Colonel (United States)
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank above the rank of lieutenant colonel and below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services; the pay grade for colonel is O-6. The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side. By law, a colonel must have 22 years of service and a minimum of three years of service as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted; the insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle, a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States. As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons.
The head of the eagle faces towards the olive branch, rather than the arrows, advocating peace rather than war. As a result, the head of the eagle always faces towards the viewer's left. However, when worn as a single insignia with no matching pair, such as on the patrol cap, garrison cap/flight cap, or the front of the Army ACU, there is a split between the services on which mirror image of the eagle should be worn. In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is always worn with "the head of the eagle to the wearer's right," with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's right hand talons. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the eagle is worn with "the head facing forward" on the wearer's right side of the garrison cover. Since respective service's officer insignia is worn on the left side and the rank insignia is worn on the right hand side of the Marine, Coast Guard and NOAA garrison caps, the eagle is facing to the eagle's left with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's left hand talons, a mirror opposite to the wear of the single eagle for Army and Air Force officers.
The United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in the U. S. were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the North American colonies. Upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonel. Thus, the first U. S. colonels were respected men with ties in local communities and active in politics. With the post-war reduction of the U. S. Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, was not re-introduced until 1802; the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the eagle insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810; the rank of colonel was rare in the early 19th century because the U. S. Army was small, the rank was obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew and many colonels were appointed, but most of these colonels were discharged when their regiments were disbanded at the war's conclusion.
A number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion for distinguished service in combat. The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were raised, the colonels in command of the regiments were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held permanent commissions. During the Civil War, the Confederate Army maintained a unique insignia for colonel, three stars worn on the collar of a uniform. Robert E. Lee wore this insignia due to his former rank in the United States Army and refused to wear the insignia of a Confederate general, stating that he would only accept permanent promotion when the South had achieved independence. After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became small. However, many colonels were appointed in the volunteers during the Spanish–American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson.
World War I and World War II saw the largest numbers of colonels appointed in the U. S. military. This was due to the temporary ranks of the National Army and the Army of the United States, where those who would hold the rank of Captain in the peacetime Regular Army were thrust into the rank of colonel during these two wars; the Military Promotion System was revised and standardized for all the services in 1980 as a result of passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act. Modern U. S. colonels command Army infantry, armor, aviation or other types of brigades, USMC regiments, Marine Expeditionary Units or Marine Aircraft Groups, USAF groups or wings. An Army colonel commands brigade-sized units, with another colonel or a lieutenant colonel as deputy commander, a major
Bleeding Kansas, Bloody Kansas or the Border War was a series of violent civil confrontations in the United States between 1854 and 1861 which emerged from a political and ideological debate over the legality of slavery in the proposed state of Kansas. The conflict was characterized by years of electoral fraud, raids and retributive murders carried out in Kansas and neighboring Missouri by pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" and anti-slavery "Free-Staters". At the heart of the conflict was the question of whether the Kansas Territory would allow or outlaw slavery, thus enter the Union as a slave state or a free state; the Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 called for popular sovereignty, requiring that the decision about slavery be made by the territory's settlers and decided by a popular vote. Existing sectional tensions surrounding slavery found focus in Kansas, with the pro-slavery element arguing that every settler had the right to bring his own property, including slaves, into the territory. Missouri, a slave state since 1821, was populated by a large number of settlers with Southern sympathies and pro-slavery attitudes, many of whom tried to influence the decision in Kansas.
The conflict was fought politically as well as between civilians, where it degenerated into brutal gang violence and paramilitary guerrilla warfare. The term "Bleeding Kansas" was popularized by Horace Greeley's New York Tribune. Bleeding Kansas was demonstrative of the gravity of the era's most pressing social issues, from the matter of slavery to the class conflicts emerging on the American frontier, its severity made national headlines which suggested to the American people that the sectional disputes were unlikely to reach compromise without bloodshed, it therefore directly presaged the American Civil War. Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state in January 1861, but partisan violence continued along the Kansas–Missouri border for most of the war; the episode is designated historic sites. As abolitionism became popular in the United States and tensions between its supporters and detractors grew, the U. S. Congress maintained a tenuous balance of political power between Northern and Southern representatives.
