominate architecture at the many pueblos of the area, in nearby towns or cities, and in much of the American Southwest. In addition to contemporary pueblos, numerous ruins of archeological interest are located throughout the Southwest, some are of relatively recent origin
California Historical Landmark
California Historical Landmarks are buildings, sites, or places in the state of California that have been determined to have statewide historical landmark significance. Historical significance is determined by meeting at least one of the criteria listed below, The first, only, associated with an individual or group having a profound influence on the history of California. California Historical Landmarks of #770 and above are listed in the California Register of Historical Resources. By contrast, a site, feature, or event that is of local significance may be designated as a California Point of Historical Interest. List of California Historical Landmarks by county National Historic Sites National Register of Historic Places listings in California — with links to list articles by county, los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments San Francisco Designated Landmarks Johnson, Marael. A Guide to California Roadside Historical Markers, official OHP—California Office of Historic Preservation website OHP, California Historical Sites searchpage — links to lists by county
The Gaviota Tunnel is a tunnel on U. S. Route 101 completed in 1953 in the center of Gaviota State Park,33 miles northwest of Santa Barbara, California. It is 420 feet long and 17.5 feet tall, only the northbound lanes of US101 pass through it, as the southbound lanes descend from Gaviota Pass through a narrow canyon to the west of the tunnel. Because it is the major route between the Santa Barbara County South Coast and the Santa Ynez Valley, bicycles are allowed through it. There is a rest area on the end of the tunnel. There are frequent rockslides in the area, especially during and following rain, some of the hillsides and road cuts are covered in netting to prevent erosion. There are made of netting along the roadway to stop rocks that do fall. An alternate bypass to this section of US101 between Santa Barbara and Los Olivos is provided by State Route 154 capped by the Cold Spring Canyon Arch Bridge near the summit of San Marcos Pass, Gaviota Pass is registered as California Historical Landmark #248.
On this site during the Mexican–American War on Christmas Day 1846, fremont learned of their plans and instead crossed the San Marcos Pass to capture Santa Barbara. The Gaviota Tunnel was featured in The Graduate, Waynes World 2, but in the first two films, Dustin Hoffman and Mike Myers respectively travel the wrong way through the tunnel. In those movies, they are supposed to be going southbound, in Sideways, Paul Giamatti and Thomas Haden Church are heading north, and therefore pass through the tunnel in the correct northbound direction. In Grand Theft Auto V, the tunnel is known as the Braddock Tunnel and connects the town of Paleto Bay with the town of Grapeseed
Factory tours, industrial heritage, creative art and crafts workshops are the object of cultural niches like industrial tourism and creative tourism. Many tourist attractions are landmarks, tourist attractions are created to capitalise on legends such as a supposed UFO crash site near Roswell, New Mexico and the alleged Loch Ness monster sightings in Scotland. Ghost sightings make tourist attractions, ethnic communities may become tourist attractions, such as Chinatowns in the United States and the black British neighbourhood of Brixton in London, England. In the US, owners and marketers of attractions advertise tourist attractions on billboards along the side of highways and roadways, tourist attractions often provide free promotional brochures and flyers in information centres, fast food restaurants and motel rooms or lobbies, and rest area. Such places are known as tourist traps. Within cities such transport tourist attractions as rides by boats and buses are very popular, novelty attractions are not limited to the American Midwest, but are part of Midwestern culture.
It may contain one or more tourist attractions and possibly some tourist traps, siem Reap town for example is a popular tourist destination in Cambodia, mainly owed to its proximity to Angkor temples. A tropical island resort is an island or archipelago that depends on tourism as its source of revenue, according to the World Tourism Organization, •698 million people travelled to a foreign country in 2000, spending more US$478 billion. Lists of tourist attractions Attractions at DMOZ