At the same time, the increasing emigration of Americans to the country's western frontier and the desire to build a transcontinental railroad that would connect the eastern states with California urged incorporation of the western territories into the Union. The inevitable question which arose asked how these territories would treat the issue of slavery when promoted to statehood; this question had plagued Congress during political debates following the Mexican–American War. The Compromise of 1850 had at least temporarily solved the problem by permitting residents of the Utah and New Mexico Territories to decide their own laws with respect to slavery by popular vote. In May 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act created from unorganized Indian lands the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska for settlement by U. S. citizens. The Act was proposed by Senator Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois as a way to appease Southern representatives in Congress, who had resisted earlier proposals to organize the Nebraska Territory because they knew it must be admitted to the Union according to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, which had explicitly forbidden the practice of slavery in all U.
S. territory north of 36°30' latitude and west of the Mississippi River, except in the state of Missouri. Southerners feared this would upset the balance between slave and free states and thereby give abolitionist Northerners an advantage in Congress. Douglas' proposal attempted to allay these fears with the organization of two territories instead of one, as well as the inclusion of a clause that would, like the condition prescribed for Utah and New Mexico, permit settlers of Kansas and Nebraska to vote on the legality of slavery in their own territories – a notion which directly contradicted and repealed the Missouri Compromise. Like many others in Congress, Douglas assumed that settlers of Nebraska would vote to prohibit slavery and that settlers of Kansas, further south and closer to the slave state of Missouri, would vote to allow it, thereby the balance of slave and free states would not change. Regarding Nebraska this assumption was correct. In Kansas, the assumption of legal slavery underestimated abolitionist resistance to the repeal of the long-standing Missouri Compromise.
Southerners saw the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act as an emboldening victory. Each side of the slavery question saw a chance to assert itself in Kansas, it became the nation's prevailing ideological battleground. Immigrants supporting both sides of the slavery question arrived in the Kansas Territory to establish residency and gain the right to vote. Among the first settlers of Kansas were citizens of slave states Missouri, many of whom supported Southern ideologies and emigrated to secure the expansion of slavery. Pro-slavery immigrants settled towns including Atchison; the administration of President Franklin Pierce appointed territorial officials in Kansas aligned with its own pro-slavery views and, heeding rumors that the frontier was being overwhelmed by Northerners, thousands of non-resident slavery proponents soon entered Kansas with the goal o
33rd United States Congress
The Thirty-third United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1853, to March 4, 1855, during the first two years of the administration of U. S. President Franklin Pierce. During this session, the Kansas–Nebraska Act was passed, an act that soon led to the creation of the Republican Party; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. March 4, 1853: Franklin Pierce became President of the United States April 18, 1853: Vice President William R. King died July 8, 1853: Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived in Edo Bay with a request for a trade treaty December 30, 1853: Gadsden Purchase: The United States bought land from Mexico to facilitate railroad building in the Southwest March 20, 1854: Republican Party founded May 30, 1854: Kansas–Nebraska Act, ch.
59, 10 Stat. 277 March 3, 1855: The U. S. Congress appropriates $30,000 to create the U. S. Camel Corps March 31, 1853: Convention of Kanagawa signed with the Japanese government, opening the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade January 26, 1854: Point No Point Treaty signed May 30, 1854 – Kansas Territory was organized. May 30, 1854 – Nebraska Territory was organized. For the beginning of this congress, the size of the House was increased from 233 seats to 234 seats, following the 1850 United States Census. President: William R. King, until April 18, 1853. President pro tempore: David R. Atchison, until December 4, 1854 Lewis Cass, December 4, 1854 Jesse D. Bright, from December 5, 1854 Speaker: Linn Boyd Democratic Caucus Chairman: Edson B. Olds This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, Representatives are listed by district. Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress.
Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1856; the United States consisted of 31 states during this Congress. Skip to House of Representatives, below The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 7 Democrats: no net change Whigs: 2 seat net loss Free Soilers: 2 seat net gain deaths: 2 resignations: 4 interim appointments: 1 Total seats with changes: 13 replacements: 7 Democrats: 2 seat net loss Whigs: 3 seat net gain Free Soilers: 1 seat net loss deaths: 4 resignations: 4 Total seats with changes: 8 Lists of committees and their party leaders. Agriculture American Association for the Promotion of Science Atmospheric Telegraph Between Washington and Baltimore Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Claims Commerce Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Foreign Relations French Spoilations Indian Affairs Judiciary Loss of Original Papers of Mark and Richard Bean Manufactures Mexican Claims Commission Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Ordnance and War Ships Pacific Railroad Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Printing Private Claims Commission Private Land Claims Protection of Life and Health in Passenger Ships Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Retrenchment Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Sickness on Emigrant Ships Tariff Regulation Territories Whole Accounts Agriculture Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Engraving Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Amending the Constitution on Presidential and Vice Presidential Elections Enrolled Bills San Francisco Disaster Democratic Democratic Architect of the Capitol: Thomas U. Walter Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: Clement M. Butler Henry Slicer, elected December 7, 1853 Secretary: Asbury Dickens of North Carolina Sergeant at Arms: Robert Beale Dunning R. McNair, elected March 17, 1853 Chaplain: William H. Milburn Clerk: John W. Forney Doorkeeper: Zadock W. McKnew Postmaster: John M. Johnson Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Adam J. Glossbrenner United States elections, 1852 United States presidential election, 1852 United States Senate elections, 1852 and 1853 United States House of Representatives elections, 1852 United States elections, 1854 United States Senate elections, 1854 and 1855 United States House of Representatives elections, 1854 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C. (1982
Anson Burlingame was an American lawyer, Republican/American Party legislator and abolitionist. Burlingame was born in Chenango County, New York. In 1823 his parents took him to Ohio, about ten years afterwards to Michigan. Between 1838 and 1841 he studied at the Detroit branch of the University of Michigan, in 1846 graduated from Harvard Law School. On June 3, 1847 he married Jane Cornelia Livermore, they had sons Edward Livermore Burlingame and Walter Angell Burlingame, as well as a daughter Gertrude Burlingame. Burlingame practiced law in Boston and won a wide reputation by his speeches for the Free Soil Party in 1848, he was a member of the Massachusetts constitutional convention in 1853, of the state senate from 1853 to 1854, of the United States House of Representatives from 1855 to 1861, being elected for the first term as a Know Nothing and afterwards as a member of the new Republican Party, which he helped to organize in Massachusetts. He was a brother of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity.
In May 1856, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a vituperative denunciation of President Franklin Pierce and Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Bleeding Kansas. In particular, Sumner lambasted Senator Andrew Butler, a cousin of Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina. Three days Congressman Brooks advanced upon Sumner while he worked at his desk in the Senate chamber. Using his cane, Brooks beat Sumner into unconsciousness, with Sumner ripping his bolted-down desk from the floor as he attempted to escape. Brooks received no official censure from the House of Representatives, was instead hailed as a hero in much of the pro-slavery South. Shortly afterwards, Burlingame delivered what The New York Times referred to as "the most celebrated speech" of his career: a scathing denunciation of Brooks' assault on Sumner, branding him as "the vilest sort of coward" on the House floor. In response, Brooks challenged Burlingame to a duel, stating he would gladly face him "in any Yankee mudsill of his choosing".
Burlingame eagerly accepted. A well-known marksman, he selected rifles as the weapons and the Navy Yard on the Canadian side of the U. S. border in Niagara Falls as the location. Brooks dismayed by both Burlingame's unexpectedly enthusiastic acceptance and his reputation as a crack shot, neglected to show up, instead citing unspecified risks to his safety if he were to cross "hostile country" in order to reach Canada. Burlingame's solid defense of a fellow Bostonian raised his stature throughout the North. On March 22, 1861, after Burlingame lost his bid for re-election, President Abraham Lincoln appointed Burlingame as Minister to the Austrian Empire, but Burlingame, who had championed the Hungarian Lajos Kossuth and his drive for independence from the Austrian Empire, was not acceptable and did not serve. On June 14, 1861 Lincoln instead appointed Burlingame as minister to the Qing Empire. Burlingame worked for a cooperative policy rather than the imperialistic policies of force, used during the First and Second Opium Wars and developed relations with the reform elements of the court.
As he put it, the "cooperative policy... substituted for the old doctrine of violence one of fair diplomatic action," and the representatives of the Western powers agreed that they would not interfere in the internal affairs of China. Burlingame reported that he had used his diplomacy to get the European powers to agree that they would "give to the treaties a fair and Christian construction; the success of this diplomacy was not lost on Qing dynasty court officials. On November 16, 1867, when he was set to retire and return to his political career at home, the Chinese government appointed Burlingame envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to head a Chinese diplomatic mission to the United States and the principal European nations; the mission, which included two Chinese ministers, an English and a French secretary, six students from Peking, a considerable retinue, arrived in the United States in March 1868. Burlingame used his personal relations with the Republican administration to negotiate a quick and favorable treaty.
In a series of speeches across the country, he displayed eloquent oratory to advocate equal treatment of China and a welcoming stance toward Chinese immigrants. On July 28, 1868 the mission concluded at Washington, D. C. a series of articles, supplementary to the Reed Treaty of 1858, known as the Burlingame Treaty. The treaty provided that Chinese subjects in the United States should enjoy the same rights as citizens of the most favored nation, a legal strategy which up until that point had only been used to expand foreign privileges in China. Burlingame worked to include a clause permitting Chinese to become citizens, barred by American law; this treaty was a western power after the Opium War. Subsequently, Burlingame negotiated treaties with Denmark, Sweden and Prussia, he died at Saint Petersburg on February 23, 1870, while negotiating terms for a treaty with Russia. He was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Massachusetts, his son Edward L. Burlingame was founding editor of Scribner's Magazine.
After Burlingame's death, the spirit and many of the specific provisions of the treaty bearing his name were reversed. Foreign powers continued to encroach upon China, Congress passed stric
Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives
The Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives is an officer of the House with law enforcement and administrative responsibilities. The Sergeant at Arms is elected at the beginning of each Congress by the membership of the House. In one of its first resolutions, the 1st Federal Congress established the role of Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives; as the chief law enforcement officer of the House, the Sergeant at Arms is responsible for security in the House wing of the United States Capitol, the House office buildings, on adjacent grounds. Under the direction of the Speaker of the House or other presiding officer, the Sergeant at Arms plays an integral role in maintaining order and decorum in the House chamber; the Sergeant at Arms is responsible for ensuring the safety and security of members of Congress, congressional staff, visiting dignitaries, tourists. Toward this mission, the Sergeant at Arms works in concert with the Senate Sergeant at Arms, the Architect of the Capitol.
These three officials, along with the Chief of the Capitol Police in an ex officio status, comprise the Capitol Police Board. Through custom and precedent, the Sergeant at Arms performs a number of protocol and ceremonial duties. Among these duties are to lead formal processions at ceremonies such as presidential inaugurations, joint sessions of Congress, formal addresses to the Congress and escorting visiting foreign dignitaries, to supervise congressional funeral arrangements. In this capacity, the Sergeant at Arms is most famous for announcing the arrival of the President, a responsibility that he took over from the Doorkeeper of the United States House of Representatives when the latter position was abolished in 1995. Custom dictates that he announce the arrival of the Supreme Court, the President's cabinet, the President by saying, "Mister Speaker, the President of the United States!" For daily sessions of the House, the Sergeant at Arms carries the silver and ebony Mace of the United States House of Representatives in front of the speaker in procession to the rostrum.
When the House is in session, the mace stands on a pedestal to the speaker's own right. When the body resolves itself into a Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union, the Sergeant at Arms moves the mace to a lowered position, more or less out of sight. In accordance with the Rules of the House, on the rare occasions when a Member becomes unruly, the Sergeant at Arms, on order of the Speaker, lifts the mace from its pedestal and presents it before the offenders, thereby restoring order; the Sergeant at Arms performs administrative services in support of the Members and visitors associated with the security and other operations of the House. If a quorum is not present, those Representatives who are present may vote to order the Sergeant at Arms to try to round up absent Representatives. In addition to serving on the Capitol Police Board, the Sergeant at Arms served with the Senate Sergeant at Arms and the Architect of the Capitol on the Capitol Guide Board; this board oversaw the Capitol Guide Service, which provided tours of the Capitol to visitors and special services to tourists.
The Deputy Sergeants at Arms act as assistants to the Sergeant at Arms. The Sergeant at Arms has the duty of making the important decisions under his/her power, while the Deputy Sergeant at Arms executes the decisions; the Deputy Sergeant at Arms serving under Paul Irving is Timothy Blodgett. Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate Serjeant-at-arms Official website Source: United States House of Representatives Sergeant at Arms Fact Sheet, via House.gov Sergeants at Arms official fact sheet, via history.house.gov
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician and lawyer from Illinois. He was the Democratic Party nominee for president in the 1860 election, but he was defeated by Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln. Douglas had bested Lincoln in the 1858 Illinois election for the United States Senate, known for the Lincoln–Douglas debates. During the 1850s, Douglas was one of the foremost advocates of popular sovereignty, which held that each territory should be allowed to determine whether to permit slavery within its borders. Douglas was nicknamed the "Little Giant" because he was short in physical stature, but a forceful and dominant figure in politics. Born in Brandon, Douglas migrated to Jacksonville, Illinois in 1833 to establish a legal practice, he experienced early success in politics as a member of the Democratic Party, serving in the Illinois House of Representatives and various other positions. He resigned from the Supreme Court of Illinois upon being elected to the United States House of Representatives in 1843.
Douglas became an ally of President James K. Polk, favored the annexation of Texas and the Mexican–American War, he was one of four Northern Democrats in the House to vote against the Wilmot Proviso, which would have banned slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. The Illinois legislature elected Douglas to the United States Senate in 1847, Douglas emerged as a national party leader during the 1850s. Along with Henry Clay, he led the passage of the Compromise of 1850, which settled some of the territorial issues arising from the Mexican–American War. Douglas was a candidate for president at the 1852 Democratic National Convention, but lost the nomination to Franklin Pierce. Seeking to open the west for expansion, Douglas introduced the Kansas–Nebraska Act in 1854. Though Douglas had hoped the Kansas–Nebraska Act would ease sectional tensions, it elicited a strong reaction in the North and helped fuel the rise of the anti-slavery Republican Party. Douglas once again sought the presidency in 1856, but the 1856 Democratic National Convention instead nominated James Buchanan, who went on to win the election.
Buchanan and Douglas split over the admission of Kansas as a slave state, as Douglas accused the pro-slavery Kansas legislature of having conducted an unfair election. During the Lincoln–Douglas debates, Douglas articulated the Freeport Doctrine, which held that territories could exclude slavery despite the Supreme Court's ruling in the 1857 case of Dred Scott v. Sandford. Disagreements over slavery led to the bolt of Southern delegates at the 1860 Democratic National Convention; the rump convention of Northern delegates nominated Douglas for president, while Southern Democrats threw their support behind John C. Breckinridge. In the 1860 election and Douglas were the main candidates in the North, while most Southerners supported either Breckinridge or John Bell of the Constitutional Union Party. Campaigning throughout the country during the election, Douglas warned of the dangers of secession and urged his audiences to stay loyal to the United States. Lincoln's strong support in the North led to his victory in the election.
After the Battle of Fort Sumter, Douglas rallied support for the Union, but he died in June 1861. He was born Stephen Arnold Douglass in Brandon, Vermont, on April 23, 1813, to physician Stephen Arnold Douglass and his wife, Sarah Fisk; the younger Douglas would drop the second "s" from his name several years later. Douglas's paternal ancestors had migrated to New England in the 17th century, his paternal grandfather, Benajah Douglass, served several terms in the Vermont House of Representatives. Douglas's father died when Douglas was just two months old, Douglas and his mother moved in with his maternal uncle, Edward Fisk. After two abortive apprenticeships as a cabinetmaker, Douglas entered Canandaigua Academy in Ontario County, New York. At Canandaigua Academy, Douglas gave speeches in support of Andrew Jackson and Jackson's Democratic Party. A prominent local attorney, Levi Hubbell, allowed Douglas to study under him and while a student in Hubbell's office, Douglas became friendly with Henry B.
Payne, studying law at the nearby office of John C. Spencer. Admission to the New York state bar association required seven years of classical education coupled with legal study. Unable to meet those requirements, Douglas decided to move west to establish a legal career. After stops in Ohio and Missouri, he settled in Jacksonville, Illinois in November 1833. Payne moved to Cleveland while Douglas resided there, upon arriving he discovered that Douglas was ill, so Payne nursed Douglas back to health before beginning to establish his own law practice. Douglas was admitted to the state bar in Illinois in March 1834. To his family, Douglas wrote, "I have become a Western man, have imbibed Western feelings principles and interests and have selected Illinois as the favorite place of my adoption." Douglas became aligned with the "whole hog" Democrats, who supported President Jackson. In 1834, with the support of the Democratic state legislator who represented Jacksonville, Douglas was elected as the State's Attorney for the First District, which encompassed eight counties in western Illinois.
Douglas became uninterested in practicing law, choosing instead to focus on politics. He helped arrange the first-ever state Democratic convention in late 1835, the convention pledged to support Jackson's chosen successor, Martin Van Buren, in the 1836 presidential election. In 1836, he won election to the Illinois House of Representatives, defeating Whig Party candidate John J. Hardin. Douglas joined a legislature that included five future senators, seven future congressmen, one future president